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Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Renewed interest in vitamin D, the so-called “sunshine vitamin,” has occurred recently because it has been linked to everything from cancer and heart disease to diabetes.1 Research studies continue to pour into the literature stating that vitamin D is a superstar when it comes to health. However, most of the research is based on observational, epidemiological studies, which are important for generating hypotheses but do not prove causality. A PubMed search in 2011 using the term “vitamin D” and selecting articles published in the past 2 years resulted in more than 2,864 hits. The following diseases and conditions have been researched to assess their relationship with vitamin D status: osteomalacia/osteoporosis,2–5 muscle function and falls,6–8 cancer,9–14 multiple sclerosis,15 hypertension,16 type 1 diabetes,17 rheumatoid arthritis,18 tuberculosis,19,20 mental health,21 cardiovascular events,22,23 infection,24,25 seasonal affective disorder,26 obesity,27 aging,28 and overall mortality.23 The challenge for health care providers and nutrition researchers is to determine whether vitamin D deficiency actually causes or increases the incidence of certain diseases or whether, instead, low levels of vitamin D are simply coincidental given that the majority of the general population, regardless of disease, is likely to have insufficient levels of vitamin D. In other words, do people who develop disease states just happen to be deficient in vitamin D, or do low levels of vitamin D cause the disease? Will supplementation with vitamin D prevent diseases, and can it be used to treat diseases such as diabetes? The purpose of this article is to summarize the latest information related to diabetes and vitamin D. For readers who desire further information, Holick29 has wr Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Vitamin D Status And Its Correlation With Glycated Haemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Evaluation Of Vitamin D Status And Its Correlation With Glycated Haemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Research Article - Biomedical Research (2017) Volume 28, Issue 1 Evaluation of vitamin D status and its correlation with glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus Akshay Kumar SV 1 , Sunil Kumar Nanda 2 * , Bharathy N 2 , Ravichandran K 3 , Asha Dinakaran 2 andLopamudra Ray 2 1 Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India 2 Department of Biochemistry, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India 3 Department of Biostatistics, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences Visit for more related articles at Biomedical Research Background: The role of Vitamin D in various non-skeletal disorders including Diabetes Mellitus has been explored. The role of Vitamin D in peripheral utilization of glucose has been studied. Aim: This study evaluates the correlation between Vitamin D status and Glycated Haemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Subject and Methods: The present study was a retrospective case control study with 78 cases and 69 controls. Mann-Whitney Test was used to study difference in Vitamin D levels between cases and controls. Spearman correlation was used to study the correlation between Vitamin D levels and Glycated Haemoglobin in cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Results: The mean Vitamin D values in cases were 16.1 ng/ml and mean Vitamin D values in controls were 17.3 ng/ml. Though the mean values of Vitamin D in cases were lower than that of controls, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.31). Vitamin D insufficiency was observed in both cases and controls. Spearman correlation showed there was no statistically significant correlation between Vitamin D levels and Glycated ha Continue reading >>

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Kidney Disease

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus And Chronic Kidney Disease

Role of vitamin D in diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease Akio Nakashima, Keitaro Yokoyama, Takashi Yokoo, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan Akio Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan Author contributions: Nakashima A, Yokoyama K and Yokoo T contributed equally to the work performing the literature review and writing the manuscript; Urashima M provided support with proofing and editing paper; all authors reviewed and edited the manuscript. Correspondence to: Mitsuyoshi Urashima, MD, PhD, MPH, Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan. [email protected] Telephone: +81-3-34331111 Fax: +81-3-54001250 Received 2015 Aug 28; Revised 2015 Dec 24; Accepted 2016 Jan 16. Copyright The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Approximately 30%-50% of people are recognized to have low levels of vitamin D, and insufficiency and deficiency of vitamin D are recognized as global health problems worldwide. Although the presence of hypovitamin D increases the risk of rickets and fractures, low vitamin D levels are also associated with hypertension, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are also related to vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to onset and progression of DM. Although in patients with DM the relationship between vitamin D and insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and -cell dysfunction are pointed out, evidence re Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Go to: Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a significant global health care problem and pharmacotherapies to treat the disease continue to emerge. However, the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes calls for an urgent need for innovative approaches to prevent its development. Recently, vitamin D has risen as a potential diabetes risk modifier. The potentially significant extra-skeletal role of vitamin D is highlighted in several recently published studies, including the demonstration of the expression of the vitamin D receptor in a large number of non-skeletal cells, including pancreatic beta cells. Additional evidence has strongly suggested that vitamin D plays an important role in modifying the risk of type 2 diabetes, an effect which is likely mediated by an effect of vitamin D on beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and systemic inflammation. The evidence comes primarily from cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies reporting on the association between vitamin D status and risk of type 2 diabetes or glycemia among patients with established type 2 diabetes. More recently, short-term, small randomized trials have reported the effect of vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium on diabetes risk and glycemia with mixed results. The aims of the review are to: (1) describe the biological plausibility behind the potential association between vitamin D and diabetes, with emphasis on type 2 diabetes where most of the evidence exists and (2) summarize and synthesize the evidence from observational studies that report on the association of vitamin D status and risk of diabetes and from randomized trials that report on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemia in patients with diabetes or at risk for diabetes. Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus.

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus.

Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Thyroid and Osteoporosis Disorders, Sakra World Hospitals, Bangalore, India. The vitamin D endocrine system in now recognized as subserving a wide range of fundamental biological functions in cell differentiation, inhibition of cell growth as well as immunomodulation. Both forms of immunity, namely adaptive and innate, are regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. The immune-modulatory properties of vitamin D suggest that it could play a potential therapeutic role in prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It is postulated that large doses of vitamin D supplementation may influence the pattern of immune regulation and subsequent progression to T1DM in a genetically susceptible individual. More studies are required to substantiate the relation between T1DM and vitamin D/vitamin D analogues in the pattern of immune regulations in susceptible individuals. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), vitamin D may influence both insulin secretion and sensitivity. An inverse relationship between T2DM and vitamin D is postulated from cross-sectional and prospective studies, though conclusive proof is as yet lacking. Available studies differ in their design and in the recommended daily allowances (RDA) of vitamin D in non-skeletal diseases and -cell function. Large, well designed, controlled, randomized interventional studies on the potential role of vitamin D and calcium in prevention and management of T2DM are required to clarify the relationship between vitamin D and glucose homeostasis in T2DM. Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus.

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus.

Department of Internal Medicine, St. Joseph Mercy Oakland Hospital, Pontiac, MI, USA. Endocrine. 2009 Feb;35(1):11-7. doi: 10.1007/s12020-008-9115-5. Epub 2008 Nov 1. Better understanding of the physiological role of the vitamin-D system, in particular its potential effects on inflammatory and autoimmune conditions as well as on insulin secretion and possibly also on insulin resistance, increased the interest in its potential role in prevention and control of the diabetic condition, both type-1 and -2 diabetes. Both these conditions are associated with inflammation and type-1 diabetes also with an autoimmune pathology. Indeed, animal and human studies support the notion that adequate vitamin-D supplementation may decrease the incidence of type-1 and possibly also of type-2 diabetes mellitus and may improve the metabolic control in the diabetes state. However, the exact mechanisms by which vitamin-D and calcium supplementation exert their beneficial effects are not clear and need further investigation. Continue reading >>

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus | International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes Mellitus | International Journal Of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research

Home ROLE OF VITAMIN D IN DIABETES MELLITUS Abhishek Acharya, and Susheela Somappa Halemani * Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka - 577222, India Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a global health care problem has been a burden to the socioeconomic society. The increasing incidence highlights the need for innovative approaches for the prevention and management, despite availability of various therapies for managing disease and its complications. There are several factors that seem to play a role in development of DM including genetic, lifestyle, environmental and nutritional conditions. Amongst nutritional factors, Vitamin D is likely to have an important role either in glycemic control or in attenuating diabetic complications. Vitamin D, an excellent marker of good health has role in varied functions. Many of the epidemiologic studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases and multiple sclerosis. Calcitriol (Vitamin D3) has reported to alter glycemic control and with some evidences pointing to its role in development of DM. Many studies done in past could not give conclusive association, hence benefit of supplementation of Vitamin D in DM patients need to be evaluated precisely INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the commonly seen endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with absolute or relative insulin deficiency. As per the International Diabetes Federation, prevalence of DM in India has increased by 12-18 % in urban, 3-6 % in rural area over last 30 years.1 By the year 2030, this significant global health care problem is estimated to affect 552 million individuals worldwide. 2 Although knowledge has been Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus: Causal Or Casual Association?

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus: Causal Or Casual Association?

, Volume 18, Issue2 , pp 227241 | Cite as Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: Causal or casual association? The incidence of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency, or the awareness of its prevalence, has also been increasing. Vitamin D may have a role in the pathogenic mechanisms predisposing to type 2 diabetes by modulating insulin resistance and/or pancreatic -cell function. Vitamin D status or elements involved in its activation or transport may also be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus through immunomodulatory role . Based on these observations a potential association between vitamin D and diabetes has been hypothesized. In this review we discuss up to date evidence linking vitamin D with the development of diabetes. Moreover, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of both types of diabetes is analysed together with its role in improving glycemic control in diabetic patients. We also address the potential role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetes. Finally, we provide recommendation for Vitamin D therapy in diabetes in view of current evidence and highlight areas for potential future research in this area. Vitamin D25-hydroxyvitamin DDiabetes mellitusType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesDiabetes complications This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access The authors declare no conflict of interest. Leahy JL. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Med Res. 2005;36(3):197209. PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK. The pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Engl J Med. 1995;331:142836. Google Scholar Harinarayan CV. Vitamin D, and diabetes mellitus. Hormones. 2014;13(2 Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Vitamin D And Diabetes

Tweet Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the health of your bones, teeth and joints, and assisting immune system function. This underrated vitamin is found in certain foods but is also produced by the body in response to exposure to the sun. When the sun’s ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays are exposed to bare skin, the body converts a cholesterol derivative into Vitamin D. In fact, it’s now known that every cell and tissue within the body has a Vitamin D protein receptor. However, most of us in the UK and other Western countries are deficient in Vitamin D, including many patients with Type 2 diabetes, due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time spent at home, in the office or the car, shorter days in winter, sunscreen use in summer and fears of skin cancer. Vitamin D deficiency The signs of Vitamin D deficiency can range from bone pain and muscle weakness to depression and weakened immune system, while longer-term deficiency can result in obesity, high blood pressure, psoriasis, osteoporosis, chronic fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Exposing your skin to the sun for 15-20 minutes each day can help increase your body’s own production of vitamin D and thus reduce your risk of diabetes and other serious medical conditions. Alternatively, you can get your daily intake of vitamin D through dietary supplements and foods such as nuts, oily fish, eggs, powdered milk and some fortified cereals. Effects on diabetes Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin – the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels – and thus reduce the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes Continue reading >>

Vitamin D

Vitamin D

Vitamin D can be obtained from the diet or generated in the skin in response to sunlight; its metabolically active form is 1,25(OH)2D3. People with type 1 diabetes have lower circulating levels of this metabolite than controls, and lack of sunlight correlates well with the increased incidence of type 1 diabetes at higher latitudes. Three key genes involved in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes, and functional studies confirm that this metabolite is under genetic control but set at lower levels than in control populations. 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors are present on pancreatic beta cells and on immunocytes, and vitamin D deficiency is a reversible cause of type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. It has, however, yet to be demonstrated that administration of vitamin D or its analogues can delay the onset of of type 1 diabetes or influence its clinical course. Intervention studies are needed to resolve these issues. Introduction Vitamin D is strictly speaking not a vitamin, since humans can synthesise it for themselves under the influence of UV light; dietary sources are, however, essential under some conditions. In some respects it behaves more like a hormone. Vitamin D is available to the body in two main forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). These are collectively referred to as vitamin D or calciferol. Vitamin D3 is generated in the skin by sunlight and is present in animal sources, especially fatty fish or their liver oils. Smaller amounts are present in dairy foods, and vitamin D is added to margarines and other products in some countries. Vitamin D2 is not produced by land plants, but is generated by fungi and other unicellular organisms in response to UV light. Vitamin D deficiency, wh Continue reading >>

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Context: Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Evidence Acquisition and Analyses: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Evidence Synthesis: Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16–0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57–0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72–0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79–0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Conclusions: Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing Continue reading >>

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

The Effect Of Vitamin D On Insulin Resistance In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract Over the past decade, numerous non-skeletal diseases have been reported to be associated with vitamin D deficiency including type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Different studies provide evidence that vitamin D may play a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in T2DM. Through a before-after study, 100 patients with T2DM, 30–70 years old, were recruited from an Arak diabetes clinic as consecutive attenders. Participants were assessed for clinical and biochemistry. Serum insulin and, 25(OH)D concentration, and HOMA-IR was calculated. All measurements were performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Patients received 50,000 unit of vitamin D 3 orally per week for eight weeks, Statistical analysis was made using SPSS17. The results were analyzed by descriptive tests, and a comparison between variables were made using paired T-tests or Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate. 100 participants including 70 women (70%) and 30 men (30%) took part in the study. All results were presented as Mean±SD, or medians of non-normally distributed. 24% of the participants were Vitamin D deficient {serum 25(OH)D ≤ 20 ng/ml(50 nmol/l)}. Mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration was 43.03± 19.28 ng/ml (107.5±48.2 nmol/l). The results at baseline and at the end, for FPG were 138.48±36.74 and 131.02±39 mg/dl (P=0.05), for insulin, 10.76±9.46 and 8.6±8.25 μIu/ml (P=0.028) and for HOMA-IR, 3.57±3.18 and 2.89±3.28 (P=0.008) respectively. Our data showed significant improvements in serum FPG, insulin and in HOMA-IR after treatment with vitamin D, suggested that vitamin D supplementation could reduce insulin resistance in T2DM. Introduction Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And The Diabetic Patient

Vitamin D And The Diabetic Patient

van Driel M, Koedam M, Buurman CJ, et al. Evidence for auto/paracrine actions of vitamin D in bone: 1alpha-hydroxylase expression and activity in human bone cells. FASEB J. 2006;20:2417-2419. Abstract Ritter CS, Armbrecht HJ, Slatopolsky E, Brown AJ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) suppresses PTH synthesis and secretion by bovine parathyroid cells. Kidney Int. 2006;70:654-659. Abstract Wolf M, Shah A, Gutierrez O, et al. Vitamin D levels and early mortality among incident hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2007;72:1004-1013. Abstract Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, et al. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:650-656. Abstract Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2017-2029. Abstract Driver JP, Foreman O, Mathieu C, van Etten E, Serreze DV. Comparative therapeutic effects of orally administered 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) on type-1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice fed a normal-calcaemic diet. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;151:76-85. Abstract Martins D, Wolf M, Pan D, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1159-1165. Abstract Scragg R, Holdaway I, Singh V, Metcalf P, Baker J, Dryson E. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels decreased in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;27:181-188. Abstract McGill AT, Stewart JM, Lithander FE, Strik CM, Poppitt SD. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in ove Continue reading >>

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes

Role Of Vitamin D In Diabetes

Review J Endocrinol Metab • 2011;1(2):47-56 PressElmer Articles © The authors | Journal compilation © J Endocrinol Metab and Elmer Press™ | www.jofem.org Krishna G Seshadria, b, Bubblu Tamilselvana, Amarabalan Rajendrana Abstract The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of diabe- tes has sparked widespread interest. Vitamin D receptors are present in both pancreatic beta-cells and immune cells. Beside its classical role as the major regulator for calcium absorption, vitamin D me- diates the activity of beta-cell calcium-dependent endopeptidases promotes conversion of proinsulin to insulin and increases insu- lin output. In peripheral insulin target tissues, vitamin D enhances insulin action via regulation of the calcium pool. Vitamin D also acts as a potent immunosuppressor. It tends to down-regulate the transcription of various proinflammatory cytokine genes like Inter- leukin-2, Interlukin-12, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α. It promotes the induction of regulatory T-lymphocytes, the production of anti- inflammatory cytokines and protects beta-cell from destruction. Vi- tamin D deficiency predisposes to type 1 diabetes in animal models and in humans. It is probable that a similar relationship exists for type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency impairs insulin secretion and induces glucose intolerance. Several vitamin D related genes are associated with different pathogenetic traits of the disease. Vitamin D supplementation has shown to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D has also been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes associated complications. Prospective clinical studies on vitamin D are required to firmly establish the role of vitamin D in the prevention and management of diabetes. Keywords: Vitamin D; Diabetes; Continue reading >>

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamin D And Diabetes Mellitus

Maddaloni E.a Cavallari I.a, b Napoli N.a Conte C.c aDepartment of Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology and Diabetes, and bDepartment of Cardiovascular Science, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, and cInternal Medicine and Transplant Unit, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Giustina A, Bilezikian JP (eds): Vitamin D in Clinical Medicine. Front Horm Res. Basel, Karger, 2018, vol 50, pp 161-176 I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree. Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount! If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in . Save over 20% compared to the individual article price. Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices Immediate access to all parts of this book * The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules. Vitamin D has been suggested as a protective compound for diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms linking vitamin D to the regulation of the immune response support a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Epidemiological evidence and observational studies suggesting that adequate vitamin D status is related to decreased risk of developing type 1 diabetes further corroborates this concept. However, only few and mostly underpowered randomized clinical trials have been conducted to test the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in autoimmune diabetes, with disappointing results. Similarly, recent evidence linking vitamin D action to insulin secretion and sensitivity led to the hypothesis that this compound may play a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both pre-diabetes and overt type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the main clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of vitam Continue reading >>

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