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Uncontrolled Diabetes Definition

Diabetes

Diabetes

Key facts The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 (1). Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. In 2015, an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes. Another 2.2 million deaths were attributable to high blood glucose in 2012**. Almost half of all deaths attributable to high blood glucose occur before the age of 70 years. WHO projects that diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death in 2030 (1). Healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use are ways to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be treated and its consequences avoided or delayed with diet, physical activity, medication and regular screening and treatment for complications. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths and in 2012 high blood glucose was the cause of another 2.2 million deaths. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is charact Continue reading >>

12 Signs Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

12 Signs Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

12 Signs of Uncontrolled Diabetes Blood tests tell you and your doctor when your glucose levels are too high. But signs of uncontrolled diabetes can appear all over your body. High blood glucose can damage nerves, blood vessels, and organs, resulting in a wide array of symptoms. Talk with your doctor if you spot any of them, so you can stay in control of your diabetes and improve your quality of life. © 2016 Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced or reprinted without permission from Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. Use of this information is governed by the Healthgrades User Agreement. You Might Also Like Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. Description Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal (kidney) failure, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Approximately 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, as many as one-half are unaware they have it. Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. The body's primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells. The body will attempt to dilute the high level of glucose in the blood, a condition called hyperglycemia, by drawing water out of the cells and into the bloodstream in an effort to dilute the sugar and excrete it in the urine. It is not unusual for p Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion. See the image below. See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus, a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. Signs and symptoms Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include the following: See Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [1] : Whether a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5% or higher should be a primary diagnostic criterion or an optional criterion remains a point of controversy. Indications for diabetes screening in asymptomatic adults includes the following [2, 3] : Overweight and 1 or more other risk factors for diabetes (eg, first-degree relative with diabetes, BP >140/90 mm Hg, and HDL < 35 mg/dL and/or triglyceride level >250 mg/dL) See Workup for more detail. Management Goals of treatment are as follows: Microvascular (ie, eye and kidney disease) risk reduction through control of glycemia and blood pressure Macrovascular (ie, coronary, cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular) risk reduction through control of lipids and hypertension, smoking cessation Recommendations for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus from the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) place the patient's condition, desires, abilities, and tolerances at the center of the decision-making process. [4, 5, 6] The EASD/ADA position statement contains 7 key points: Ind Continue reading >>

7 Signs Your Blood Sugar Is Out Of Control

7 Signs Your Blood Sugar Is Out Of Control

Thinkstock A Silent Danger When you have type 2 diabetes, your main goal should be controlling your blood sugar. Without adequate blood sugar control, your risk for serious health complications — stroke, heart disease, nerve damage, blindness, and more — skyrockets. But here’s the tricky part: You might not even know your blood sugar levels are out of control. “Not everyone will have the same symptoms, and some individuals have no symptoms at all,” says Lori Zanini, RD, CDE, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Because proper blood sugar maintenance is vital to your overall health with type 2 diabetes, you need to take action if you think your levels may be out of control. “Since symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes may not appear until prolonged hyperglycemia has been present, it’s important for individuals with diabetes to monitor their glucose and adjust their medication based on the results,” explains Mary Ann Emanuele, MD, an endocrinologist, professor, and medical director of Inpatient Diabetes at Loyola University Medical Center in Mayfield, Illinois. Here are signs of uncontrolled blood sugar to look for: Continue reading >>

Insulin Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin therapy is recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an initial A1C level greater than 9 percent, or if diabetes is uncontrolled despite optimal oral glycemic therapy. Insulin therapy may be initiated as augmentation, starting at 0.3 unit per kg, or as replacement, starting at 0.6 to 1.0 unit per kg. When using replacement therapy, 50 percent of the total daily insulin dose is given as basal, and 50 percent as bolus, divided up before breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Augmentation therapy can include basal or bolus insulin. Replacement therapy includes basal-bolus insulin and correction or premixed insulin. Glucose control, adverse effects, cost, adherence, and quality of life need to be considered when choosing therapy. Metformin should be continued if possible because it is proven to reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in overweight patients with diabetes. In a study comparing premixed, bolus, and basal insulin, hypoglycemia was more common with premixed and bolus insulin, and weight gain was more common with bolus insulin. Titration of insulin over time is critical to improving glycemic control and preventing diabetes-related complications. Insulin is secreted continuously by beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner throughout the day. It is also secreted in response to oral carbohydrate loads, including a large first-phase insulin release that suppresses hepatic glucose production followed by a slower second-phase insulin release that covers ingested carbohydrates 1 (Figure 12). Clinical recommendation Evidence rating References Analogue insulin is as effective as human insulin but is associated with less postprandial hyperglycemia and delayed hypoglycemia. A 17–19 Fasting glucose readings should be used to titrate basal insul Continue reading >>

Management Of Persistent Hyperglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Management Of Persistent Hyperglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. INTRODUCTION — Initial treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus includes education, with emphasis on lifestyle changes including diet, exercise, and weight reduction when appropriate. Monotherapy with metformin is indicated for most patients, and insulin may be indicated for initial treatment for some [1]. Although several studies have noted remissions of type 2 diabetes mellitus that may last several years, most patients require continuous treatment in order to maintain normal or near-normal glycemia. Bariatric surgical procedures in obese patients that result in major weight loss have been shown to lead to remission in a substantial fraction of patients. Regardless of the initial response to therapy, the natural history of most patients with type 2 diabetes is for blood glucose concentrations to rise gradually with time. Treatment for hyperglycemia that fails to respond to initial monotherapy and long-term pharmacologic therapy in type 2 diabetes is reviewed here. Options for initial therapy and other therapeutic issues in diabetes management, such as the frequency of monitoring and evaluation for microvascular and macrovascular complications, are discussed separately. (See "Initial management of blood glucose in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus" and "Overview of medical care in adults with diabetes mellitus". Continue reading >>

Controlled Vs. Uncontrolled Diabetes

Controlled Vs. Uncontrolled Diabetes

Diabetes affects over 20 million Americans, and this group is growing by the year. Diabetes can be defined as controlled or uncontrolled, and each distinction comes with its own risks. Identification Controlled diabetes is when someone is eating the right foods, exercising and taking his prescribed medication to keep his glucose levels in a safe and healthy range. Uncontrolled diabetes is when someone is not regulating his lifestyle to keep glucose levels in a safe and healthy range. Types There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also called juvenile diabetes, is when a person does not produce enough insulin and must take daily insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes, also called adult onset diabetes, is when a person does make enough insulin, but she's become insulin resistant. Risks People who have uncontrolled diabetes are at higher risk of heart disease, blood vessel disease, eye disease and blindness, gum disease and tooth loss, kidney failure, stroke and nerve damage. People who tightly control their diabetes may be at a higher risk for hypoglycemia. Benefits A person with uncontrolled diabetes might think that she will live a fuller life by continuing her dangerous lifestyle. The benefit of controlled diabetes is a longer and healthier life. Considerations Losing weight can help control your diabetes, if your weight is a factor. Losing 5 percent of your body weight will get you well on your way, and losing 10 percent of your body weight may make your diabetes easier to manage and control. Continue reading >>

Uncontrolled Diabetes Increases The Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Uncontrolled Diabetes Increases The Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Population-based Cohort Study

Abstract Diabetes has been related to Alzheimer’s disease with inconsistent findings. We aimed to clarify the association of diabetes with different dementing disorders taking into account glycaemic control, and to explore the link between glucose dysregulation and neurodegeneration. A dementia-free cohort (n = 1,248) aged ≥75 years was longitudinally examined to detect dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD) cases (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, revised third edition [DSM-III-R] criteria). The Alzheimer’s disease diagnoses were subdivided into Alzheimer’s disease with stroke and Alzheimer’s disease without hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Diabetes was ascertained based on medical history, or hypoglycaemic medication use, or a random blood glucose level ≥11.0 mmol/l, which included undiagnosed diabetes when neither a history of diabetes nor hypoglycaemic drugs use was present. Uncontrolled diabetes was classified as a random blood glucose level ≥11.0 mmol/l in diabetic patients. Borderline diabetes was defined as a random blood glucose level of 7.8–11.0 mmol/l in diabetes-free individuals. Cox models were used to estimate HRs. During the 9 year follow-up, 420 individuals developed dementia, including 47 with VaD and 320 with Alzheimer’s disease (of the 320 Alzheimer’s disease cases, 78 had previous, temporally unrelated stroke, and 137 had no major vascular comorbidities). Overall diabetes was only related to VaD (HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.20–8.63). Undiagnosed diabetes led to an HR of 3.29 (95% CI 1.20–9.01) for Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetic patients with random blood glucose levels <7.8 mmol/l showed no increased dementia risk. Uncontrolled and borderline diabetes were further associated with Alzheim Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS— Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Deficient insulin action results from inadequate insulin secretion and/or diminished tissue responses to insulin at one or more points in the complex pathways of hormone action. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia. Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, sometimes with polyphagia, and blurred vision. Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infections may also accompany chronic hyperglycemia. Acute, life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis or the nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with potential loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot joints; and autonomic neuropathy causing gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and c Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. When to see a doctor Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include: urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk cuts or wounds that heal slowly blurred vision Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general. Causes of diabetes The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce ene Continue reading >>

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

University of Gondar, Ethopia *Corresponding Author: Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes Lecturer Clinical Chemistry University of Gondar, Gondar Amhara 196, Ethiopia Tel: +251910818289 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baynes HW (2015) Classification, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetes Metab 6:541. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000541 Copyright: © 2015 Baynes HW. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia either immune-mediated (Type 1 diabetes), insulin resistance (Type 2), gestational or others (environment, genetic defects, infections, and certain drugs). According to International Diabetes Federation Report of 2011 an estimated 366 million people had DM, by 2030 this number is estimated to almost around 552 million. There are different approaches to diagnose diabetes among individuals, The 1997 ADA recommendations for diagnosis of DM focus on fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), while WHO focuses on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). This is importance for regular follow-up of diabetic patients with the health care provider is of great significance in averting any long term complications. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology; Diagnosis; Glycemic management Abbreviations DM: Diabetes Mellitus; FPG: Fasting Plasma Glucose; GAD: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus; HDL-cholesterol: High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HLA: Human Leucoid Antigen; IDD Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes Mellitus Signs And Symptoms

There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes: About 5 to 10 percent of those with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It's an autoimmune disease, meaning the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Patients with type 1 diabetes have very little or no insulin, and must take insulin everyday. Although the condition can appear at any age, typically it's diagnosed in children and young adults, which is why it was previously called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes: Accounting for 90 to 95 percent of those with diabetes, type 2 is the most common form. Usually, it's diagnosed in adults over age 40 and 80 percent of those with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Because of the increase in obesity, type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed at younger ages, including in children. Initially in type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but the insulin doesn't function properly, leading to a condition called insulin resistance. Eventually, most people with type 2 diabetes suffer from decreased insulin production. Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. It occurs more often in African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos and people with a family history of diabetes. Typically, it disappears after delivery, although the condition is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. If you think that you have diabetes, visit your doctor immediately for a definite diagnosis. Common symptoms include the following: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Extreme hunger Sudden vision changes Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Feeling very tired much of the time Very dry skin Sores that are slow to heal More infections than usual Some people may experience o Continue reading >>

The Rising Trend Of Invasive Zygomycosis In Patients With Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

The Rising Trend Of Invasive Zygomycosis In Patients With Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

Zygomycosis is an emerging infection worldwide. A study was conducted to understand its spectrum in the Indian scenario. All patients diagnosed for invasive zygomycosis at a tertiary care center in north India from 2000–2004, were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 178 cases (mean average of 35.6 cases/year) of zygomycosis were diagnosed. Rhino-orbito-cerebral type (54.5%) was the commonest presentation followed by cutaneous (14.6%), disseminated (9.0%), and gastrointestinal (8.4%) zygomycosis. Renal and pulmonary zygomycosis were seen in 6.7% patients each. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (in 73.6% of cases) was the significant risk factor in all types (Odds Ratio 1.5–8.0) except renal zygomycosis. Breach of skin was the risk factor in 46.2% patients with cutaneous zygomycosis. However, no risk factor could be detected in 11.8% patients. Antemortem diagnosis was possible in 83.7% cases. The commonest (61.5%) isolate was Rhizopus oryzae followed by Apophysomyces elegans in 27% patients. Combination of debridement surgery and amphotericin B therapy was significantly better in survival of the patients (P<0.005) than amphotericin B alone (79.6% vs. 51.7% survival). Thus, a rising trend of invasive zygomycosis was observed in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in India. Consistent diagnosis of renal zygomycosis in apparently healthy hosts and the emergence of A. elegans in India demand further study. We have reported earlier that Aspergillus fumigatus is inhibited in vitro by Candida albicans which also interferes in its isolation from sputum experimentally seeded with predetermined graded inocula of the two fungi. It was further shown that this interference was neutralized by employing peptone glucose agar with incorporation of fluconazole which is more inhi Continue reading >>

Coding Tip: Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus In Icd-10

Coding Tip: Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus In Icd-10

Kim Carrier RHIT, CDIP, CCS, CCS-P Director of Coding Quality Assurance AHIMA Approved ICD-10-CM/PCS Trainer How do coders report uncontrolled DM in ICD-10-CM? First, coders will need to have further documentation of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia as there is no default code for uncontrolled diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes is classified by type and whether it is hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. The term “uncontrolled” is not synonymous with hyperglycemia. The term “poorly controlled” is synonymous with hyperglycemia when referring to diabetes in ICD-10-CM. In ICD-9-CM, uncontrolled diabetes had a specific 5th digit to show that the diabetes was controlled or uncontrolled. This is no longer the case in ICD-10-CM. If the patient has documented uncontrolled diabetes, without further clarification of hyperglycemia and/or hypoglycemia, a query is necessary to clarify which type the patient has. If the patient does have documented hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia in addition to the diagnosis of uncontrolled diabetes, ICD-10-CM codes would be used to show that the diabetes is with hyperglycemia and/or hypoglycemia. Is uncontrolled and poorly controlled DM the same? No, uncontrolled and poorly controlled are not interchangeable when describing diabetes in ICD-10-CM. Uncontrolled can mean either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and is indexed as such in ICD-10-CM. Poorly controlled means hyperglycemia per the ICD-10-CM index. From the ICD-10-CM Index: Diabetes, diabetic (mellitus) (sugar) Poorly controlled-code to Diabetes, by type with hyperglycemia Diabetes, diabetic (mellitus) (sugar) Meaning Hyperglycemia-see Diabetes, by type, with hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia-see Diabetes, by type, with hypoglycemia Please see question and answer in AHA Coding Clinic, First Quarter 2017 Page: Continue reading >>

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