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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (vegf)

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (vegf)

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) A growth factor, or protein, that encourages the growth of cells on the inner walls of blood vessels ( endothelial cells ). It appears to play an important role in angiogenesis, the development and growth of new blood vessels, which has widespread effects throughout the body. Angiogenesis was first an area of interest for cancer researchers, most notably the pioneering researcher Dr. Judah Folkman. Cancer researchers noted that certain types of tumors secrete growth factors, such as VEGF. VEGF appears to stimulate the movement of endothelial progenitor cells, adult stem cells that eventually differentiate into the cells that line the inner walls of blood vessels. Cancer researchers reasoned that blocking VEGF and thus inhibiting angiogenesis and cutting off the blood supply to a tumor might be a way to keep tumors from thriving. An anti-VEGF drug called bevacizumab (brand name Avastin) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for the treatment of colorectal cancer and was subsequently approved for the treatment of lung, kidney, and brain cancer. VEGF appears to play a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease. VEGF levels in the bloodstream are elevated in people with high blood pressure and diabetes. In people with high blood pressure, levels of VEGF are related to measures of endothelial dysfunction (an early marker of atherosclerosis, or narrowing of the arteries due to inflammation and plaque formation) and overall cardiovascular risk. Some studies suggest that high blood glucose levels tend to raise VEGF levels in the bloodstream. Studies also suggest that VEGF may promote inflammation of the blood vessels and the clumping together of blood platelets, both of which promote cardiovascular dise Continue reading >>

Vitreous And Plasma Vegf Levels As Predictive Factors In The Progression Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy After Vitrectomy

Vitreous And Plasma Vegf Levels As Predictive Factors In The Progression Of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy After Vitrectomy

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here . Vitreous and Plasma VEGF Levels as Predictive Factors in the Progression of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy after Vitrectomy Contributed equally to this work with: Jiaxing Wang, Song Chen Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Contributed equally to this work with: Jiaxing Wang, Song Chen Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Affiliation Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China Continue reading >>

Association Of The Vegf Gene Polymorphism With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Association Of The Vegf Gene Polymorphism With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Background. Diabetic microvascular complications are the major causes of morbidity and early mortality in diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent multifunctional cytokine which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We examined the possible association of the VEGF gene polymorphisms with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. Genotyping of the VEGF gene insertion/deletion (I/D) and +405 polymorphisms was done by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. A total of 426 patients with type 2 diabetes and 493 healthy subjects were genotyped. The frequency of VEGF alleles and genotype distribution were compared in diabetic and control groups. Results. The distribution of the VEGF DD genotype was significantly different in patients with diabetic retinopathy compared with healthy controls, entire diabetic group and patients with no complications (44 vs. 23, 30 and 21%, respectively; P < 0.01). Such differences were not observed in the diabetic nephropathy group. The odds ratio for the D allele was 2.27 (95% CI 1.593.25). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the D allele of the VEGF gene I/D polymorphism was an independent risk factor of retinopathy (P < 0.001). The VEGF +405 genotype was not associated with diabetic complications in type 2 diabetes patients. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the I/D polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGF gene is associated with retinopathy but not nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the D allele of the VEGF polymorphism is an independent risk factor of diabetic retinopathy after controlling for other cl Continue reading >>

Targeting Vegf-b As A Novel Treatment For Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes

Targeting Vegf-b As A Novel Treatment For Insulin Resistance And Type 2 Diabetes

Targeting VEGF-B as a novel treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes Nature volume 490, pages 426430 (18 October 2012) | Download Citation The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing, with severe socioeconomic impacts 1 , 2 . Excess lipid deposition in peripheral tissues impairs insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and has been proposed to contribute to the pathology of type 2 diabetes 3 , 4 , 5 . However, few treatment options exist that directly target ectopic lipid accumulation 6 . Recently it was found that vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls endothelial uptake and transport of fatty acids in heart and skeletal muscle 7 . Here we show that decreased VEGF-B signalling in rodent models of type 2 diabetes restores insulin sensitivity and improves glucose tolerance. Genetic deletion of Vegfb in diabetic db/db mice prevented ectopic lipid deposition, increased muscle glucose uptake and maintained normoglycaemia. Pharmacological inhibition of VEGF-B signalling by antibody administration to db/db mice enhanced glucose tolerance, preserved pancreatic islet architecture, improved -cell function and ameliorated dyslipidaemia, key elements of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The potential use of VEGF-B neutralization in type 2 diabetes was further elucidated in rats fed a high-fat diet, in which it normalized insulin sensitivity and increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and heart. Our results demonstrate that the vascular endothelium can function as an efficient barrier to excess muscle lipid uptake even under conditions of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, and that this barrier can be maintained by inhibition of VEGF-B signalling. We propose VEGF-B antagonism as a novel pharmacological approach for type 2 diabe Continue reading >>

Anti-vegf Therapy To Limit Dr Progression

Anti-vegf Therapy To Limit Dr Progression

Anti-VEGF Therapy to Limit DR Progression Although many questions remain, anti-VEGF therapies for diabetic retinopathy treatment will dramatically alter the delivery of care. Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema are leading causes of blindness in the working-age population of most developed countries.1 Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have become first-line therapy in DME patients, as several recent clinical trials suggest that these therapies are more effective than laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema.2-6 These medications bind vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby decreasing angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and causing regression of diabetic neovascularization and reduction in DME, respectively. An area of great interest is the role for these agents to limit, and even reverse, the progression of DR, as ranibizumab has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of DR. Panretinal laser photocoagulation, the current standard treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, is destructive and causes constriction of visual fields, nyctalopia and decreased contrast sensitivity. Instead of waiting for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy to progress into PDR before performing destructive PRP, treating DR earlier with anti-VEGF therapy to prevent the development of PDR is more desirable. Furthermore, limiting progression of DR may also prevent the development of DME. Consequently, the treatment of DR will likely undergo radical transformation, similar to the treatment of DME over the past several years. This article will review anti-VEGF agents for the treatment of DR. VEGF plays a key role not only in vascular permeability, but also in angiogenesis. There are at least nine d Continue reading >>

Emerging Role Of Vegf In Diabetic Kidney Disease | Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Oxford Academic

Emerging Role Of Vegf In Diabetic Kidney Disease | Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Oxford Academic

advanced glycation endproduct , angio-tensin converting enzyme , antibody , experimental diabetes , type 1 and type 2 diabetes Micro- and macrovascular complications are the most important cause of increased morbidity and mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Early renal changes in diabetes are characterized by kidney enlargement, glomerular hyperfiltration and increased synthesis of extracellular matrix. Twenty-five to 40% of diabetic patients develop microalbuminuria with a high risk of progression to overt diabetic nephropathy. Several classes of growth factors and cytokines have been suggested to be involved in mediating the adverse vascular effects of hyperglycaemia, most importantly growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, transforming growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [ 1 3 ]. Most recently the latter has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. Overall, VEGF appears to play a central role in mediating diabetic endothelial dysfunction and vasculopathy [ 2 4 ]. Increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of VEGF in these processes has stimulated the development of potential therapeutic approaches. Herein we review the extant evidence that VEGF is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease, identify some potential therapies and discuss their implications for the future management of diabetic renal vascular complications. The VEGF family consists of more than five different isoforms of highly conserved homodimeric glycoproteins, with heparin-binding properties [ 5 7 ]. VEGF was first recognized in 1983 and named vasopermeability factor due to its potent permeability-inducing properties. VEGF also exert potent mitogenic actions in endothelial Continue reading >>

Vegf Gene Transfer For Diabetic Neuropathy

Vegf Gene Transfer For Diabetic Neuropathy

You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. VEGF Gene Transfer for Diabetic Neuropathy The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00056290 Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information This gene therapy study is being conducted to evaluate intramuscular gene transfer using VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) in patients with diabetic neuropathy in the legs. This condition causes a decrease in feeling and sensation due to diabetes. VEGF is DNA, or genetic material that is injected into the muscles of the leg. Once in the leg, it has been shown to cause new blood vessels to grow under a variety of conditions. Losordo, Douglas, M.D. has indicated that access to an investigational treatment associated with this study is available outside the clinical trial. Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator) p.VGI.1 (VEGF2) Gene Transfer for Diabetic Neuropathy 3 sets of injections, at 2 week intervals 3 sets of injections, at 2 week intervals Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For gen Continue reading >>

#kidneywk 2015: Not Just Vegf: Diabetes And Theendothelium

#kidneywk 2015: Not Just Vegf: Diabetes And Theendothelium

#KidneyWk 2015: Not Just VEGF: Diabetes and theEndothelium Posted on November 10, 2015 by AJKDblog in Meeting Coverage // 0 Comments Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) were appropriately prominent topics at this years meeting. Thursdays afternoon session, Glomerular Endothelial Cell Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy was an important reminder that endothelial injury plays a critical role in this disease. Outstanding lectures by Drs. Salmon on the endothelial glycocalyx (with beautiful images of this hard to visualize structure), Isermann on activated protein C, and Nakagawa on eNOS and glomerular injury, all served to illustrate the diverse approaches needed to elucidate the complex pathways of endothelial injury. The first talk, by Dr Quaggin, entitled VEGF and Angiopoietin in DN was a masterful summation of the field, and as it is a subject close to my heart, I will summarize her presentation. Here are her take-home points: Disruption of vascular signaling pathways plays a central role in diabetic complications, including and especially in the kidney. Two vascular growth factors, both members of the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), play protective roles in the glomerulus. The Ang-1 receptor, Tie-2, may be an important target for therapeutic intervention. What is the role of VEGF in diabetic glomerulosclerosis? There is now little doubt that VEGF expression is increased in early phases. Healthy mice exposed to high VEGF levels appear to develop a lesion similar to DN. Similarly, healthy mice where VEGF has been knocked out developed lesions similar to thrombotic microangiopathy. Diabetic mice with VEGF knockout are particularly sensitive and rapidly progress to end-stage disease. These findings do not suggest an easy therapeutic opti Continue reading >>

The Increased Circulating Plasma Levels Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Do Not Correlate To Metabolic Control

The Increased Circulating Plasma Levels Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Do Not Correlate To Metabolic Control

The Increased Circulating Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Do Not Correlate to Metabolic Control 1Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden 2Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Correspondence should be addressed to Daniel Espes ; [email protected] Received 21 November 2016; Revised 19 February 2017; Accepted 7 March 2017; Published 21 March 2017 Copyright 2017 Kailash Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aim. To characterize the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and its relation to both present and historical metabolic control and microvascular complications. Methods. Plasma levels of VEGF and routine clinical parameters were analyzed in 115 patients with long-standing T1D and 45 healthy controls (HC). All patients were under clinical routine diabetes treatment at Uppsala University Hospital. Results. The plasma levels of VEGF were increased by 37% in patients with T1D when compared to HC ( ). The levels of VEGF correlated to insulin needs and BMI but not to present or historical metabolic control. The levels of VEGF were similar in patients with T1D and microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy) when compared with patients without microvascular complications. Historical HbA1c levels were found to be the best predictor for present metabolic control. Conclusion. Circulating plasma levels of VEGF do not correlate to present or historical metabolic control in long-standing T1D and the leve Continue reading >>

Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Diabetic Vascular Complications.

Role Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Diabetic Vascular Complications.

Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in diabetic vascular complications. Beetham Eye Institute and Division of Vascular Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215, USA. [email protected] Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus predominantly reflects its deleterious effects on microcirculation and macrocirculation. During the past few years, rapid advancement has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms and molecules involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvasculopathy. This is particularly true with regard to retinal vascular disease and the role of the angiogenesis- and vasopermeability-inducing molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Biochemical studies in many relevant cell types have been performed. Effects of VEGF action and inhibition have been evaluated in animals. Interventions that block the biochemical pathways initiated by VEGF have been tested both in culture and in animals. Human clinical trials have begun. VEGF induces vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration and vasopermeability in many cells and tissues. In vivo, VEGF has been identified as a primary initiator of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and as a potential mediator of nonproliferative retinopathy. In addition, VEGF has been implicated in the development of neuropathy and nephropathy in the patient with diabetes. In patients with diabetes and coronary artery or peripheral vascular disease, VEGF may induce development of cardiac and limb vascular collateralization, respectively. Many biochemical processes mediating these actions have now been elucidated. VEGF appears to play a central role in mediating diabetic vasculopathy in many organs. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms Continue reading >>

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (vegf) In The Pathogenesis Of Diabeticnephropathy Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (vegf) In The Pathogenesis Of Diabeticnephropathy Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

1. Curr Drug Targets. 2011 Jan;12(1):107-14. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of diabeticnephropathy of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mironidou-Tzouveleki M(1), Tsartsalis S, Tomos C. (1)Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. [email protected] Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and isthe primary cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western World. Vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN of type 1 diabetes mellitus. VEGF is the main angiogenic factor and a potent mitogen for endothelial cells. It is mainly produced in kidney by podocytes and exerts itsbiological activities by binding to its receptors (VEGFRs). Alternative splicing of a single VEGF gene produces various isoforms and two families with anti- andpro-angiogenic properties. In normal glomeruli, VEGF isoforms are in tightregulation and act in a paracrine and an autocrine manner preserving theintegrity of glomerular filtration barrier. Many mediators in diabetic milieuinduce the expression of VEGF and possibly the VEGFxxx isoform in animal modelsof type 1 diabetes, however, in human kidney with developed DN, VEGF expressionseems to be lower or absent. Inhibition of VEGF in experimental DN amelioratesstructural and functional changes and proposes possible therapeutic targets.Further studies are required before these treatments can be used in diabeticpatients at early stages of DN. Continue reading >>

Oxidative Stress Modulates The Expression Of Vegf Isoforms In The Diabetic Retina

Oxidative Stress Modulates The Expression Of Vegf Isoforms In The Diabetic Retina

Oxidative stress modulates the expression of VEGF isoforms in the diabetic retina Centre for Biomedical Research (CBMR), University of Algarve, Campus Gambelas, 8005 Faro, Portugal CEDOC, NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de CinciasMdicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mrtires da Ptria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal ProRegeM PhD Program, NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de CinciasMdicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mrtires da Ptria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal CEDOC, NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de CinciasMdicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mrtires da Ptria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal PhD Program in Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences andMedicine, University of Algarve, 8005 Faro, Portugal CEDOC, NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de CinciasMdicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mrtires da Ptria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal Change in levels of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) isoforms is a feature of diabetic retinopathy. To better characterize the expression of VEGFa and VEGF165b isoforms in the diabetic retina and to explore how oxidative stress influences the balance between these molecules, we have used the Ins2Akita mouse model of diabetes. Retinal tissue collected from wild-type and Ins2Akita mice, together with D407 retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were used as experimental models. The retina of the Ins2Akita diabetic mice was shown to have decreased levels of the anti-angiogenic VEGF165b protein and a high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). High glucose deregulated the expression of VEGF proteins as well as the production of ROS in RPE cells. Physiological levels of H2O2 were found to preserve the equilibrium between VEGF isoforms in RPE cells while pathological levels down-regulated the VEGF165b. Continue reading >>

Anti-vegf Treatment May Not Stop Diabetic Retinopathy

Anti-vegf Treatment May Not Stop Diabetic Retinopathy

Anti-VEGF Treatment May Not Stop Diabetic Retinopathy BOSTON Vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) inhibitors do not necessarily stop the progression of diabetic retinopathy in people with macular edema, new research shows. "We shouldn't forget that there are some people who aren't improved at all, and their level of retinopathy may worsen," said Susan Bressler, MD, from Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore. But, she told Medscape Medical News, among the VEGF inhibitors, aflibercept might be more effective for the proliferative form of the disease. Previous research has shown that retinopathy is less likely to worsen and is more likely to improve after treatment with ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech) or aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron) than after treatment with laser photocoagulation. The same appears true for bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech), but the data available are not as strong. Dr Bressler presented results from a preplanned secondary analysis of the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) ProtocolT trial, comparing the three drugs in patients with diabetic macular edema, here at the American Society of Retina Specialists 2017 Annual Meeting. In their study, Dr Bressler and her colleagues assessed 650 eyes with center-involved diabetic macular edema and vision impairment (Snellen equivalent of 20/32 to 20/320). Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment regimens that followed the structured retreatment ProtocolT protocol for 2 years: 174 patients received aflibercept 2mg, 168 received ranibizumab 0.3mg, and 153 received bevacizumab 1.25mg up to every 4 weeks. The team used clinical events and fundus photos to identify disease progression. The clinical events consisted of panretinal photocoagulation, vitrectomy or injections for Continue reading >>

Can Vegf Reverse Diabetic Neuropathy In Human Subjects?

Can Vegf Reverse Diabetic Neuropathy In Human Subjects?

Peripheral polyneuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that can clinically affect 30% of all diabetic patients and is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. The main symptoms are numbness, tingling, burning, and shooting pain in the legs, whereas the physical findings include reduced pain, touch, and vibratory perception in a symmetrical stocking glove distribution (1, 2). Loss of protective sensation allows unperceived trauma and pressures of daily ambulation to cause foot ulcers, which can lead to prolonged immobilization or even amputation of the lower limb. The main histologic changes of diabetic polyneuropathy are loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and segmental demyelination. Changes in the myelinated fibers can be measured functionally in vivo by quantitating nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes of evoked responses, which are objective techniques and can assess nerve function without relying solely on the patient’s subjective responses. In contrast, testing of small fibers is more difficult, as it is subjective and dependent on the patients’ active participation (3). Hyperglycemia, which has emerged as a major risk factor for the development of diabetic neuropathy, may affect the peripheral sensory nerves through several mechanisms (2). Several of the current hypotheses are shown in Figure 1. First, the increased flux through the polyol pathway in hyperglycemic patients may lead to intracellular sorbitol accumulation and, potentially, to osmotic increase or changes in the NAD/NADH ratio induced by the flux through the aldose reductase pathway. These changes can cause direct neuronal damage or decrease neuronal blood flow, indirectly leading to peripheral nerve hypoxia. Second, the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) in response to Continue reading >>

Anril: A Regulator Of Vegf In Diabetic Retinopathy | Iovs | Arvo Journals

Anril: A Regulator Of Vegf In Diabetic Retinopathy | Iovs | Arvo Journals

ANRIL: A Regulator of VEGF in Diabetic Retinopathy Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Correspondence: Subrata Chakrabarti, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5C1, Canada; [email protected] . Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science January 2017, Vol.58, 470-480. doi:10.1167/iovs.16-20569 ANRIL: A Regulator of VEGF in Diabetic Retinopathy You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can manage this and all other alerts in My Account Anu Alice Thomas, Biao Feng, Subrata Chakrabarti; ANRIL: A Regulator of VEGF in Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(1):470-480. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-20569. ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present) Purpose: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) previously thought to be dark matter of the genome, play key roles in various biological processes. The lncRNA ANRIL is located at a genetic susceptibility locus for coronary artery diseases and type 2 diabetes. We examined the role of ANRIL in diabetic retinopathy, through study of its regulation of VEGF both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were subjected to incubation in high glucose to mimic diabetes. ANRIL expression was measured with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown in HRECs. ANRIL knockout mice, with or without streptozotocin-induced diabetes, were also investigated. Cell and tissues were measured for VEGF mRNA and protein expression. Functional alteratio Continue reading >>

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