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Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus | International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus | International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research

Home ROLE OF VITAMIN D IN DIABETES MELLITUS Abhishek Acharya, and Susheela Somappa Halemani * Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka - 577222, India Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a global health care problem has been a burden to the socioeconomic society. The increasing incidence highlights the need for innovative approaches for the prevention and management, despite availability of various therapies for managing disease and its complications. There are several factors that seem to play a role in development of DM including genetic, lifestyle, environmental and nutritional conditions. Amongst nutritional factors, Vitamin D is likely to have an important role either in glycemic control or in attenuating diabetic complications. Vitamin D, an excellent marker of good health has role in varied functions. Many of the epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases and multiple sclerosis. Calcitriol (Vitamin D3) has reported to alter glycemic control and with some evidences pointing to its role in development of DM. Many studies done in past could not give conclusive association, hence benefit of supplementation of Vitamin D in DM patients need to be evaluated precisely INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the commonly seen endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with absolute or relative insulin deficiency. As per the International Diabetes Federation, prevalence of DM in India has increased by 12-18 % in urban, 3-6 % in rural area over last 30 years.1 By the year 2030, this significant global health care problem is estimated to affect 552 million individuals worldwide. 2 Although knowledge has been Continue reading >>

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Kidney Disease

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Kidney Disease

Role of vitamin D in diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease Akio Nakashima, Keitaro Yokoyama, Takashi Yokoo, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan Akio Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan Author contributions: Nakashima A, Yokoyama K and Yokoo T contributed equally to the work performing the literature review and writing the manuscript; Urashima M provided support with proofing and editing paper; all authors reviewed and edited the manuscript. Correspondence to: Mitsuyoshi Urashima, MD, PhD, MPH, Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan. [email protected] Telephone: +81-3-34331111 Fax: +81-3-54001250 Received 2015 Aug 28; Revised 2015 Dec 24; Accepted 2016 Jan 16. Copyright The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Approximately 30%-50% of people are recognized to have low levels of vitamin D, and insufficiency and deficiency of vitamin D are recognized as global health problems worldwide. Although the presence of hypovitamin D increases the risk of rickets and fractures, low vitamin D levels are also associated with hypertension, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are also related to vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to onset and progression of DM. Although in patients with DM the relationship between vitamin D and insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and -cell dysfunction are pointed out, evidence re Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Where Do We Stand? - Em|consulte

Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Where Do We Stand? - Em|consulte

Received:3January2011; accepted:8January2011 Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Where do we stand? Vitamine D et diabte de type 2: le point en 2011 , P.Delanaye b , J.-C.Souberbielle c , R.-P.Radermecker d aDepartment of Clinical Chemistry, University of Liege, CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Lige, Belgium bDepartment of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, University of Liege, CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Lige, Belgium cLaboratoire dexplorations fonctionnelles, hpital NeckerEnfants-Malades, 75743 Paris, France dDepartment of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, University of Liege, CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Lige, Belgium Corresponding author. Tel.: +32 43 66 76 92; fax: +32 43 66 76 91. In-vitro and observational studies have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and different type 2 diabetes outcomes (insulin resistance, insulin secretion, glucose intolerance). Although the number of randomized controlled trials vs placebo is small, vitamin D (VTD) has been shown to prevent increases in glucose concentration and insulin resistance, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce systolic blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we have focused on the potential mechanisms that might explain the association between VTD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We have also evaluated the different epidemiological and observational studies on the topic, as well as the various interventional studies. Although the in vitro studies appear to be promising in explaining the link between VTD metabolism and T2DM, the results of in vivo studies are conflicting. This could be related to differences in their methodological approaches. Although more studies are needed to confirm the role of VTD in the treatment of T2DM, there is nevertheless enough evidence at this time to Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Tweet Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the health of your bones, teeth and joints, and assisting immune system function. This underrated vitamin is found in certain foods but is also produced by the body in response to exposure to the sun. When the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays are exposed to bare skin, the body converts a cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D. In fact, it’s now known that every cell and tissue within the body has a Vitamin D protein receptor. However, most of us in the UK and other Western countries are deficient in Vitamin D, including many patients with Type 2 diabetes, due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time spent at home, in the office or the car, shorter days in winter, sunscreen use in summer and fears of skin cancer. Vitamin D deficiency The signs of Vitamin D deficiency can range from bone pain and muscle weakness to depression and weakened immune system, while longer-term deficiency can result in obesity, high blood pressure, psoriasis, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Exposing your skin to the sun for 15-20 minutes each day can help increase your body’s own production of vitamin D and thus reduce your risk of diabetes and other serious medical conditions. Alternatively, you can get your daily intake of vitamin D through dietary supplements and foods such as nuts, oily fish, eggs, powdered milk and some fortified cereals. Effects on diabetes Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin – the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels – and thus reduce the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Vitamin D Status And Its Correlation With Glycated Haemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Evaluation Of Vitamin D Status And Its Correlation With Glycated Haemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Research Article - Biomedical Research (2017) Volume 28, Issue 1 Evaluation of vitamin D status and its correlation with glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus Akshay Kumar SV 1 , Sunil Kumar Nanda 2 * , Bharathy N 2 , Ravichandran K 3 , Asha Dinakaran 2 andLopamudra Ray 2 1 Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India 2 Department of Biochemistry, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India 3 Department of Biostatistics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences Visit for more related articles at Biomedical Research Background: The role of Vitamin D in various non-skeletal disorders including Diabetes Mellitus has been explored. The role of Vitamin D in peripheral utilization of glucose has been studied. Aim: This study evaluates the correlation between Vitamin D status and Glycated Haemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Subject and Methods: The present study was a retrospective case control study with 78 cases and 69 controls. Mann-Whitney Test was used to study difference in Vitamin D levels between cases and controls. Spearman correlation was used to study the correlation between Vitamin D levels and Glycated Haemoglobin in cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Results: The mean Vitamin D values in cases were 16.1 ng/ml and mean Vitamin D values in controls were 17.3 ng/ml. Though the mean values of Vitamin D in cases were lower than that of controls, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.31). Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in both cases and controls. Spearman correlation showed there was no statistically significant correlation between Vitamin D levels and Glycated ha Continue reading >>

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Context: Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Evidence Acquisition and Analyses: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Evidence Synthesis: Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16–0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57–0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72–0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79–0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Conclusions: Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And The Diabetic Patient

Vitamin D And The Diabetic Patient

van Driel M, Koedam M, Buurman CJ, et al. Evidence for auto/paracrine actions of vitamin D in bone: 1alpha-hydroxylase expression and activity in human bone cells. FASEB J. 2006;20:2417-2419. Abstract Ritter CS, Armbrecht HJ, Slatopolsky E, Brown AJ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) suppresses PTH synthesis and secretion by bovine parathyroid cells. Kidney Int. 2006;70:654-659. Abstract Wolf M, Shah A, Gutierrez O, et al. Vitamin D levels and early mortality among incident hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2007;72:1004-1013. Abstract Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, et al. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:650-656. Abstract Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2017-2029. Abstract Driver JP, Foreman O, Mathieu C, van Etten E, Serreze DV. Comparative therapeutic effects of orally administered 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) on type-1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice fed a normal-calcaemic diet. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;151:76-85. Abstract Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1159-1165. Abstract Scragg R, Holdaway I, Singh V, Metcalf P, Baker J, Dryson E. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels decreased in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;27:181-188. Abstract McGill AT, Stewart JM, Lithander FE, Strik CM, Poppitt SD. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in ove Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract Over the past decade, numerous non-skeletal diseases have been reported to be associated with vitamin D deficiency including type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Different studies provide evidence that vitamin D may play a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in T2DM. Through a before-after study, 100 patients with T2DM, 30–70 years old, were recruited from an Arak diabetes clinic as consecutive attenders. Participants were assessed for clinical and biochemistry. Serum insulin and, 25(OH)D concentration, and HOMA-IR was calculated. All measurements were performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Patients received 50,000 unit of vitamin D 3 orally per week for eight weeks, Statistical analysis was made using SPSS17. The results were analyzed by descriptive tests, and a comparison between variables were made using paired T-tests or Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate. 100 participants including 70 women (70%) and 30 men (30%) took part in the study. All results were presented as Mean±SD, or medians of non-normally distributed. 24% of the participants were Vitamin D deficient {serum 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/ml(50 nmol/l)}. Mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration was 43.03± 19.28 ng/ml (107.5±48.2 nmol/l). The results at baseline and at the end, for FPG were 138.48±36.74 and 131.02±39 mg/dl (P=0.05), for insulin, 10.76±9.46 and 8.6±8.25 μIu/ml (P=0.028) and for HOMA-IR, 3.57±3.18 and 2.89±3.28 (P=0.008) respectively. Our data showed significant improvements in serum FPG, insulin and in HOMA-IR after treatment with vitamin D, suggested that vitamin D supplementation could reduce insulin resistance in T2DM. Introduction Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Glycemic Control In Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Vitamin D And Glycemic Control In Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Vitamin D and glycemic control in diabetes mellitus type 2 Find articles by Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Department of Endocrinology, Red Cross Hospital, 7 Korinthias street, GR115 26 Athens, Greece; This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The extraskeletal effects of vitamin D have attracted considerable interest. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D may affect glucose homeostasis, vitamin D levels having been found to be inversely related to glycosylated hemoglobin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In addition, vitamin D appears to protect from the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim was to study levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and the relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in a group of 120 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. The same measurements were performed in a group of 120 control subjects of the same age and sex. 25(OH)D3 was measured by radioimmunoassay and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the diabetes mellitus type 2 patients than in the control group, being 19.26 0.95 ng/ml and 25.49 1.02 ng/ml, in the patient and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001, Students t-test). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c levels in the diabetic patients (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.058, linear regression). 25(OH)D3 levels were found to be inversely associated with HbA1c when the patient and control groups were analysed together (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.086). Vitamin D levels ap Continue reading >>

The Role Of Vitamin D Deficiency In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

The Role Of Vitamin D Deficiency In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Sciencedirect

Volume 5, Issue 4 , August 2010, Pages e155-e165 Author links open overlay panel Tracy S.Moreiraa Mazen J.Hamadehb Get rights and content Physical inactivity, poor nutrition practices and obesity contribute significantly to the development of T2DM, however increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. T2DM manifests as a result of insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose production and -cell failure. Vitamin D deficiency increases insulin resistance and decreases insulin secretion in humans and animal models. Conversely, vitamin D supplementation restores insulin secretion and decreases insulin resistance and plasma glucose in humans and animal models. Vitamin D metabolites are thought to play a role in increasing insulin sensitivity and facilitating insulin exocytosis. Vitamin D has also been shown to decrease inflammatory cytokines which play a role in insulin resistance and -cell apoptosis. Human studies have shown an inverse association between dairy intake and the risk of T2DM. The inverse association between vitamin D and dairy intake and the risk of T2DM may be due to the fact that dairy products are high in more readily absorbable calcium and are often fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is positively associated with insulin resistance and T2DM; however more research is needed to understand this relationship. Continue reading >>

Low Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

Low Vitamin D And Type 2 Diabetes

How do vitamin D levels correlate with HbA1c?… Recent studies have demonstrated correlations between low vitamin D levels and the development of type 2 diabetes while others provide similar findings but on the opposite spectrum where higher levels of vitamin D are associated with decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, previous research identified vitamin D receptors in the β cells of the pancreas and linked vitamin D to insulin secretion regulation. A new study aimed to show a correlation between glycemic control and levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3) in type 2 diabetic patients. This study looked at 25(OH) D3 and HbA1C levels of 120 persons with type 2 diabetes aged 25 – 82 years old and compared them to 120 similar aged control subjects without diabetes. A1C levels were higher in the diabetes group as expected (7.2 ± 0.18% versus 5.1 ± 0.05%) and the vitamin D3 levels were significantly lower in the diabetes group as compared to the control group (19.26 ± 0.94 ng/ml and 25.48 ± 1.02 ng/ml; p<0.001). The researchers further analyzed vitamin D levels in the diabetes vs. healthy control group and found that 17.5% (21/120) and 63.3% (76/120) of the persons in the diabetes group were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, respectively, as compared to 5.8% (7/120) and 23.3% (28/120) of the control group participants with a C2 p value=0.0089 and p < 0.0001, respectively. Linear regression analysis of HbA1C levels vs. vitamin D levels showed an inverse relationship. This study shows a fairly strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and type 2 diabetes and also demonstrates a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and HbA1C. Findings from this study suggest we should be monitoring vitamin D levels in persons with type Continue reading >>

Hypovitaminosis D In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Relation To Disease Control And Complications

Hypovitaminosis D In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Relation To Disease Control And Complications

Hypovitaminosis D in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Relation to Disease Control and Complications Hala Ahmadieh ,1 Sami T. Azar ,1 Najla Lakkis ,2and Asma Arabi 1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon 2Department of Family Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Received 17 August 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013 Academic Editors: C.-H.Anderwald and N. T.Raymond Copyright 2013 Hala Ahmadieh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aims. This study aims at assessing the relationship between 25 (OH) vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods. 136 patients (59 11 years) with DM2 (disease duration 8.6 7 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, HbA1c, 25-OHD levels, serum creatinine, and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio were collected. Dilated retinal exam was performed, and diabetic neuropathy was assessed using the United Kingdom Screening Score. Results. Serum 25-OHD correlated negatively with HbA1c ( ). Mean 25-OHD levels were lower in subjects with diabetic retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy (12.3 5.5 versus 21.8 13.7, ) and lower in subjects with diabetic neuropathy compared to those without neuropathy (16.4 10.4 versus 23.5 14.5, ). After adjustment for BMI, diabetes duration, and smoking, 25-OHD was an independent predictor of HbA1c ( 0.14; ). After adjustment f Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Renewed interest in vitamin D, the so-called “sunshine vitamin,” has occurred recently because it has been linked to everything from cancer and heart disease to diabetes.1 Research studies continue to pour into the literature stating that vitamin D is a superstar when it comes to health. However, most of the research is based on observational, epidemiological studies, which are important for generating hypotheses but do not prove causality. A PubMed search in 2011 using the term “vitamin D” and selecting articles published in the past 2 years resulted in more than 2,864 hits. The following diseases and conditions have been researched to assess their relationship with vitamin D status: osteomalacia/osteoporosis,2–5 muscle function and falls,6–8 cancer,9–14 multiple sclerosis,15 hypertension,16 type 1 diabetes,17 rheumatoid arthritis,18 tuberculosis,19,20 mental health,21 cardiovascular events,22,23 infection,24,25 seasonal affective disorder,26 obesity,27 aging,28 and overall mortality.23 The challenge for health care providers and nutrition researchers is to determine whether vitamin D deficiency actually causes or increases the incidence of certain diseases or whether, instead, low levels of vitamin D are simply coincidental given that the majority of the general population, regardless of disease, is likely to have insufficient levels of vitamin D. In other words, do people who develop disease states just happen to be deficient in vitamin D, or do low levels of vitamin D cause the disease? Will supplementation with vitamin D prevent diseases, and can it be used to treat diseases such as diabetes? The purpose of this article is to summarize the latest information related to diabetes and vitamin D. For readers who desire further information, Holick29 has wr Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Level In Naive Type2 Diabetes Mellitus In Fayoum University Hospital

Vitamin D Level In Naive Type2 Diabetes Mellitus In Fayoum University Hospital

Endocrine Abstracts (2017) 49 EP412 | DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.49.EP412 Vitamin D level in naive Type2 Diabetes Mellitus in Fayoum University Hospital 1Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Cairo, Egypt. Vitamin D deficiency has become a worldwide problem, although vitamin D deficiency had associated with increased insulin resistance, obesity and HbA1c in patients with T2D. It is uncertain whether vitamin D deficiency causes diabetes or its due to confounding. The active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 may affect the receptors of pancreatic -cells and hence affect insulin secretion, also it may have impact on insulin sensitivity. Several trials revealed that vitamin D improved glycaemic control in T2DM patients. However, the outcome of these trials often was not clinically relevant. The aim of this study is to reveal to the relation between vitamin D and nave type 2 DM. This is a case control study that was conducted on 90 Egyptian diabetic subject of both gender their ages was between 25 to 70 years, Exclusion criteria are, post-menopausal females, pregnant & lactating females, presence of mal-absorption disorders like Crohns disease, celiac disease and cystic fibrosis, presence of any endocrinal disorder, presence of renal and hepatic disorders. First group included 47 nave type 2 diabetic patients (HbA1C above 7) including 51.1% male diabetic and 48.9% female diabetic patient and 46 healthy control including 47.8% male subject and 52.2%female subjects. The 47-diabetic group their mean age was 400.5 years and their mean BMI was 283.6 while the 26 control subjects their mean ages is 427.8 years and their mean BMI was 283.8. Vitamin D level was 22.4710.5 and 23.579.7 ng/ml in diabetic group and in control group r Continue reading >>

Effects Of Vitamins C And D In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Effects Of Vitamins C And D In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Effects of vitamins C and D in type 2 diabetes mellitus Authors Christie-David D, Girgis C, Gunton J Accepted for publication 26 November 2014 Published 10 February 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 2128 Editor who approved publication: Dr Chandrika Piyathilake Darshika J Christie-David,1,2 Christian M Girgis,24 Jenny E Gunton14 1Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Westmead Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, 3Westmead Millennium Institute, 4Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Scurvy and rickets are largely considered historical diseases in developed countries. However, deficiencies in vitamins C and D are re-emerging due to increased consumption of processed foods and reduced fresh foods in the Western diet, as well as to an indoor sedentary lifestyle away from sun exposure. These dietary and lifestyle factors also predispose one to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Our understanding of the potential roles of vitamin C (an antioxidant) and vitamin D (a biologically active hormone) in disease is increasing. In this review, we present observational, interventional, and mechanistic studies that examine the potential links between vitamins C and D in reversing defects in glucose homeostasis and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Studies suggest an association between vitamin C deficiency and diabetes. An association between vitamin D and insulin resistance has been well described; however, the role of vitamin C and D supplementation in diabetes and its prevention requires further controlled trials. Keywords: glucose homeostasis, diabetes, insulin resistance, vitamin C, vitamin D This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Com Continue reading >>

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