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Vitamin D3 And Diabetes Type 2

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Greater Risk Of Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Greater Risk Of Diabetes

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Vitamin D deficiency linked to greater risk of diabetes An epidemiological study suggests that persons deficient in vitamin D may be at much greater risk of developing diabetes. An epidemiological study conducted by researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Seoul National University suggests that persons deficient in vitamin D may be at much greater risk of developing diabetes. The findings are reported in the April 19, 2018 online issue of PLOS One. The scientists studied a cohort of 903 healthy adults (mean age: 74) with no indications of either pre-diabetes or diabetes during clinic visits from 1997 to 1999, and then followed the participants through 2009. Vitamin D levels in blood were measured during these visits, along with fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance. Over the course of time, there were 47 new cases of diabetes and 337 new cases of pre-diabetes, in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be categorized as type 2 diabetes. For the study, the researchers identified the minimum healthy level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in blood plasma to be 30 nanograms per milliliter. This is 10 ng/ml above the level recommended in 2010 by the Institute of Medicine, now part of The National Academies, a health advisory group to the federal government. Many groups, however, have argued for higher blood serum levels of vitamin D, as much as 50 ng/ml. The matter remains hotly debated. "We found that participants with blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D that were above 30 ng/ml had one-third of the risk of diabetes and those with levels above 50 ng/ml had one-fifth of the risk of developing diabetes," said first author Sue K. Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Diabetes rates are increasing around the world, mainly driven by increasing levels of obesity ( 1 ). The dilemma for diabetes prevention is that the main risk factorobesityis a product of our modern lifestyle (the so-called obesogenic environment) ( 2 ). Immediate prospects for changing the environment to reverse rising obesity levels are not promising, and there is a need to consider other options for preventing diabetes. One of these optionsvitamin Dis addressed in the article by Forouhi et al. ( 3 ) in the current issue of Diabetes. The sun is the primary source of vitamin D, which is synthesized endogenously in skin to produce cholecalficerol (vitamin D3), although a small proportion (<20%) of vitamin D comes through diet from a limited range of foods (in the form of ergocalciferol [vitamin D2] and vitamin D3) ( 4 ). The main marker of vitamin D status is the metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which is synthesized in the liver. The epidemiology of vitamin D status is inverse to that of diabetes, since blood levels of 25(OH)D decline with age and are lower in populations with increased skin pigmentation, such as African Americans and South Asians, and in people with obesity, while diabetes increases with age and obesity and is higher in these ethnic groups ( 5 ). Animal studies published nearly 30 years ago identified a pancreatic receptor to the active metabolite (1,25-d Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Tweet Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the health of your bones, teeth and joints, and assisting immune system function. This underrated vitamin is found in certain foods but is also produced by the body in response to exposure to the sun. When the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays are exposed to bare skin, the body converts a cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D. In fact, it’s now known that every cell and tissue within the body has a Vitamin D protein receptor. However, most of us in the UK and other Western countries are deficient in Vitamin D, including many patients with Type 2 diabetes, due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time spent at home, in the office or the car, shorter days in winter, sunscreen use in summer and fears of skin cancer. Vitamin D deficiency The signs of Vitamin D deficiency can range from bone pain and muscle weakness to depression and weakened immune system, while longer-term deficiency can result in obesity, high blood pressure, psoriasis, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Exposing your skin to the sun for 15-20 minutes each day can help increase your body’s own production of vitamin D and thus reduce your risk of diabetes and other serious medical conditions. Alternatively, you can get your daily intake of vitamin D through dietary supplements and foods such as nuts, oily fish, eggs, powdered milk and some fortified cereals. Effects on diabetes Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin – the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels – and thus reduce the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Review Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

Review Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

Highlights • Laboratory studies provide evidence for a relationship between 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin release and insulin sensitivity. • Epidemiological studies show associations between vitamin D deficiency and decreased glycemic control and type 2 diabetes mellitus. • Randomized clinical trials on the effect of vitamin D vs placebo in healthy subjects, individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus show inconsistent results. • Small effects of vitamin D are mainly visible in individuals with vitamin D deficiency and impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. • Meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials did not show significant effects of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control. Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D −related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies showed an association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentration and an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. This may be partly explained by an increased fat mass. A possible causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes should be proven by randomized clinical trials showing that either type 2 diabetes can be prevented or insulin release and insulin sensitivity can be impro Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Status In Relation To Glucose Metabolism And Type 2 Diabetes In Septuagenarians

Vitamin D Status In Relation To Glucose Metabolism And Type 2 Diabetes In Septuagenarians

OBJECTIVE Vitamin D deficiency is thought to be a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes, and elderly subjects at northern latitudes may therefore be at particular risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Vitamin D status was assessed from serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in 668 Faroese residents aged 70–74 years (64% of eligible population). We determined type 2 diabetes prevalence from past medical histories, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, and/or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS We observed 70 (11%) new type 2 diabetic subjects, whereas 88 (13%) were previously diagnosed. Having vitamin D status <50 nmol/L doubled the risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes after adjustment for BMI, sex, exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, serum triacylglyceride concentration, serum HDL concentration, smoking status, and month of blood sampling. Furthermore, the HbA1c concentration decreased at higher serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations independent of covariates. CONCLUSIONS In elderly subjects, vitamin D sufficiency may provide protection against type 2 diabetes. Because the study is cross-sectional, intervention studies are needed to elucidate whether vitamin D could be used to prevent development of type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in calcium metabolism, and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with a range of serious diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes (1). Although the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood, the association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations with type 2 diabetes may be mediated through effects on glucose homeostasis and, in particular, a direct effect of vitamin D on the β-cell function, and thus insulin secretion (2). Several s Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Levels Linked To Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Vitamin D Levels Linked To Type 2 Diabetes Risk

HealthDay Reporter MONDAY, Feb. 23, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with low levels of vitamin D appear to have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, even if they aren't overweight or obese, a new study suggests. The study included almost 150 people in Spain. Their vitamin D levels were checked, as was their body mass index (BMI -- an estimate of body fat based on height and weight). They also had tests for diabetes, prediabetes or other blood sugar (glucose) metabolism disorders. Obese people who didn't have diabetes or related disorders had higher vitamin D levels than those with diabetes. Lean people with diabetes or related disorders were more likely to have low vitamin D levels than those without such disorders. The results show that vitamin D levels were more closely linked to blood sugar levels than BMI, according to the study. What the study wasn't able to tease out, however, was whether or not vitamin D played a role in causing diabetes or other disorders that affect the metabolism of glucose. The study was only designed to find an association between these factors. The findings were published recently in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. "Our findings indicate that vitamin D is associated more closely with glucose metabolism than obesity," study author Manuel Macias-Gonzalez, of the University of Malaga in Spain, said in a society news release. He said the study suggests that vitamin D deficiency and obesity may work together to heighten the risk of diabetes. "The average person may be able to reduce their risk by maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough outdoor activity," he said. Previous research has found that people with low vitamin D levels are more likely to be obese and to have diabetes, prediabetes and relat Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Renewed interest in vitamin D, the so-called “sunshine vitamin,” has occurred recently because it has been linked to everything from cancer and heart disease to diabetes.1 Research studies continue to pour into the literature stating that vitamin D is a superstar when it comes to health. However, most of the research is based on observational, epidemiological studies, which are important for generating hypotheses but do not prove causality. A PubMed search in 2011 using the term “vitamin D” and selecting articles published in the past 2 years resulted in more than 2,864 hits. The following diseases and conditions have been researched to assess their relationship with vitamin D status: osteomalacia/osteoporosis,2–5 muscle function and falls,6–8 cancer,9–14 multiple sclerosis,15 hypertension,16 type 1 diabetes,17 rheumatoid arthritis,18 tuberculosis,19,20 mental health,21 cardiovascular events,22,23 infection,24,25 seasonal affective disorder,26 obesity,27 aging,28 and overall mortality.23 The challenge for health care providers and nutrition researchers is to determine whether vitamin D deficiency actually causes or increases the incidence of certain diseases or whether, instead, low levels of vitamin D are simply coincidental given that the majority of the general population, regardless of disease, is likely to have insufficient levels of vitamin D. In other words, do people who develop disease states just happen to be deficient in vitamin D, or do low levels of vitamin D cause the disease? Will supplementation with vitamin D prevent diseases, and can it be used to treat diseases such as diabetes? The purpose of this article is to summarize the latest information related to diabetes and vitamin D. For readers who desire further information, Holick29 has wr Continue reading >>

Is Vitamin D Deficiency Linked With Diabetes? | Everyday Health

Is Vitamin D Deficiency Linked With Diabetes? | Everyday Health

Some research suggests avoiding vitamin D deficiency may help reduce your risk for heart disease, which people with diabetes are more likely to develop. Youve likely heard of the power of vitamin D, also known as the sunshine vitamin. You can either get vitamin D through the suns rays, which signal your body to make vitamin D, or through certain foods or supplements. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble, rather than water-soluble, vitamin so when you get it through your diet, youll best absorb it alongside a fat-containing food, such as almonds, peanut butter, or avocado. The vitamin is important for your health: Research suggests that it may help with everything from athletic performance to heart disease, and may even help protect against type 2 diabetes . What Does Vitamin D Do for Our Bodies and Our Health? Vitamin D plays many important roles in the body, and helps you maintain healthy bones, joints, and teeth, as well as a well-functioning immune system. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium in the body to promote bone growth, notes Erin Palinski-Wade, RD, CDE , author of The 2-Day Diabetes Diet: Just 2 Days a Week and Dodge Type 2 Diabetes , who is in private practice in Franklin, New Jersey. Some observational studies suggest vitamin D may also play a role in the prevention of certain diseases and disorders, such as diabetes. The sunshine vitamin may also help keep your ticker healthy: A review published in January 2014 in the journalCirculation Research suggested that vitamin D deficiency is detrimental for heart health. This is important to note because people with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk for heart problems. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notes people with diabetes are two times more likely to die from heart disease tha Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The Vitamin D For Established Type 2 Diabetes (ddm2) Study

Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The Vitamin D For Established Type 2 Diabetes (ddm2) Study

Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The Vitamin D for Established Type 2 Diabetes (DDM2) Study We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The Vitamin D for Established Type 2 Diabetes (DDM2) Study Edith Angellotti, David DAlessio, [...], and Anastassios G Pittas Observational data support a role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes, but evidence from trials is inconclusive. To evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on -cell function and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA; VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH. A total of 127 patients (mean age, 60 years) with stable (HbA1c 7.5%) diabetes managed with lifestyle only or lifestyle plus metformin. Subjects were given 4000 units of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) daily or placebo for 48 weeks. Insulin secretion rate (ISR) was estimated from peripheral plasma C-peptide levels after a 3-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test done at baseline and week 24. Changes in HbA1c were assessed at 16, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. Baseline mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was 26.6 ng/mL, mean HbA1c was 6.6%, and 78% of patients were on metformin. At week 24, mean 25(OH)D changed by 20.5 and 1.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The Continue reading >>

Boosting The Effects Of Vitamin D To Tackle Diabetes

Boosting The Effects Of Vitamin D To Tackle Diabetes

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Boosting the effects of vitamin D to tackle diabetes A new study suggests new approach for treating type 2 diabetes and other diseases, including cancer. Enhanced activation of vitamin D curbs type 2 diabetes progression in animal models. Left: damaged insulin positive B cells (red) in a diabetic mouse pancreas. Right: B cells (red) were protected in a diabetic mouse pancreas treated with a combination of a vitamin D activator and BRD9 inhibitor. Enhanced activation of vitamin D curbs type 2 diabetes progression in animal models. Left: damaged insulin positive B cells (red) in a diabetic mouse pancreas. Right: B cells (red) were protected in a diabetic mouse pancreas treated with a combination of a vitamin D activator and BRD9 inhibitor. More than 27 million people in the United States are living with type 2 diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As the population ages and a growing percentage of people become overweight or obese, that number is expected to increase. In a paper published May 10, 2018, in Cell, researchers from the Salk Institute report a potential new approach for treating diabetes by protecting beta cells -- the cells in the pancreas that produce, store and release the hormone insulin. When beta cells become dysfunctional, the body can't make insulin to control blood sugar (glucose) and levels of glucose can rise to dangerous -- even fatal -- levels. The investigators accomplished their goal by using an unexpected source: vitamin D. Vitamin D in cells and mouse models proved beneficial in treating damaged beta cells. It also provided new insights about gene regulation that could be applied to developing treatments for other diseases, including Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract Over the past decade, numerous non-skeletal diseases have been reported to be associated with vitamin D deficiency including type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Different studies provide evidence that vitamin D may play a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in T2DM. Through a before-after study, 100 patients with T2DM, 30–70 years old, were recruited from an Arak diabetes clinic as consecutive attenders. Participants were assessed for clinical and biochemistry. Serum insulin and, 25(OH)D concentration, and HOMA-IR was calculated. All measurements were performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Patients received 50,000 unit of vitamin D 3 orally per week for eight weeks, Statistical analysis was made using SPSS17. The results were analyzed by descriptive tests, and a comparison between variables were made using paired T-tests or Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate. 100 participants including 70 women (70%) and 30 men (30%) took part in the study. All results were presented as Mean±SD, or medians of non-normally distributed. 24% of the participants were Vitamin D deficient {serum 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/ml(50 nmol/l)}. Mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration was 43.03± 19.28 ng/ml (107.5±48.2 nmol/l). The results at baseline and at the end, for FPG were 138.48±36.74 and 131.02±39 mg/dl (P=0.05), for insulin, 10.76±9.46 and 8.6±8.25 μIu/ml (P=0.028) and for HOMA-IR, 3.57±3.18 and 2.89±3.28 (P=0.008) respectively. Our data showed significant improvements in serum FPG, insulin and in HOMA-IR after treatment with vitamin D, suggested that vitamin D supplementation could reduce insulin resistance in T2DM. Introduction Continue reading >>

Could Vitamin D Help To Fight Diabetes?

Could Vitamin D Help To Fight Diabetes?

With diabetes now reaching epidemic proportions, unearthing an innovative way to tackle the condition is pressing. A new study investigates whether vitamin D might provide a new route to treatment. Boosting vitamin D's activity might, eventually, help to battle diabetes. Currently, there are around 30 million people in the United States living with type 2 diabetes , a lifelong condition that cannot yet be cured. Obesity , one of the major risk factors, is steadily rising, meaning that the number of people with type 2 diabetes is likely to follow suit. The condition is caused by faulty beta cells in the pancreas. These cells manufacture and release insulin , the hormone essential for controlling glucose levels in the blood. If beta cells produce too little insulin, or none at all, glucose can accumulate in the blood at levels that are toxic to cells and tissues. A recent study, now published in the journal Cell , looked into a novel way of protecting beta cells, thereby slowing the onset of diabetes . The researchers, from the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA, concentrated on a well-known compound: vitamin D . Vitamin D is often referred to as the sunshine vitamin because it is created in our skin in response to direct sunlight. Previous studies have found a connection between low vitamin D levels and a higher risk of diabetes, but the mechanisms involved have been challenging to unravel. This is due, in part, to the wide-reaching physiological functions of vitamin D; for instance, vitamin D is involved in cell growth, bone maintenance, neuromuscular activity, and the immune system. Also, importantly for this study, it has been implicated in inflammation . "We know that diabetes is a disease caused by inflammation. In this study, we identified the vitamin D receptor as an Continue reading >>

How Vitamin D Protects Against Type 2 Diabetes

How Vitamin D Protects Against Type 2 Diabetes

How vitamin D protects against type 2 diabetes Vitamin D deficiency may put people at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a new study now published in the journal PLOS ONE. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with type 2 diabetes. The study, which is the work of researchers at the University of California (UC), San Diego School of Medicine and Seoul National University in Korea, is not the first to link higher blood levels of vitamin D to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes . However, as they note in their journal paper , the authors explain that the evidence to date is "mixed" and omits blood levels of vitamin D that are "above the normal range." Our bodies need vitamin D to absorb calcium during digestion and to furnish calcium and phosphate through the blood to processes that make and maintain healthy bones. Vitamin D is also important for cell growth, muscle function, fighting infection, and reducing inflammation . The body obtains vitamin D from a few natural foods, some fortified foods, dietary supplements, and exposure to the sun. Once in the body, the vitamin undergoes some chemical changes to make it biologically useful. The liver is the main producer of biologically active vitamin D; it converts the inert form into an active form called 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). The level of 25(OH)D in the blood, which is known as "serum concentration," is considered "the best indicator of vitamin D status." At present, there is much debate about what the ideal level of 25(OH)D should be to avoid disease and ensure optimum health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggest that 20 nanograms per milliliter is "adequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals." Other groups have argued that the cut-off should be much higher, as much as 50 nanogra Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Its Role In Diabetes

Vitamin D And Its Role In Diabetes

Vitamin D, otherwise known as the “sunshine vitamin,” is vital for bone health but may soon be regarded as an important marker of health similar to cholesterol and blood pressure. Over the last few decades, scientists have looked past the skeletal support this micronutrient offers and are discovering that vitamin D may play a vital role in insulin, glucose, and inflammation regulation as well as potentially being a warning sign for different cardiovascular and endocrine diseases — including type 2 diabetes. So What Exactly Is Vitamin D? Vitamins are chemicals the body needs to function properly and are required to maintain good health. There are two main categories of vitamins: water soluble and fat soluble vitamins. Fat Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A (retinol) B1 Thiamine B7 Biotin Vitamin D B2 Riboflavin B9 Folate Vitamin E B3 Naicin B12 Cobalamin K B5 Pantothenic acid C Ascorbic acid B6 Pyridoxine As seen in the table above, water-soluble vitamins like vitamin B and vitamin C are generally excreted and can be replenished daily with little to no worry about toxicity for most people. Fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin D are stored in the liver and fatty tissue and are not always required daily by everyone (depending on your nutritional status). Excessive amounts of vitamin D and other fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic, but being deficient in one of these vitamins can cause numerous other health problems as well. Vitamin D is unlike any other micronutrient in that the body can produce its own from sunlight whereas most other vitamins are acquired by the foods you eat. 3 Ways to Get Vitamin D The three main ways to get vitamin D are through sun exposure, vitamin D supplementation, and dietary intake. Sun/UVB The best way to get vitamin D is to get Continue reading >>

How Vitamin D Helps In Diabetes

How Vitamin D Helps In Diabetes

Vitamin D, or the “sunshine vitamin,” is actually made in our skin when it is exposed to sunlight. This vitamin is a vital cog in a machinery that performs a wide range of functions inside our body. More recently, scientists have uncovered the connection between vitamin D and diabetes. Studies suggest that vitamin D can have positive effects on people with type 2 diabetes. Apart from healthy bones, vitamin D is also helpful in the proper functioning of muscles as well as our immune system. Vitamin D also protects us from: Cancers (like that of breast, prostate, colon) Heart disease High blood pressure Multiple sclerosis What Does Research Say about Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetes? For years, vitamin D was known for its role in bone health. New research is now concluding that this vitamin can actually have an important role in the overall health of a person. Doctors believe that there is an unmistakable link between vitamin D and diabetes. This is because studies have conclusively indicated that people with low levels of vitamin D are at a higher risk of developing diabetes, later in life. A study on 668 elderly individuals, who lived in the northern latitudes (where getting enough sunshine is a problem), found that these individuals were at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes due to vitamin D deficiency. The researchers went on to say that vitamin D sufficiency provides protection against type 2 diabetes. A 2011 review looked at various studies that examined how much vitamin D people were getting, by conducting a blood test that assessed the amount of vitamin D in their blood. These people were then followed to see if they got type 2 diabetes later in life. It was found that people with higher amounts of vitamin D in the blood (> 25ng/ml) had a decreased Continue reading >>

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