Relationship Of Vitamin B12 To Carbohydrate Metabolism And Diabetes Mellitus | The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic
This report consists of a brief summary of experimental studies which emphasize (a) the dominant role played by vitamin B12 in the utilization of carbohydrates, (b) interrelationships between vitamin B12 absorption and endocrine function, and (c) some relationships of vitamin B12 to diabetes mellitus. (1) Weanling rats fed a diet, rich in carbohydrate and low in fat require more vitamin B12 for growth. (2) The fat content of the carcass of vitamin B12-deficient rats is abnormally low but can be elevated by injection of this vitamin. (3) The administration of glucose to rats results in a decrease in the vitamin B12 levels of plasma or liver. (4) Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes hyperglycemia correctable with vitamin B12. In vitro experiments indicate that the red cells of vitamin B12-deficient animals are low in glutathione content as well as enzyme activity essential for the degradation of glucose. Other enzyme systems involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as coenzyme A in liver or DPN in liver are also deranged due to this deficiency. (5) The effect of cortisone and thyroid on absorption of orally administered vitamin B12 and retention of injected vitamin B12 was re-emphasized. It was found that corticotropin (ACTH) or cortisone causes hyperglycemia, destruction of vitamin B12-binding substances in muscles as well as an elevation of the vitamin B12 serum level. Thyroidectomy decreases absorption of vitamin B12. (6) Some evidence of adrenal hyperactivity in diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy, (as gathered by other investigators), has been reviewed. We caution against a premature interpretation that adrenal hyperactivity is causally or pathogenetically related to diabetic retinopathy; it may turn out to be a mere associated phenomenon. (7) Diabetic patients Continue reading >>
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Why Vitamin B12 Is Important In Diabetes
How does the Vitamin B Family Work? Vitamin B Complex is a combination of eight B vitamins – B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. The B family of vitamins plays a variety of critical roles in our body, including converting the food we eat into energy. Health researchers and experts have found a deep connection, especially between Vitamin b12 and diabetes. In addition to this, research has shown that several drugs commonly prescribed by doctors to diabetics begin to cause depletion of the Vitamin B family from the human body. This process is called ‘drug induced nutrient depletion’ and is often the reason behind drug side effects. Folic Acid or Vitamin B9 and Vitamin B12 are easily depleted by daily use of anti-diabetic medication, making it all the more important for diabetics to put back these vitamins. Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause potentially severe and sometimes irreversible damage to the nervous system. A severe health complication of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, the inability of the body to produce healthy red cells. Without sufficient red cells, the body does not get enough oxygen to function properly. If the levels go only slightly below normal, symptoms like: fatigue lethargy poor memory depression headaches loss of appetite weight loss constipation pale skin and breathlessness Initially, you may disregard these symptoms as part of your underlying diabetic condition. But over time, the deficiency may become more severe and may cause irreparable damage to your body. What Does Research Say about Vitamin B12? Diabetics generally carry the risk of a vitamin B12 deficiency. A study found that as many as 22% of diabetics are deficient in vitamin B12. Another study that tracked 785 women after delivery found t Continue reading >>
B12 And Blood Sugar Control?
Has anyone ever tried b12 injections for control? I had a perfect day today and (despite pushing the limits) never had any hypos (opposite of my day yday) and never went over 115. I took a b12 injection for the first time in 12 days yesterday. I take them b/c I was deficient back in FEb and started having sig neuropathy because of it. If I go more than 10-12 days without it, the neuropathy comes back. I saw something in an article at some point saying it's a natural alternative to controlling levels. It may have been a key player for me today. We were out and about without food for me to eat so I went 3-4 hours between meals and pushed the envelope with sushi and coke for supper to see just what I could see. Never got over 115, never got below 90 all day. I sure hope it was the b12! I felt great all day!!! D.D. Family Getting much harder to control It would be great but I take b-12 and I havent seen a difference in bs control but it might work for you as YMMV. First article I've found with some science behind it... it could be the difference in administration and levels. I have off the charts levels b/c I inject. I doubt levels would be so high with a pill or sublingual. Plus, if you have any gut issues, you wouldn't likely absorb oral b12 and would need the injection. Hmmmm... just thinking out loud. Wish this had been thoroughly studied! Basically I'm learning the b vitamins, most importantly 12, play a vital role in the breakdown of carbs. This is what I found on livestrong :"Vitamin B12 and other B complex vitamins are important for metabolizing carbohydrates, proteins and fats into glucose that can be utilized by the body. B complex vitamins help the body produce glucose, which is the body's main source of energy from consumed foods." Read more: I'm gathering that Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes | B12 Deficiency Blog
Autoimmune pernicious anaemia (PA) is just one of many causes but its clear that many doctors consider it to be the only serious cause of B12 deficiency and therefore the only one worth treating with B12 injections. This is due to lack of education on this subject which for most, is usually lumped in with anaemia. It is important to note that anaemia (macrocytosis) is not always present in B12 deficient patients. In fact ALL causes of this debilitating condition require correct and adequate treatment and it is ALWAYS SERIOUS if it remains undiagnosed and untreated. Remember this condition attacks the central and peripheral nervous system, all body systems and all ages, not just elderly women. B12 is vital for the production of red blood cells and for DNA synthesis. It seems the majority of doctors worldwide, have only really learnt about PA and limited information at that. This means that they can neglect and under treat seriously B12 deficient patients. Up to 60% of patients who fail to achieve the correct diagnosis of PA due to the inaccurate diagnostic tests (gastric intrinsic factor antibodies & parietal cell antibodies), may be given an extremely poor deal along with those of us who do not have PA but are B12 deficient due to other causes. The widespread use of Metformin and Omeprazole to name just two drugs, which stop absorption of B12 from food, cause untold damage. In the case of the diabetic drug Metformin, a doctor may confuse the tingling and numbness in fingers and toes caused by B12 deficiency with diabetic neuropathy, thereby potentially condemning the patient to serious and permanent nerve damage. Neither of these drugs (and many others) fully warn the user, or the prescriber, on the Patient information leaflet (PIL) of prolonged usage causing B12 defic Continue reading >>
Vitamins And Minerals
Tweet Depending on the type of treatment regimen you use to control your diabetes, there are some vitamins and minerals that may be beneficial for your condition. Before adding any vitamins or adding dietary supplements to your daily diet, discuss these changes with your healthcare team and doctor to ensure they are safe alongside any prescribed medication you're on. ALA and GLA ALA (alpha-lipoic acid) is a versatile and potent antioxidant, and may function to help diabetic neuropathy and reduce pain from free-radical damage. Also, some studies link ALA to decreased insulin resistance and thus the control of blood sugar. GLA (gamma-lipoic acid) is another naturally occurring antioxidant that is present in evening primrose oil, borage oil and blackcurrant seed oil. GLA may improve the function of nerves damaged by diabetic neuropathy. Biotin Biotin works in synergy with insulin in the body, and independently increases the activity of the enzyme glucokinase. Glucokinase is responsible for the first step of glucose utilisation, and is therefore an essential component of normal bodily functioning. Glucokinase occurs only in the liver, and in sufferers from diabetes its concentration may be extremely low. Supplements of biotin may have a significant effect on glucose levels for both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Carnitine (L-Carnitine, Acetyl L-Carnitine) Carnitine is required by the body in order to correctly use body fat in the production of energy. It is naturally occurring and derives from hydrophilic amino acids. Diabetics who try carnitine generally respond well, and high levels of fat in the bloodstream (cholesterol and triglycerides) may fall fast. Carnitine helps to break down fatty acids in the body and binds acyl residues. For these reasons, it may be useful to pre Continue reading >>
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Is It Safe To Take Supplements If You Have Diabetes?
You will find supplements for anything and everything these days. Even when you do not suffer from an ailment, supplements are suggested to keep you healthy and ailment-free. According to CDC, use of supplements is common among US adult population – over 50% adults used supplements during 2003-2006, with multivitamins/multiminerals being the most commonly used. So when you are a diabetic, especially if you have prediabetes and type-2 diabetes, you may find yourself confronting a large number of options for supplements that claim to support, reduce and even cure your diabetes. Diabetes is quite a frustrating disorder and you may find yourself tempted to try out these supplements one after another. But is it really safe to take supplements when you are a diabetic? Let us find out. But before that you need to understand what exactly supplements are. Defining Supplements As the name suggests, a supplement is anything that adds on to something. A dietary supplement is therefore something that one takes in addition to one’s diet to get proper nutrition. US Congress in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act defines dietary supplements as having the following characteristics: It is a product that is intended to supplement the diet; It contains one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals, herbs and other botanicals, amino acids, and other substances) or their constituents; It is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid; It is not represented for use as a conventional food or as sole item of a mean or a diet; and, It is labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement. Now let us look at some general benefits and risks of taking supplements. We will discuss these in context of diabetes later in the article. Benefit Continue reading >>
Best Vitamins For Diabetics
Eating a varied diet rich in natural sources of vitamins is a good idea for diabetics. Nutritional support is critical for diabetics because diabetes tends to drain nutrients. When levels of glucose are high in the blood, the body tries to ‘wash’ the excess sugar out. This is why diabetics need to use the washroom frequently. Unfortunately, diabetics also lose nutrients via their urine. Research studies show that diabetics are repeatedly found to be deficient in important water-soluble vitamins and minerals. What’s more, the loss of these vitamins worsens the body’s ability to manage blood sugar, creating a vicious cycle. Combining a healthy diabetes diet plan and a daily exercise routine with the best vitamin supplements for diabetics goes a long way in achieving stable blood sugar levels. What Vitamins Are Diabetics Deficient In? The term vitamin is short for “Vital Amino Acid”. This means that these are vital for the proper functioning of hundreds of chemical processes in the body which the body cannot manage by itself. Proper blood sugar control is one such function for which vitamins are critical. There are 13 essential vitamins that the human body requires and they must be obtained from an external source — through food and/or supplements. Diabetics need two kinds of vitamins: Water Soluble – Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, Biotin, and Folate are water-soluble and cannot be stored in the body for longer periods of time. Diabetics are often deficient in these vitamins since they pass greater amounts of urine daily. As their body tries to get rid of extra sugar, diabetics lose more water-soluble vitamins than most others. That’s why diabetics need to to get these vitamins daily in doses larger than what normal people need. Luckily, you can get all Continue reading >>
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: Is Routine Screening And Supplementation Justified?
Go to: Introduction Vitamin B12 or cobalamin is a water soluble vitamin that plays a very fundamental role in DNA synthesis, optimal haemopoesis and neurological function. The clinical picture of vitamin B12 deficiency hence, is predominantly of features of haematological and neuro-cognitive dysfunction . This review will mainly discuss the physiological roles of vitamin B12, the varied pathophysiological mechanisms of vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and perspectives on screening for vitamin B12 deficiency and supplementation of vitamin B12 among diabetic patients. Absorption of vitamin B12 The principal source of vitamin B12 is animal proteins. The preliminary step in the metabolism of vitamin B12 involves its release from animal sources, a process mediated by the action of pepsin and gastric acid. After the release, dietary vitamin B12 binds to the R-protein secreted by the salivary glands. In the duodenum, in the presence of an alkaline medium and pancreatic proteases, the R- protein is hydrolysed to release vitamin B12 which later binds with the intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by the gastric parietal cells. The vitamin B12 –IF complex is highly resistant to proteolytic degradation. The complex attaches at its specific receptors on the mucosa of the terminal ileum, a site where its absorption occurs. This stage of vitamin B12 absorption is calcium mediated. The intracellular vitamin B12 is released following IF degradation. This free vitamin B12 attaches to another protein carrier, transcobalamin –II (TC-II) and is later released into the circulation. This vitamin B12 – TC-II complex, also referred to as holo TC-II is then actively taken up by the liver, bone marrow and other vital body cells. The liver serves as Continue reading >>
Vitamin B12 Levels | Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Has anyone had a high vitamin b12 level ? If so what were you told about it ? Has anyone had a high vitamin b12 level ? If so what were you told about it ? I was told it's irrelevant! I had a huge level and my doctor didn't even comment on it until I brought it up. I did stop taking the tablets, though, on the grounds that I clearly didn't need them. My doctor was certain that mine was going to be low and turned out my levels are really high. I found it interesting and he also wasn't concerned. The dietician said it could indicate kidney problems. Ten years ago I had exceptionally low B12 and folate.. and was told I had pernicious anaemia and started on injections for 3 years until I moved to Wales and the GP stopped them. I felt crap and paid privately to an anaethetist to give me an infusion of b12 and vitamins and minerals. Then moved back to Midlands and decided to stop infusions because if I had PA then I shouldn't have to pay!! So I took B12 tablets. I decided to stop them too as thinking I was again wasting my money if my levels were low then NHS jabs should be given. Anyway, 6 months after my last B12 tablet and my reading was totally off the scale... And my consultant told my GPs to do an abdomen scan as the GPs had filed my B12 as normal.... Since then in the last 6 months it has dropped from 1596 to 450 (middle range) so I am now waiting to see if it drops low again. My gallbladder has a small thing in it but under the size of 5mm and my liver showed up slightly fatty...kidneys and spleen fine. My consultant is the only person who actually looks at my results. My GPs are crap. OMG yes!! What's really bizarre is that I don't eat meat so shou Continue reading >>
Is Folic Acid Beneficial For Diabetes?
Folate is the natural form of a B vitaminthe synthetic version is known as folic acid. Folate functions in the type of reactions known as One Carbon Units where folates assist in the transfer of one-carbon units in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. Because of this, folates are critical for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Folates are also closely related to the metabolism of homocysteine, a biomarker for heart health.  Before we continue with this article, I wanted to let you know we have researched and compiled science-backed ways to stick to your diet and reverse your diabetes. Want to check out our insights? Download our free PDF Guide Power Foods to Eat here. Natural folate has some important differences in structure as compared to the synthetic folic acid. Folates are found in food in reduced forms and several amino acids attached where folic acid has only one amino acid attached and is in the oxidized form. While folic acid is better absorbed, the differences are sufficient so that in the US and a few other countries, the amount of folic acid recommended is expressed as Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFEs), to take into account that the body has to convert the folic acid into a folate. Folic acid is converted into folate in the body, with one (so far) very important exception. (See below) Folate can be found in fruits and vegetables, particularly in leafy green vegetables, asparagus, Brussel sprouts, avocados, oranges, papayas and bananas. The highest level of folates is found in beef liver. Since a lack of folate/folic acid has been associated with a birth defect, spina bifida, a form of a neural tube defect, folate/folic acid has been added as a supplement to many foods. Folate deficiency results in a form of anemia called megaloblastic anemia. This form o Continue reading >>
Diabetes And B12: What You Need To Know
Vitamin B12 is necessary for a healthy nervous system and healthy blood cells. The best way to get vitamin B12 is through your diet. This important vitamin is found in meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products. If you don’t eat enough of these foods, it could leave you with a deficiency. Consuming enough vitamin B12 isn’t the only problem. Your body also needs to be able to absorb it efficiently. Some medications like Pepcid AC, Prevacid, Prilosec, and Zantac, as well as others used to treat acid reflux, peptic ulcer disease, and infection, may make it harder for your body to absorb B12. Another medication that may interfere with B12 absorption is metformin, a common type 2 diabetes treatment. Simply having diabetes may make you more prone to B12 deficiency. A 2009 study found that 22 percent of people with type 2 diabetes were low in B12. Read on to learn the symptoms of B12 deficiency, what it could mean for your overall health, and what you can do about it. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency may be mild at first, and not always obvious. If you’re slightly low on B12, you may not have any symptoms at all. Some of the more common early symptoms are: tiredness weakness loss of appetite weight loss constipation It may be easy to dismiss these as minor complaints, but over time, insufficient B12 can lead to bigger problems. Very low levels of B12 can result in serious complications. One of these is called pernicious anemia. Anemia means you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells. This deprives your cells of much-needed oxygen. According to a study in the Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine, less than 20 percent of those with a B12 deficiency experience pernicious anemia. Symptoms of anemia include: fatigue pale skin chest pain dizziness headache You may even lose Continue reading >>
"important News" The Dangers Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Diabetics At Great Risk (part 1of3) | Diabetes Daily Post
The Dangers of Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Diabetics at Great Risk Vitamin B12 deficiency is a public health crisis that most clinicians dont know exists. Millions suffer from it, but few are diagnosed. Masked behind misdiagnoses, B12 deficiency has slowly grown to become the most untreated and unrecognized nutritional disorder causing injury in the U.S. It is reported that B12 deficiency strikes 16% or 48 million Americans.1 Others report the prevalence to be 25%.2 The Framingham Offspring Study found that nearly 40% of people age 26 to 83 had B12 levels in the low normal rangea level at which many begin experiencing neurological symptoms. Vitamin B12 is one of the 13 vitamins our body needs for health and life. It is essential for the production of red blood cells and aids in the maintenance of a healthy nervous system. B12 deficiency damages the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves of the eye. It is a crucial element in the construction of DNA. B12 is found naturally in animal foods (meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, dairy, and eggs). B12 must follow a complex pathway of several steps for proper absorption. A roadblock in any part of this pathway can cause malabsorption and subsequent deficiency. There are many causes of vitamin B12 deficiency such as malabsorption syndromes, autoimmune disease, diet, drugs, chemotherapy, radiation, and eating disorders. Other groups at risk for B12 deficiency include vegans, vegetarians, diabetics, alcoholics, and people with Crohns disease, celiac disease, pancreatic disease, gastric bypass, and AIDS. The body uses B12 to produce myelin, the fatty protective covering that encases nerve fibers and axons. B12 deficiency damages this sheathin a manner somewhat similar to the fraying of an electrical wiremaking it harder for ne Continue reading >>
Vitamin Deficiencies In People With Diabetes: The Supplements You Need
As an orthopedic surgeon, I have many patients with diabetes who tell me, “I can’t have surgery because I won’t heal.” That is certainly not the case, however. Diabetes does affect the small blood vessels and the function of immune cells when blood sugar is high, but with proper nutrition and blood sugar management, people with diabetes are very safe to undergo knee replacements, abdominal surgery, and many elective procedures. It is critical, of course, that people with diabetes who undergo elective or traumatic surgery work closely with their doctor to manage their blood sugar, but supplementation is also a vital part of recovery. Diabetes frequently causes nutritional deficiencies, often initiated by changes in diet or medications. As a result, people with diabetes must use supplements. Helping my patients identify their nutritional deficiencies and educating them on the importance of essential vitamins has made an overwhelming difference in their recovery from surgery and their overall daily health. The following essential vitamins are often deficient in people with diabetes. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is bound to protein in food. The activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach releases vitamin B12 from its protein. Once it is released, vitamin B12 begins to work quickly. It is important for the formation of red blood cells, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. It also supports the digestive system in keeping glucose levels stable. A simple blood test can determine the level of B12 in the body. Adults who have a value below 170 to 250 pg/mL are considered deficient in the vitamin. An elevated blood homocysteine level or elevated methylmalconic acid level may also suggest a B12 deficiency. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are megalob Continue reading >>
Is Vitamin B12 Good For Diabetics?
Emma Cale has been writing professionally since 2000. Her work has appeared in NOW Magazine, HOUR Magazine and the Globe and Mail. Cale holds a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Windsor and advanced writing certificates from the Canadian Film Centre and the National Theatre School of Canada. Clams are an excellent source of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 might be good for diabetics for several reasons. Recent research has shown that vitamin B12 might help mitigate some of the most common complications associated with long-term diabetes, including diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy. Some diabetic medications, including metformin, might also cause vitamin B12 deficiency, so supplementation might benefit diabetics. Speak to your doctor or health care practitioner about vitamin B12 if you are diabetic or at risk of becoming diabetic. Vitamin B12 is an integral component of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine is an amino acid, and without enough vitamin B12, blood levels of homocysteine rise. High levels of homocysteine have been linked to diabetic retinopathy, a complication that causes damage to the blood vessels in the eye. A 2008 study conducted by Australian researchers and published in the journal Diabetes Care examined 168 type 2 diabetics of both genders and found higher levels of homocysteine in those with retinopathy. Vitamin B12 might also be good for diabetics with neuropathy painful nerve damage that often afflicts diabetics in their legs and feet. According to researcher Y. Henry Sun of the Institute of Molecular Biology at the Academia Sinica in Taiwan, vitamin B12 has shown some effectiveness in minimizing several symptoms associated with diabetic neuropathy, including pain, numbness, prickling and tingling. Vitamin B12 might also be g Continue reading >>
Pernicious Anemia - Diabetes Self-management
A condition in which the body cannot make enough red blood cells due to a deficiency in vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia is somewhat more common in people with Type 1 diabetes than it is in the general population. Pernicious anemia is most commonly caused by an autoimmune attack on the parietal cells of the stomach. Ordinarily, the parietal cells make a protein called intrinsic factor, which helps the body absorb vitamin B12. When the parietal cells get destroyed by the immune system, they can no longer make intrinsic factor, and vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed properly. Lack of vitamin B12 keeps red blood cells from dividing normally and causes them to become too large, so that they have difficulty getting out of the bone marrow. Vitamin B12 is also necessary for the nervous system to work properly. Pernicious anemia can cause multiple problems throughout the body. In people with pernicious anemia, the heart has to work harder to pump enough blood to nourish the bodys tissues. This can lead to cardiac arrhythmias (fast or irregular heartbeats), an enlarged heart, and even heart failure (in which the heart cannot pump blood efficiently enough to meet the bodys needs). It may also raise the risk of heart attacks and strokes . Related damage to the nervous system can cause such diverse symptoms as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, difficulty with balance, vision changes, memory loss, and confusion. Other symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. Fortunately, pernicious anemia is usually easy to treat with vitamin B12 injections, although some people develop permanent nerve damage before the condition is diagnosed and treated. In addition to pernicious anemia, there are a number of other autoimmune diseases that tend to run in clusters in people wi Continue reading >>