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Vitamin C Glucose Competition

Vitamin C - Wikipedia

Vitamin C - Wikipedia

For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation) . Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and -ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement . [1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent scurvy . [1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold . [2] [3] It may be taken by mouth or by injection. [1] It is generally well tolerated. [1] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin. [1] [3] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy . [4] Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue . [1] Foods containing vitamin C include citrus fruits , broccoli , brussel sprouts , raw bell peppers , and strawberries . [2] Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods. [2] Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and first made in 1933. [5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system . [6] Vitamin C is available as a generic medication and over the counter . [1] In 2015, the wholesale cost in the developing world was about 0.003 to 0.007 USD per tablet. [7] In some countries, ascorbic acid may be added to foods such as breakfast cereal . [2] A 2012 Cochrane review found no effect of vitamin C supplementation on overall mortality. [8] Although rare in modern times, scurvy and its associated destabilization of collagen , connective tissue , and bone can be prevented by adequate vitamin C intake. [1] A 2014 review found that, "Currently, the use of high-dose IV vitamin C [as an anticancer agent] cannot be recommended outside of a clinical trial." [9] A 2013 Cochrane review found no evidence that vitamin C supp Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia Inhibits The Uptake Of Dehydroascorbate In Tubular Epithelial Cell.

Hyperglycemia Inhibits The Uptake Of Dehydroascorbate In Tubular Epithelial Cell.

Am J Nephrol. 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):459-65. Epub 2005 Aug 24. Hyperglycemia inhibits the uptake of dehydroascorbate in tubular epithelial cell. Division of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuhan 430060, China. Oxidative stress has been considered to be a common pathogenetic factor of diabetic nephropathy. But the reason why renal cells are susceptible to oxidative injury in diabetes is not clear. Vitamin C plays a central role in the antioxidant defense system and exists in two major forms. The charged form, ascorbate, is taken up into cells via sodium-dependent facilitated transport. The uncharged form, dehydroascorbate, enters cells via glucose transporter and is then converted back to ascorbate within these cells. Because dehydroascorbate and glucose compete for glucose transporters, hyperglycemia will exclude vitamin C from the cell and resulted in a decreased antioxidant capacity in some cell type that is dehydroascorbate dependent. As such, we hypothesized that some renal cells were dehydroascorbate dependent and the susceptibility of renal cells to glucose-induced injury was mediated by hyperglycemic exclusion of dehydroascorbate uptake through competing for glucose transporter. The aims of the present study were to determine whether tubular epithelial cell was dehydroascorbate dependent and the effect of dehydroascorbate on the production of reactive oxygen species in cells incubated by high glucose. Tubular epithelial cell was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% newborn calf serum. Intracellular ascorbate and dehydroascorbate contents were measured with vitamin C assay system. The intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species was detected with the fluorescent probe CM-H(2)DCFDA by using confocal microscopy. Ascorbate Continue reading >>

Effect Of Vitamin C On Blood Glucose And Glycosylated Hemoglobin In Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus

Effect Of Vitamin C On Blood Glucose And Glycosylated Hemoglobin In Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus

Effect of Vitamin C on Blood Glucose and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type II Diabetes Mellitus 1Department of Physiology, Medicine program, Batterjee Medical College for Sciences and Technology (BMC), 21442 Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacy Program, Batterjee Medical College for Sciences and Technology (BMC), 21442 Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant which is hypothesized to have an effect on the blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of oral vitamin C on fasting blood glucose (FBG), two hours postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) as well as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). One hundred patients participated in this study were divided into two groups. The first group was the control group contained fifty normal patients. The second group contained fifty patients having type II DM and given the drug Glucophage at a dose of 2000 mg/day beside healthy diet to control diabetes. They were left for three months then the blood samples were collected from both groups to detect the FBG, two hours PPBG and HbA1c. After that, the diabetic group was given beside the drug and diet treatment vitamin C drug (Vitacid calcium) 1000 mg orally three times /day for another three months. At the end of the three months, blood samples were collected from both groups to examine the FBG, two hours PPBG and the HbA1c. The diabetic group recorded a significantly higher level of FBG, two hours PPBG and HbA1c compared to the control group after the first three months. The diabetic group after being given vitamin C beside the drug and diet for three months recorded a significant decreased level of FBG, two hours P Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Glucose And Vitamin C Plays A Huge Role In Health

The Relationship Between Glucose And Vitamin C Plays A Huge Role In Health

Vitamin C is made naturally in almost all living animals except humans, primates and guinea pigs. Dogs and cats produce their own vitamin C from ingested food that have metabolized into glucose. Humans must consume vitamin C from its food sources, or they risk severe health problems. There is an intimate relationship between glucose and vitamin C that has a dramatic impact on immunity and overall cellular health. Most animals and plants are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. This is done through a biochemical pathway that depends on 4 key enzymes which convert glucose to vitamin C. In mammals, the glucose is extracted from stored sugar (glycogen) and the transformation into vitamin C is produced in the liver. Humans lack the L-gulonolactone oxidase enzyme that is critical for the last step of vitamin C synthesis. Humans require a good amount of vitamin C in order to build healthy tissue collagen and promote strong immune function. When low levels of vitamin C are present, the body makes due by recycling the oxidized version of vitamin C. This redox cycling is performed by the master anti-oxidant glutathione. As long as enough glutathione is present, the vitamin C redox cycle can continue. In the 1970's, Dr. John Ely discovered the Glucose-Ascorbate-Antagonism (GAA) theory. Glucose and vitamin C (ascorbate) have a very similar chemical makeup. This theory proposes that elevated glucose levels compete and effectively restrict vitamin C from entering cells. Both glucose and vitamin C depend upon the pancreatic hormone insulin and its signaling effects in order to get into cells. The GLUT-1 Receptor There is an important receptor called the Glut-1 receptor that activates in response to insulin to allow both glucose and vitamin C to enter the cell. However, glucose has Continue reading >>

Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport In Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles.

Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport In Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles.

Glucose modulates vitamin C transport in adult human small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles. Membrane Transport Research Group, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universit de Montral, Montral, QC, Canada. The uptake of L-ascorbate (vitamin C) and its oxidized form, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA), was evaluated in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from adult human duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Ascorbate was taken up along the entire length of the small intestine with a threefold higher initial uptake rate in distal than proximal segments. Ascorbate uptake was Na(+)-dependent, potential-sensitive and saturable (K(m), 200 micromol/L), whereas DHAA transport involved facilitated diffusion (K(m), 800 micromol/L). Pharmacologic experiments were conducted to characterize further these transport mechanisms. DHAA uptake was not mediated by the fructose carrier GLUT5, the uridine transporter or the 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive anion exchanger of the apical membrane. DIDS and sulfinpyrazone, an inhibitor of the urate/lactate exchanger, both significantly reduced the initial rate of ascorbate uptake. Acidic pH inhibited ascorbate uptake, and this effect was not due to a transmembrane proton gradient. Increasing concentrations of glucose in the transport media also significantly inhibited ascorbate uptake, but no effect of glucose was seen when glucose internalization was blocked by phlorizin. Preloading the vesicles with glucose inhibited ascorbate uptake similarly, indicating that glucose interferes with the ascorbate transporter from the internal side of the membrane. The results of this study suggest that DHAA crosses the apical membrane by facilitated diffusion, whereas ascorbate transport is a Na(+)-dependent, e Continue reading >>

Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport In Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles

Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport In Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles

Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport in Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles Membrane Transport Research Group, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada To whom correspondence should be addressed. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Physiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Search for other works by this author on: The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 130, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, Pages 6369, C. Malo, J. X. Wilson; Glucose Modulates Vitamin C Transport in Adult Human Small Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Vesicles, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 130, Issue 1, 1 January 2000, Pages 6369, The uptake of l-ascorbate (vitamin C) and its oxidized form, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid (DHAA), was evaluated in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from adult human duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Ascorbate was taken up along the entire length of the small intestine with a threefold higher initial uptake rate in distal than proximal segments. Ascorbate uptake was Na+-dependent, potential-sensitive and saturable (Km, 200 mol/L), whereas DHAA transport involved facilitated diffusion (Km, 800 mol/L). Pharmacologic experiments were conducted to characterize further these transport mechanisms. DHAA uptake was not mediated by the fructose carrier GLUT5, the uridine transporter or the 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive anion exchanger of the apical membrane. DIDS and sulfinpyrazone , an inhibitor of the urate/lactate exchanger, both significantly reduced the initial rate of ascorbate uptake. Acidic pH inhibited ascorbate uptake, and this effect was not due to a transmembrane proton gradient. Increasing concentrations of glucose in the transport media also Continue reading >>

Sugar, Vitamin C And Competitive Inhibition

Sugar, Vitamin C And Competitive Inhibition

Sugar, Vitamin C and Competitive Inhibition Saturday in Tucson before the 1982 version of the Tucson Marathon we were sitting on the Gentle Ben's patio with some of our running friends from Albuquerque having some carbohydrates of the liquid variety. Bob would consume 18 Dos Equis and run a blazing 2:31 marathon the next day. Sitting at another table was one of Tucson's running greats, Dr. Tom. Tom at one time had run a 2:21 marathon which was near world class at that time. Tom was loading yet a different variety -a cheeseburger. He would not run as fast as Bob the next day and would not run up to his amazing capability. At the 1978 version of the Fiesta Bowl marathon in Phoenix I was lucky enough to hear Dr. Thomas Bassler speak. When it came to running injuries he recommended vitamin C. I had been running 100 mile weeks in preparation and was aching all over. That day I got a bottle of vitamin C and ran the next day with no pain at all. I have been using vitamin C ever since with good results. The battle, however, would rage on. Dr. R never took vitamin C since he believed that it did not do any good since most of it he said "would be excreted in the urine." Dr. Bassler, on the other hand, stated emphatically that you should not run if you don't supplement vitamin C. My own experience has verified the latter, on an ongoing basis for all of my 25 year and two month running streak. Does the human body need supplemental vitamin C? Before we go any further, let's try to establish first whether or not the body needs vitamin C from outside sources, ie foods, drinks or supplements. To do this, we will take a brief look at the biochemistry of vitamin C from Stryer's Biochemistry Fourth Edition. Collagen is the major protein of connective tissue such as the Achille's tendon o Continue reading >>

Effects Of Vitamins C And D In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Effects Of Vitamins C And D In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors Christie-David D, Girgis C, Gunton J Received 24 September 2014 Accepted for publication 26 November 2014 Checked for plagiarism Yes Peer reviewer comments 3 1Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Westmead Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, 3Westmead Millennium Institute, 4Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Scurvy and rickets are largely considered historical diseases in developed countries. However, deficiencies in vitamins C and D are re-emerging due to increased consumption of processed foods and reduced fresh foods in the Western diet, as well as to an indoor sedentary lifestyle away from sun exposure. These dietary and lifestyle factors also predispose one to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Our understanding of the potential roles of vitamin C (an antioxidant) and vitamin D (a biologically active hormone) in disease is increasing. In this review, we present observational, interventional, and mechanistic studies that examine the potential links between vitamins C and D in reversing defects in glucose homeostasis and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Studies suggest an association between vitamin C deficiency and diabetes. An association between vitamin D and insulin resistance has been well described; however, the role of vitamin C and D supplementation in diabetes and its prevention requires further controlled trials. Keywords: glucose homeostasis, diabetes, insulin resistance, vitamin C, vitamin D Nutrients play essential roles in health and the prevention of disease. Nutrients, including vitamins, are vital to cardiovascular health (ie, vitamin B1), nerve function (ie, vitamins B6 and B12), the production of red blood cells (ie, folate and vitamin B12), and coagulation (ie, vitamin K), among man Continue reading >>

Erythrocyte Glut1 Triggers Dehydroascorbic Acid Uptake In Mammals Unable To Synthesize Vitamin C - Sciencedirect

Erythrocyte Glut1 Triggers Dehydroascorbic Acid Uptake In Mammals Unable To Synthesize Vitamin C - Sciencedirect

Volume 132, Issue 6 , 21 March 2008, Pages 1039-1048 Of all cells, human erythrocytes express the highest level of the Glut1 glucose transporter. However, the regulation and function of Glut1 during erythropoiesis are not known. Here, we report that glucose transport actually decreases during human erythropoiesis despite a >3-log increase in Glut1 transcripts. In contrast, Glut1-mediated transport of L-dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (AA), isdramatically enhanced. We identified stomatin, an integral erythrocyte membrane protein, as regulating the switch from glucose to DHA transport. Notably though, we found that erythrocyte Glut1 and associated DHA uptake are unique traits of humans and the few other mammals that have lost the ability to synthesize AA from glucose. Accordingly, we show that mice, a species capable of synthesizing AA, express Glut4 but not Glut1 in mature erythrocytes. Thus, erythrocyte-specific coexpression of Glut1 with stomatin constitutes a compensatory mechanism in mammals that are unable to synthesize vitamin C. Continue reading >>

Effect Of Vitamin C On Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids & Serum Insulin In Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

Effect Of Vitamin C On Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids & Serum Insulin In Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

Abstract BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders that causes micro- and macro-vascular complications. Because of additive effects of hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia for cardiovascular diseases, lipid abnormalities should be evaluated in diabetes. As vitamin C is known for its beneficial effects on serum lipids and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), we evaluated the effect of different doses of vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids and serum insulin in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 84 patients with type 2 diabetes referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center, Iran, were included in the study. They received randomly either 500 mg or 1000 mg daily of vitamin C for six weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low and high density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), glycated haemoglobin HbA(Ic) and serum insulin were measured before and after vitamin C consumption and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: A significant decrease in FBS, TG, LDL, HbA1c and serum insulin was seen in the group supplemented with 1000 mg vitamin C. The dose of 500 mg vitamin C, however, did not produce any significant change in any of the parameters studied. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that daily consumption of 1000 mg supplementary vitamin C may be beneficial in decreasing blood glucose and lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes and thus reducing the risk of complications. Continue reading >>

Supplementation Of Vitamin C Reduces Blood Glucose And Improves Glycosylated Hemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-blind Study

Supplementation Of Vitamin C Reduces Blood Glucose And Improves Glycosylated Hemoglobin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-blind Study

Supplementation of Vitamin C Reduces Blood Glucose and Improves Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study 1Department of Pharmacology, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur 440018, India 2Department of Pharmacology, Shree Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai 603108, India *Ganesh N. Dakhale: [email protected] Received 2011 Aug 21; Revised 2011 Nov 3; Accepted 2011 Nov 3. Copyright 2011 Ganesh N. Dakhale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. No study has ever examined the effect of vitamin C with metformin on fasting (FBS) and postmeal blood glucose (PMBG) as well as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The goal was to examine the effect of oral vitamin C with metformin on FBS, PMBG, HbA1c, and plasma ascorbic acid level (PAA) with type 2 DM. Seventy patients with type 2 DM participated in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week study. The patients with type 2 DM were divided randomly into placebo and vitamin C group of 35 each. Both groups received the treatment for twelve weeks. Decreased PAA levels were found in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This level was reversed significantly after treatment with vitamin C along with metformin compared to placebo with metformin. FBS, PMBG, and HbA1c levels showed significant improvement after 12 weeks of treatment with vitamin C. In conclusion, oral supplementation of vitamin C with metformin reverses ascorbic acid levels, reduces FBS, PMBG, an Continue reading >>

Interference Of Intravenous Vitamin C With Blood Glucose Testing

Interference Of Intravenous Vitamin C With Blood Glucose Testing

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an integral component in the management of diabetes. However, it is important to understand the limitations of SMBG due to presence of interfering substances (1). We present a patient with diabetes and malignancy, who had falsely elevated blood glucose readings following administration of intravenous ascorbic acid (AA). A 56-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. She administered insulin glargine and insulin aspart before meals. After three cycles of chemotherapy, due to poor response, she decided to stop further traditional therapies. She consulted a naturopath, who started her on intravenous AA at a dose of 75 g twice weekly. Following this, she noted that her SMBG levels were consistently elevated after intravenous AA. She presented to the University of Washington where her SMBG downloads were reviewed. On the days she received intravenous AA infusion, the average blood glucose was 26.9 ± 4.8 mmol/L, compared with an average of 12.36 ± 2.7 mmol/L on other days. She was using glucose oxidase (GOD)−based strips (OneTouch, LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA) for her SMBG. We suspected interference with AA in the measurement of blood glucose using GOD-based strips and recommended that she measure her blood glucose using glucose dehydrogenase-flavin adenine dinucleotide (GDH-FAD)−based strips (Bayer Contour, Tarrytown, NY). She was advised not to change her insulin doses. A written log comparing the two chemistries with the same blood sample confirmed significantly higher glucose levels with the GOD strips. Unfortunately, the patient died before we could download the meter or compare blood results with a hospital laboratory. AA is used as an alternate or adjuvant to chem Continue reading >>

Dr. James Howenstine --ascorbic Acid Competes With Sugar In The Immune System

Dr. James Howenstine --ascorbic Acid Competes With Sugar In The Immune System

Nearlyevery animal converts sugar into ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Humanbeings, primates and guinea pigs are the only organisms unable to dothis. The enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase that accomplishes thischemical reaction does not work in these beings. This forces thesebeings to obtain ascorbic acid from food or supplements. Researchstudies suggest that humans would produce about 2 to 4 grams of VitaminC daily under normal conditions and about 15 grams daily [1] whenunder stress. Insulinmoves both glucose and ascorbic acid into cells including phagocyticimmune cells. The phagocytic cells like leukocytes attack and removemicrobes, tumor cells and debris from the blood. The level of ascorbicacid in leukocytes may be 80 times greater than that found in plasma.Glucose and ascorbic acid are constantly competing for insulintransport so diets high in sugar and carbohydrates will decrease theamount of ascorbic acid that enters cells and thus create undesirableeffects on the immune response. Thereis another form of competition between glucose and ascorbic acid.Ascorbic acid stimulates the hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt andglucose inhibits it. The HMP is a series of chemical reactions thatreduces niacin coenzyme NADP to NADPH. Phagocytesneed NADPH to create superoxide and other reactive oxygen species thatare used to destroy pathogens.In addition to creating NADPH ascorbic acid has the ability todeactivate excess quantities of NADPH and oxidative substances thatcould harm normal tissues. Thehexose monophosphate shunt also produces 5 carbon sugars (ribose anddeoxyribose). These 5 carbon sugars are neededto make DNA and RNA. When theimmune system faces microbial invasion it immediately signals forproduction of new immune cells that need these genetic materials DNAand RNA. If the b Continue reading >>

Megadose Of Vitamin C Delays Insulin Response To A Glucose Challenge In Normoglycemic Adults

Megadose Of Vitamin C Delays Insulin Response To A Glucose Challenge In Normoglycemic Adults

Megadose of vitamin C delays insulin response to a glucose challenge in normoglycemic adults From the Foods and Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe. Address reprint requests to CS Johnston, Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Box 872502, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2502. Search for other works by this author on: From the Foods and Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Family Resources and Human Development, Arizona State University, Tempe. Search for other works by this author on: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 60, Issue 5, 1 November 1994, Pages 735738, C S Johnston, M F Yen; Megadose of vitamin C delays insulin response to a glucose challenge in normoglycemic adults, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 60, Issue 5, 1 November 1994, Pages 735738, The effect of a megadose of ascorbic acid (AA) on glucose and insulin responses after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) is unknown. With a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, nine normoglycemic subjects (22 1 y, x SEM) consumed AA (2 g/d) or placebo for 2 wk after a 2-wk washout period with placebo, and an OGTT was performed after an overnight fast. This 4-wk protocol was repeated in a crossover fashion. Plasma glucose was significantly elevated 1-h postprandial in vitamin C-saturated subjects vs those taking a placebo. The plasma insulin response curve was shifted rightward in vitamin C-saturated subjects relative to baseline: plasma insulin was significantly depressed at 0.5 h postprandial but significantly elevated at 2 h postprandial. These data indicate that elevated plasma AA delays the insulin response to a glucose challenge in normoglycemic adults, thereby prolonging the pos Continue reading >>

The Negative Impact Of Sugar In Your Vitamin C Supplements

The Negative Impact Of Sugar In Your Vitamin C Supplements

The Negative Impact of Sugar in your Vitamin C Supplements The Negative Impact of Sugar in your Vitamin C Supplements The Negative Impact of Sugar in your Vitamin C Supplements Vitamin C is one of the most researched antioxidants available on the market, and its invaluable health benefits range from supporting the immunesystem and protecting against free radical damage to assisting in the treatment of infectious diseases. When Researcher Linus Pauling conducted his experiments on how the body utilizes Vitamin C in the 1970s, he discovered that white blood cells necessitate Vitamin C to combat viruses and bacteria. It has been shown that white blood cells require a concentration 50 times higher of Vitamin C inside the cell as compared to outside the cell, so this accumulation of Vitamin C is vital. Due to Vitamin C and glucose having similar molecular structures and chemical makeups, significant altercations can occur as sugar levels go up within the body. Because refined dietary sugars lack vitamins and minerals, they naturally draw upon the bodys micronutrient stores in order to be successfully metabolized by the body. What mediates the entry of Vitamin C into white blood cells is the same thing that mediates the entry of glucose. As such, both molecules end up competing against one another upon entering the cells. Thus, the more sugar that becomes available for uptake in the body, the less Vitamin C that is allowed into the white blood cells. So what does this have to do with your Vitamin C Supplements? The average American diet consumes approximately 1 3 pounds of sugar per week. Unfortunately, refined sugars are made available in many forms including high-fructose corn syrup, dextrose (corn sugar) and sucrose (table sugar). These various forms of the sugar molecule Continue reading >>

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