diabetestalk.net

Type One Diabetes Treatments

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

There’s new hope on the horizon for those with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Biopharmaceutical company TetraGenetics is working on an innovative drug therapy that can stop or prevent the body’s immune system from attacking its own pancreas. How T1D Develops Most people who develop T1D do so as a result of a particular virus that triggers an exaggerated autoimmune response. In the pancreas, the cells that produce insulin are called beta cells. In people that have a particular type of gene associated with T1D, the beta cells have a quality (an antigen) that closely resembles the antigens found in the virus. When you are exposed to the virus, your immune system activates its T cells to start combating the infection by creating antibodies. However, these antibodies can’t distinguish between the beta cells and the virus cells. They look too similar, so the antibodies destroy them all in an attempt to protect against the viral infection. Unfortunately, by killing off your beta cells, your immune system has also eliminated your body’s ability to produce insulin. You are now diabetic. Both Genes and Virus Necessary for T1D to Develop There are four viruses that can cause the autoimmune cascade that results in T1D: German measles, mumps, rotavirus, and the B4 strain of the coxsackie B virus. These viruses all possess antigens that are similar to the antigens in the beta cells of the pancreas. It’s important to note that not everyone who is exposed to these viruses will develop T1D. You have to already possess the genetic makeup associated with T1D. If you do carry the T1D genes but don’t get any of these viruses, you may never actually develop the disease. You have to have both. In other words, if you do have these genes and you contract one of the viruses, then you will li Continue reading >>

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

A Complete List Of Diabetes Medications

Diabetes is a condition that leads to high levels of blood glucose (or sugar) in the body. This happens when your body can’t make or use insulin like it’s supposed to. Insulin is a substance that helps your body use the sugar from the food you eat. There are two different types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with both types of diabetes need medications to help keep their blood sugar levels normal. The types of drugs that can treat you depend on the type of diabetes you have. This article gives you information about drugs that treat both types of diabetes to help give you an idea of the treatment options available to you. Insulin Insulin is the most common type of medication used in type 1 diabetes treatment. It’s also used in type 2 diabetes treatment. It’s given by injection and comes in different types. The type of insulin you need depends on how severe your insulin depletion is. Options include: Short-acting insulin regular insulin (Humulin and Novolin) Rapid-acting insulins Intermediate-acting insulin Long-acting insulins Combination insulins NovoLog Mix 70/30 (insulin aspart protamine-insulin aspart) Humalog Mix 75/25 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humalog Mix 50/50 (insulin lispro protamine-insulin lispro) Humulin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Novolin 70/30 (human insulin NPH-human insulin regular) Ryzodeg (insulin degludec-insulin aspart) Amylinomimetic drug Pramlintide (SymlinPen 120, SymlinPen 60) is an amylinomimetic drug. It’s an injectable drug used before meals. It works by delaying the time your stomach takes to empty itself. It reduces glucagon secretion after meals. This lowers your blood sugar. It also reduces appetite through a central mechanism. Most medications for type 2 diabetes are o Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Teens / Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? en espaolDiabetes tipo 1: Cul es el tratamiento? Your teachers follow a lesson plan that outlines what you'll study each day. Your parents may have a plan to help you pay for college. And your weekend social plans determine whether you're seeing a movie, heading to a concert, or playing basketball at the gym. People with type 1 diabetes need to follow a different type of plan. A treatment plan, also called a diabetes management plan, helps people to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Everyone's plan is different, based on a person's health needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team. The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose isa sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to each cell through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone insulin . So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 1 diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin. This means that glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells, causing blood glucose levels to go too high. High blood sugar levels can make people with type 1 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range, while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, people with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and stick to a diabetes meal plan check their blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan can help a person stay healthy, but it's not a cure for diab Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can live long, happy lives with proper care and disease management. Advancements in medication types and delivery methods give people the freedom to choose which treatment options work best with their particular circumstance. T1D prognoses can be greatly improved with a combination of treatments and lifestyle choices. Insulin and other medications Insulin Type 1 diabetes is managed through use of a variety of insulins. People with T1D must work closely with their medical team to find the right insulin treatment for their condition. Further information about the types of insulin and their effects are available on our insulin page. Insulin can be delivered via syringes or pens, pumps or new artificial pancreas systems. Though the administration method, frequency and type of insulin dosage vary on a case-by-case basis, injections may be needed multiple times per day. Metformin and other medications Metformin: Combined with insulin, diet and exercise, type 2 diabetes (T2D) drug metformin is sometimes prescribed to people with T1D to help treat their diabetes. Metformin helps control the body’s blood-sugar levels and how the liver processes sugar. Pramlintide (Symlin): Used in conjunction with insulin, pramlintide is often prescribed after other medications prove not as effective as needed. It acts as a hormone to help the body better control blood sugar. Blood pressure drugs, cholesterol medications and aspirin: Medications for high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as aspirin can be prescribed with insulin to help the overall health and treatment of diabetes. Since people with diabetes have an increased chance of cardiovascular disease, these drugs are used in combination with other diabetes medications. Side effects of medicat Continue reading >>

Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Central to the treatment of type 1 diabetes is to keep a balance of the right amount of insulin to keep blood glucose levels from being either too high or too low. In type 1 diabetes the body’s immune system kills of the insulin producing cells leaving the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels at healthy levels. As a result, insulin needs to be taken by injection or another delivery means such as by infusion with an insulin pump. Insulin is a hormone in the body that helps to move glucose out of the blood and into cells for energy. Your health team Your diabetes health team are an important part of your diabetes treatment. Your GP and consultants, between them, will be able to offer you advice on controlling diabetes and refer you to any medical specialists you may need to see. Your health team will also be responsible for making sure you get all the diabetes health checks that are recommended for people with diabetes. The health checks will help you health team to spot any signs of damage caused by diabetes and ensure these are treated to prevent the damage becoming more serious. Insulin injections Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are adv Continue reading >>

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy Shows Promise In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Around 1.25 million Americans are living with type 1 diabetes and 40,000 new cases are detected each year. In this condition body’s own immune system attacks and damages the insulin-producing β-cells inside the pancreas leading to impaired glucose metabolism in the body. There is no other treatment for this condition than regular painful insulin injections to maintain the normal insulin levels in the body. Type 1 diabetes is currently considered to be incurable. In a landmark study, researchers compared immunotherapy based treatment for type 1 diabetes with placebo and showed that the novel immune treatment can stop the progression of type 1 diabetes. The immune therapy was also deemed safe among subjects. The study was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. Mohammad Alhadj Ali and colleagues for this study included 27 people who were within 100 days of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and randomly divided them into two groups - to receive injections of either placebo or immunotherapy at two or four week intervals for six months. The new immune therapy they have developed is made to distract the T cells of the immune system that normally destroy the beta cells of the pancreas. It works by mimicking a portion of proinsulin peptide. Thus the immune cells attack this imposter and leave the insulin secreted intact. The injected drug also trains the T cells to recognize them as harmless so that they do not attack the beta cells that make proinsulin in the body. Therapy showed no toxic side effects and the progression of beta cell destruction was prevented to a great extent with this therapy not only during the trial but also six months beyond that. All eight subjects who received the placebo injection needed to increase their insulin doses over the y Continue reading >>

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Image Point Fr/Shutterstock A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means a lifetime of constant diligence. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 usually develops early in life. Those diagnosed have to check blood sugar several times a day and take insulin as needed; the process is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. That helps explain the excitement about a potential cure for type 1 diabetes using an already approved treatment. Doctors diagnose more than 18,000 children and teens with type 1 diabetes every year, according to the CDC. These kids lack the ability to make enough insulin, the hormone that processes blood sugar. Using insulin injections to control blood sugar with insulin is tricky because diet, exercise, and stress can quickly alter levels. Without enough insulin, kidney, heart, and nerve damage can be the result. Get too much, and blood sugar levels will plummet dangerously low. (This is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.) Researchers in Israel have tried treating type 1 diabetics with an immune system protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha-1)—it helps target germs. Normally, insulin gets lower and lower over time in diabetics, but extra alpha-1 seems to help the body produce more. Researchers gave 12 recently diagnosed type 1 diabetics an alpha-1 drip once a week for eight weeks in a study in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. For a year and counting following treatment, two of the participants have been making more of their own insulin. Another three saw only minor decreases—which is a good sign. “Compared to the natural course of the disease, which is downhill, even a flat line is considered success,” says study co-author Eli C. Lewis, PhD, biochemical and pharmacology professor at Ben-Gurion University of the N Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

requires treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. Treatment includes: Taking several insulin injections every day or using an insulin pump. Monitoring blood sugar levels several times a day. Eating a healthy diet that spreads carbohydrate throughout the day. Regular physical activity or exercise. Exercise helps the body to use insulin more efficiently. It may also lower your risk for heart and blood vessel disease. Regular medical checkups. You will get routine screening tests and exams to watch for signs of complications, such as eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve diseases. Not smoking. Not drinking alcohol if you are at risk for periods of low blood sugar. Blood sugars are easier to predict and control when mealtimes, amounts of food, and exercise are similar every day. So getting into a daily routine helps a lot. Diabetic ketoacidosis Some people find out that they have type 1 diabetes when they are admitted to a hospital for diabetic ketoacidosis. If their symptoms are severe, they may need to be treated in an intensive care unit. Treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis includes fluids given through a vein (intravenous, or IV) to treat dehydration and to balance electrolytes, and insulin to lower the blood sugar level and stop the body from producing ketones. The honeymoon period If your blood sugar levels return to the normal range soon after diagnosis, you are in what is called the "honeymoon period." This is a time when the remaining insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are working harder to supply enough insulin for your body. Treatment during this time may include: Keeping in close touch with your doctor. Testing your blood sugar level often, to see if it is rising. Taking very small amounts of insulin or no insulin. Even though you Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes: Synopsis Of The 2017 American Diabetes Association Standards Of Medical Care In Diabetes Free

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes: Synopsis Of The 2017 American Diabetes Association Standards Of Medical Care In Diabetes Free

Abstract Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: For the 2017 Standards of Care, the ADA Professional Practice Committee did MEDLINE searches from 1 January 2016 to November 2016 to add, clarify, or revise recommendations on the basis of new evidence. The committee rated the recommendations as A, B, or C, depending on the quality of evidence, or E for expert consensus or clinical experience. The Standards of Care were reviewed and approved by the Executive Committee of the ADA Board of Directors, which includes health care professionals, scientists, and laypersons. Feedback from the larger clinical community informed revisions. Recommendation: This synopsis focuses on recommendations from the 2017 Standards of Care about monitoring and pharmacologic approaches to glycemic management for type 1 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) first released its practice guidelines for health professionals in 1989. The Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes have since provided an extensive set of evidence-based recommendations that are updated annually for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. The 2017 Standards of Care cover all aspects of patient care (1); this guideline synopsis focuses on monitoring and pharmacologic approaches for patients with type 1 diabetes. Guideline Development and Evidence Grading Monitoring Glycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Glycemic Goals: Recommendations Pharmacologic Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Increasing levels of a certain protein in blood stem cells so that the immune system stops attacking insulin cells in the pancreas could be a way to halt type 1 diabetes, according to a new study reported in Science Translational Medicine. Researchers led by those at Harvard Medical School's Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts found that they could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by modifying their defective blood stem cells to increase production of a protein called PD-L1. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Without sufficient insulin, the body cannot convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy for cells, with the result that it builds up in the bloodstream. Over time, high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, leads to serious complications such as vision problems and damage to blood vessels, nerves, and kidneys. Immune system attacks beta cells Around 5 percent of the 23.1 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes. The body produces insulin in the pancreas, which is an organ that sits just behind the stomach. It contains insulin-producing beta cells that normally sense glucose levels in the blood and release just the right amount of insulin to keep sugar levels normal. In type 1 diabetes, a fault in the immune system makes inflammatory T cells — which usually react to "foreign" material — attack beta cells in the pancreas. Nobody knows exactly how this comes about, but scientists suspect that a virus, or some other trigger in the environment, sets it off in people with certain inherited genes. The "holy grail" of scientists seeking a cure for type 1 diabetes is to find a way to prevent or stop the immune attack on the beta cells. Several approaches have been tried, including "cytostatic Continue reading >>

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

en espaolEl tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 If your child or teen has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes , the next step is to create a diabetes management plan to help him or her manage the condition and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans for type 1 diabetes are based on each child's needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . Treatment approaches differ in, among other things, the types of insulin given and the schedules for giving insulin given each day. The advantages and disadvantages of a plan should be considered for each child. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The hormone insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body can no longer make insulin, so the glucose can't get into the body's cells. This makes the blood glucose level rise. Treatment goals for kids with diabetes are to control the condition in a way that minimizes symptoms; prevents short- and long-term health problems; and helps them to have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should aim for the goal of keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. In general, kids with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet, paying special attention to the amount of carbohydrates in each meal and the diabetes meal plan check blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan helps kids stay healthy, but treating diabetes isn't the same as curing it. Right now, there's no cure for diabetes, so kids with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. But with proper care, they should look and feel h Continue reading >>

Treatment

Treatment

There's no cure for diabetes, so treatment aims to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible and to control your symptoms to prevent health problems developing later in life. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, you'll be referred for specialist treatment from a diabetes care team. They'll be able to help you understand your treatment and closely monitor your condition to identify any health problems that may occur. Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body doesn't produce any insulin. This means you'll need regular insulin treatment to keep your glucose levels normal. Insulin comes in several different preparations, each of which works slightly differently. For example, some last up to a whole day (long-acting), some last up to eight hours (short-acting) and some work quickly but don't last very long (rapid-acting). Your treatment is likely to include a combination of different insulin preparations. Insulin Insulin injections If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll probably need insulin injections. Insulin must be injected, because if it were taken as a tablet, it would be broken down in your stomach (like food) and would be unable to enter your bloodstream. When you're first diagnosed, your diabetes care team will help you with your insulin injections, before showing you how and when to do it yourself. They'll also show you how to store your insulin and dispose of your needles properly. Insulin injections are usually given by an injection pen, which is also known as an insulin pen or auto-injector. Sometimes, injections are given using a syringe. Most people need two to four injections a day. Your GP or diabetes nurse may also teach one of your close friends or relatives how to inject the insulin properly. Insulin pump therapy Insulin pump therapy is an alter Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

History Of Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

History Of Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

by Huong-Thao Le, 2011 Doctor of Pharmacy Candidate LEECOM, Bradenton, FL The discovery of insulin in 1921 was one of the greatest medical breakthroughs in history. Individuals, mostly children with Type 1 diabetes, whose life expectancies were measured in months were now able to prevent fatal ketoacidosis by taking injections of crude “soluble” (later known as regular) insulin. Of course, new problems were soon noted. Hypoglycemia, occasionally life-threatening, was encountered as diabetes monitoring by urine testing for glycosuria was crude at best during those first years after the discovery of insulin. The insulin itself was often impure and varied in potency from lot to lot. Allergic reactions were common and occasionally anaphylaxis would occur. Even more concerning was the appreciation that these patients often succumbed to chronic vascular complications which either dramatically reduced quality of life or resulted in a fatal cardiovascular event. The tools to manage individuals with Type 1 diabetes have improved over the decades since the discovery of insulin. These initial insulins were all manufactured from bovine or porcine pancreata and production techniques have also become more efficient. Insulins with longer durations of action were first introduced in the 1930s, and over time these insulins improved in their purity and consistency of potency. Nevertheless, “standard” animal insulins prior to 1972 contained 80,000 parts per million (8%) impurities, enough to elicit local reactions when injected as well as systemic effects. By way of comparison, all insulins sold in the United States today contain less than 10 parts per million impurities. Major improvements in the tools to manage Type 1 diabetes were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. No Continue reading >>

More in diabetes