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Vitamin D Cure Type 1 Diabetes

Behind The Daily Mail Headlines Vitamin D And Type 1 Diabetes

Behind The Daily Mail Headlines Vitamin D And Type 1 Diabetes

Behind the Daily Mail headlines vitamin D and type 1 diabetes Behind the Daily Mail headlines vitamin D and type 1 diabetes The Daily Mail reported today that vitamin D in childhood prevents type 1 diabetes. This interpretation of the scientific study behind the story is inaccurate, and here we explain why. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system wrongly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Before the onset of type 1, the body starts to develop an autoimmune response to the islets in the pancreas, which contain the beta cells. This is known as islet autoimmunity. The study was looking at the relationship between vitamin D levels and islet autoimmunity. The researchers were investigating whether the two were linked in children at high genetic risk of developing type 1, and whether genes related to vitamin D absorption also played a role. This study was part of the TEDDY group studies, which JDRF funds. TEDDY which stands for The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young is tracking thousands of children at high risk of type 1, to see how environmental factors may affect the development of type 1. The children have blood samples analysed regularly, so that researchers can spot trends or patterns that might suggest certain environmental factors could trigger type 1 development. The team compared 376 children who developed islet autoimmunity who would likely go on to develop type 1 diabetes with 1,041 children who did not. The researchers found that higher vitamin D levels were associated with a lower risk of developing islet autoimmunity. This link was particularly true for children with a specific version of a gene that helps the body absorb vitamin D. The researchers concluded that children who were already at risk of developing Continue reading >>

Could Vitamin D Supplements Have Prevented My Daughter’s Type 1 Diabetes?

Could Vitamin D Supplements Have Prevented My Daughter’s Type 1 Diabetes?

A few months ago, our six-year-old daughter, Bisi, was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It’s a condition she will have to manage carefully for the rest of her life, to avoid the many terrible potential complications of the disease. Since the diagnosis, my husband and I have often said to one another things like: “What if we had…?” “Maybe if we had …” And the other will respond by (half) jokingly quoting back the text on the box of diabetes information we received at the hospital from the Lilly pharmaceutical company (which makes the insulin Bisi now must take with her meals): “Pause. Take a deep breath. And remember: You couldn’t have prevented what’s happening with your child, so try not to beat yourself up.” The truth is, there is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. It is as a disease where our own immune system attacks our pancreas, eventually shutting down its ability to produce insulin. But there are some emerging theories about what makes type 1 diabetes more likely. The most intriguing of these — the one that causes my husband and me to take the most deep breaths — is the theory that links low vitamin D levels to type 1 diabetes. Several studies have shown this link, including one published in September in the journal Diabetologia. In that study, researchers from the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego and from universities in California and Florida compared the vitamin D levels of military servicemembers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes with the vitamin D levels of a control group of servicemembers without diabetes. They found that those servicemembers with the lowest concentration of vitamin D in their blood were 3.5 times more likely to develop diabetes than their peers with the highest vitamin D levels. In 2008, the Archives Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Residual Beta-cell Function In Type 1 Diabetes (pcr)

Vitamin D And Residual Beta-cell Function In Type 1 Diabetes (pcr)

Vitamin D and Residual Beta-Cell Function in Type 1 Diabetes Oral administration of 50,000 IU of ergocalciferol one capsule per week for 2 months; and then once every 2 weeks for 10 months in 20 subjects of 10-21yr with newly diagnosed T1D Each subject on the experimental arm will receive one capsule of ergocalciferol per week for 2 months; and then once every 2 weeks for 10 months Oral administration of placebo one capsule per week for 2 months; and then once every 2 weeks for 10 months in 20 subjects of 10-21yr with newly diagnosed T1D Each subject on the placebo arm will receive one capsule of placebo per week for 2 months; and then once every 2 weeks for 10 months Residual beta-cell function (RBCF) [TimeFrame:12 months] Investigation of the effect of vitamin D on residual beta cell function (RBCF) in the first 12 months after the diagnosis of T1D by using stimulated C-peptide levels to quantify RBCF. Glycemic control (HbA1c) [TimeFrame:12 months] Exploration of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control during PCR by comparing HbA1c values across longitudinal measurements (at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) [TimeFrame:12 months] Investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on GLP-1 and VDBP during PCR. Differences in the duration of PCR in subjects with high-risk SNPs receiving vitamin D vs. placebo [TimeFrame:12 months] Determination of whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based T1D genetic risk score influences the effect of vitamin D supplementation on PCR, and the magnitude of RBCF Vitamin D Binding Protein (VDBP) [TimeFrame:12 months] Investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on VDBP during PCR. Duration of Partial Clinical Remission (PCR) [TimeFrame:12 months] Investigation of t Continue reading >>

Teens With Type 1 May Have Vitamin D Deficiency

Teens With Type 1 May Have Vitamin D Deficiency

A new study suggests nearly 90 percent of teens with Type 1 could use more Vitamin D. In recent years, Vitamin D levels have become a yardstick for researchers to measure everything from heart health to bone density. Now, researchers have found that teens with Type 1 diabetes could be at increased risk of a Vitamin D deficiency. For the study, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing examined blood samples of 200 adolescents treated for diabetes at the Diabetes Center for Children in Philadelphia. They found that 40.6 percent of those tested had a Vitamin D deficiency (levels less than 20 ng/mL). Another 49.2 percent had what researchers considered low levels of Vitamin D (levels less than 35 ng/mL). In the study, only 10.2 percent of teens with Type 1 were found to have adequate or above adequate levels of Vitamin D. There is still some debate about how much Vitamin D one needs. Because of that, it’s difficult to find agreement about what the average level of Vitamin D deficiency is. An oft-cited 2009 study estimates that some 70 percent of U.S. children and teens had a Vitamin D deficiency. If the results of these two studies are accurate, that would mean teens with Type 1 would be at a higher risk of a deficiency. Vitamin D, also called the “sunshine vitamin”, is considered essential for bone health. Researchers also believe it’s an important nutrient for blood pressure maintenance and long-term heart health. Those diagnosed with a Vitamin D deficiency can take a supplement, eat more foods rich in Vitamin D, and get more sun exposure. The University of Pennsylvania researchers say the results show teens with Type 1 should be monitored for Vitamin D deficiency. More study is needed, however, to determine why teens with Type 1 might be mo Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Tweet Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the health of your bones, teeth and joints, and assisting immune system function. This underrated vitamin is found in certain foods but is also produced by the body in response to exposure to the sun. When the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays are exposed to bare skin, the body converts a cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D. In fact, it’s now known that every cell and tissue within the body has a Vitamin D protein receptor. However, most of us in the UK and other Western countries are deficient in Vitamin D, including many patients with Type 2 diabetes, due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time spent at home, in the office or the car, shorter days in winter, sunscreen use in summer and fears of skin cancer. Vitamin D deficiency The signs of Vitamin D deficiency can range from bone pain and muscle weakness to depression and weakened immune system, while longer-term deficiency can result in obesity, high blood pressure, psoriasis, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Exposing your skin to the sun for 15-20 minutes each day can help increase your body’s own production of vitamin D and thus reduce your risk of diabetes and other serious medical conditions. Alternatively, you can get your daily intake of vitamin D through dietary supplements and foods such as nuts, oily fish, eggs, powdered milk and some fortified cereals. Effects on diabetes Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin – the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels – and thus reduce the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Association Among Vitamin D Deficiency, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Glycemic Control

Association Among Vitamin D Deficiency, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Glycemic Control

1Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 3Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Citation: Al-Agha AE, Ahmad IA (2015) Association among Vitamin D Deficiency, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Glycemic Control. J Diabetes Metab 6:594. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000594 Copyright: © 2015 Al-Agha AE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Background: Studies have identified that the deficiency of vitamin D is strongly connected with diabetes mellitus type 1. Vitamin D has the capability to control increased blood glucose level. Purpose: The study appraises the association among vitamin D deficiency, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and glycated hemoglobin among children. Methods: Around, 226 diabetic children were selected for this retrospective study from outpatient department of King Abdul Aziz University Hospital. Majority of the participants were female individuals, with the rate of 61.1% and were divided into three categories, based upon the rate of vitamin D deficiency. Every participant of the study was taking intensive insulin therapy. Results: The findings of the study have shown that 77% of the diabetic patients had reduced level of vitamin D in total. The study identified, from the evaluation between HbA1c control and vitamin D status, that 66% of the diabetic and vitamin D deficient participants were poorly controlled (HbA1c>9%). Concl Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Vitamin D Deficiency Occurs In Early Stage

Type 1 Diabetes: Vitamin D Deficiency Occurs In Early Stage

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Type 1 diabetes: Vitamin D deficiency occurs in early stage Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health Low levels of vitamin D are commonly found in people with type 1 diabetes. But even children who have multiple positive islet autoantibodies without manifest type 1 diabetes have lower levels of vitamin D in their blood. This does not appear, however, to influence the progression of the disease from pre-diabetes to diabetes, according to scientists. "Vitamin D deficiency precedes the onset of type 1 diabetes. This may be a consequence of an immune response," one author says. "In the case of prediabetic children, we must therefore be mindful of the risk of vitamin D deficiency and consider recommending vitamin D supplementation at an early stage of type 1 diabetes." Vitamin D is known as a major regulator of calcium levels and bone metabolism. Furthermore, it also influences the immune system. Previous studies have shown that patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes have significantly lower vitamin D levels. Scientists from the Institute of Diabetes Research (IDF) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen, a member of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), as well as from the Diabetes Research Group at the Technische Universitt Mnchen (TUM) examined whether a vitamin D deficiency occurs during an early stage of type 1 diabetes, defined by the presence of multiple diabetes-specific islet autoantibodies. Furthermore they also determined whether vitamin D deficiency influences the progression to type 1 diabetes in children with multiple islet autoantibodies. Vitamin D deficiency already exists in prediabetes Children who had not yet developed clinical type Continue reading >>

Current Research Into Cures For Type-1 Diabetes

Current Research Into Cures For Type-1 Diabetes

Current Research into Cures for Type-1 Diabetes News and updates on potential cures for type-1 diabetes, that are in human (or clinical) trials. This blog posting is discussing the recent news about using Vitamin Das apreventative for type-1 diabetes (not a cure). You can read more about the study here (and many other places on the net): Abstract: More personal and emotional news article: Quick Summary: The researchers measured Vitamin D levels in the blood of people who were later diagnosed with type-1 diabetes, and compared that to levels in the blood of people who were not diagnosed. The levels in the diagnosed group were significantly lower. There was an obvious correlation. Vitamin D was not an absolute preventative. There was not a specific amount of Vitamin D where if you took more than that you would avoid type-1. Rather there is a change inprobabilities. Higher levels of Vitamin D led, on average, to lower levels of type-1 diabetes. Some people with high levels of Vitamin D still got type-1 diabetes, it was just less likely. The reverse was also true: some people with low levels of Vitamin D avoided type-1 diabetes, but it was less likely. A Little Background: It has been well known for decades that people who live near theequatorhave lower rates of type-1 diabetes than people who live nearer the poles. However, it is not known why this is true. Some people believe that a lack of sunlight orVitamin D increases the rate of type-1 diabetes. Other people think it might be wealth, genetics, diet, or any one of a huge number of differences. (In the Americas, for example, Mexico is closer to theequatorand has a lower rate, while USA is farther from the equator and has a higher rate. But there are also large differences in wealth, genetics, diet, and so on.) A Little Continue reading >>

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type 1 Improves Glycemic Control

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type 1 Improves Glycemic Control

Use of cholecalciferol demonstrated reductions in HbA1c. The active form of vitamin D is a very important hormone that works in the body by increasing the absorption of calcium. Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in a variety of chronic diseases, including bone mineral disease, malignancy, autoimmunity, and diabetes. In recent years, it has been found that beta cells express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and variations in the genes controlling the vitamin D metabolism and expression of VDR have been associated with a higher risk of diabetes, including type 1 and type 2. Patients with serum concentration of vitamin D below 30 nmol/L and 30-50 nmol/L are categorized as deficient and insufficient, respectively. Daily supplementation of vitamin D in the diet and sunlight exposure in the diet is essential for preventing deficient levels. Some studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance with a consequent development of type 2 diabetes in the adult population. In children with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been found to be higher when compared to children without diabetes. Other studies have found the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is similar between children with and without diabetes. Furthermore, a Finnish study reported that there was a 4-fold increased risk of development of T1DM in children who had rickets, which is a long-term effect of vitamin D deficiency causing weak bones. All these background studies suggest that there is a possible correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. However, there is poor evidence related to the effects of vitamin D treatment in children with diabetes and vitamin D deficiency. A retrospective s Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Children with Type 1 Diabetes A recent study found a high prevalence of a large population of children with type 1 diabetes to be deficient in vitamin D. The study done at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing sought to check out the relationship between vitamin D and blood sugar management in children and teens with type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D is found in foods such as full-fat dairy products, egg yolks, fish, cod liver oil and is also known as the sunshine vitamin. Vitamin D is a fat soluble steroid hormone that the body makes when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV rays). Vitamin D and having healthy levels of it are considered extremely vital to good health and it is recently thought to play a large role in autoimmune health . What is the Connection between Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes? The researchers used non-fasting blood samples to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D and blood sugar levels in the participating 197 children and teens of which 23% were overweight and 13% obese. (Being overweight or obese increases risk for low vitamin D) The researchers found 41% of the participants had levels below 50 nmol/L which is where they marked a deficiency however according to the US Department of Health and Human Services , low vitamin D begins at a plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 25 nmol/L. The study revealedthat in the children thought to be at no or low risk for low vitamin D levels (healthy weight Caucasian children) a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was present. Type 1 Diabetic Children Should get Vitamin D Testing and More Studies Needed Dr. Terri Lipman, the senior study author said in a press release , To our knowledge this is the first study that has been adequately-powered to examine the ass Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Its Role In Diabetes

Vitamin D And Its Role In Diabetes

Vitamin D, otherwise known as the “sunshine vitamin,” is vital for bone health but may soon be regarded as an important marker of health similar to cholesterol and blood pressure. Over the last few decades, scientists have looked past the skeletal support this micronutrient offers and are discovering that vitamin D may play a vital role in insulin, glucose, and inflammation regulation as well as potentially being a warning sign for different cardiovascular and endocrine diseases — including type 2 diabetes. So What Exactly Is Vitamin D? Vitamins are chemicals the body needs to function properly and are required to maintain good health. There are two main categories of vitamins: water soluble and fat soluble vitamins. Fat Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A (retinol) B1 Thiamine B7 Biotin Vitamin D B2 Riboflavin B9 Folate Vitamin E B3 Naicin B12 Cobalamin K B5 Pantothenic acid C Ascorbic acid B6 Pyridoxine As seen in the table above, water-soluble vitamins like vitamin B and vitamin C are generally excreted and can be replenished daily with little to no worry about toxicity for most people. Fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin D are stored in the liver and fatty tissue and are not always required daily by everyone (depending on your nutritional status). Excessive amounts of vitamin D and other fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic, but being deficient in one of these vitamins can cause numerous other health problems as well. Vitamin D is unlike any other micronutrient in that the body can produce its own from sunlight whereas most other vitamins are acquired by the foods you eat. 3 Ways to Get Vitamin D The three main ways to get vitamin D are through sun exposure, vitamin D supplementation, and dietary intake. Sun/UVB The best way to get vitamin D is to get Continue reading >>

Examining Vitamin D's Role In Type 1 Diabetes - Dummies

Examining Vitamin D's Role In Type 1 Diabetes - Dummies

Studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in preventing and treating diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the blood glucose (sugar) levels. Without insulin, glucose doesnt enter the cells that make up your muscles and blood glucose levels rise, especially after you eat a meal. Type 1 diabetes used to occur only in children and was called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. During the past 20 years, adults also have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, so it now has a more generic name. Type 1 diabetes usually begins abruptly, although the disease may have been simmering for years. Researchers have seen autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells in the blood long before the onset of clinical disease. Some of the major features of type 1 diabetes include the following: Nerve disease, including pain and loss of sensation Treatment of type 1 diabetes requires insulin, which is usually administered through a pen injection device, or an insulin pump, or the old mainstay of a needle-and-syringe. The insulin treatment must be balanced by the amount and type of food eaten and exercise. Insulin and exercise lower the blood glucose; food raises it. A person with type 1 diabetes has to measure his blood glucose at least four times daily, usually before meals, and then he decides on an insulin dose based on the current blood glucose and the grams of carbohydrate to be eaten. Measurements after meals are also needed to fine-tune the control of blood glucose. One of the treatment goals is to keep the level of hemoglobin A1c as close to normal as can be safely accomplished. The American Diabetes Association and Canadian Diabetes Continue reading >>

Glycemic Changes After Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Vitamin D Deficiency

Glycemic Changes After Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Vitamin D Deficiency

Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency From the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Correspondence: Dr. Khalid Aljabri, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, PO Box 6572, Makkah, Saudi Arabia T: +966-590-008035 F: +966-2-576-0665 [email protected] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A prospective, nonblinded and nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have vitamin D deficiency. Eighty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 50 nmol/L were assigned to receive 4000 IU of vitamin D3. Calcium supplements were provided to ensure a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. Glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. There was a significant difference in mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin level (%) between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of <35.4 nmol/L, 35.4-51 nmol/L and >51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.02). There was a significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin change from baseline between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of <35.4 nmol/L, 35.4-51 nmol/L and >51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.04). There was a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level betwe Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Might Prevent Type 1 Diabetes

Vitamin D Might Prevent Type 1 Diabetes

Children who are genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes could see their risk of the condition reduced if they get enough vitamin D. This is the conclusion of a new study published in the journal Diabetes. Researchers found that children with low blood levels of vitamin D were more likely to experience islet autoimmunity, compared with those who had higher levels of the vitamin. Islet autoimmunity is a process wherein the immune system mistakingly attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, causing type 1 diabetes. Lead study author Jill Norris, Ph.D., of the Colorado School of Public Health at CU Anschutz in Aurora, CO, and colleagues say that their study is the first to show that higher levels of vitamin D may help to prevent islet autoimmunity. Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the body fails to produce sufficient amounts of insulin, which is the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system launches an attack on pancreatic cells called the Islets of Langerhans – which are often referred to as islets. These are clusters of cells that contain beta cells, whose function is to detect glucose in the blood and release it when required. As a result of the immune attack on islets, the beta cells fail to produce sufficient amounts of insulin, causing blood glucose levels to become too high. While type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, onset is most common in childhood. According to the American Diabetes Association, around 1.25 million children and adults in the United States have type 1 diabetes. Addressing the controversy Previous research has indicated that low levels of vitamin D may raise the risk of type 1 diabetes. In response to such studies, scientists have been investigating whether or not higher levels of the Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Renewed interest in vitamin D, the so-called “sunshine vitamin,” has occurred recently because it has been linked to everything from cancer and heart disease to diabetes.1 Research studies continue to pour into the literature stating that vitamin D is a superstar when it comes to health. However, most of the research is based on observational, epidemiological studies, which are important for generating hypotheses but do not prove causality. A PubMed search in 2011 using the term “vitamin D” and selecting articles published in the past 2 years resulted in more than 2,864 hits. The following diseases and conditions have been researched to assess their relationship with vitamin D status: osteomalacia/osteoporosis,2–5 muscle function and falls,6–8 cancer,9–14 multiple sclerosis,15 hypertension,16 type 1 diabetes,17 rheumatoid arthritis,18 tuberculosis,19,20 mental health,21 cardiovascular events,22,23 infection,24,25 seasonal affective disorder,26 obesity,27 aging,28 and overall mortality.23 The challenge for health care providers and nutrition researchers is to determine whether vitamin D deficiency actually causes or increases the incidence of certain diseases or whether, instead, low levels of vitamin D are simply coincidental given that the majority of the general population, regardless of disease, is likely to have insufficient levels of vitamin D. In other words, do people who develop disease states just happen to be deficient in vitamin D, or do low levels of vitamin D cause the disease? Will supplementation with vitamin D prevent diseases, and can it be used to treat diseases such as diabetes? The purpose of this article is to summarize the latest information related to diabetes and vitamin D. For readers who desire further information, Holick29 has wr Continue reading >>

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