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Type One And A Half Diabetes

About Type 1 Diabetes

About Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes. In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes, juvenile-onset diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes. Today we realize those terms aren't accurate. People can develop type 1 as adults, children can develop type 2, and people with type 2 might need to take insulin shots. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease. It happens because a person's immune system destroys the body's beta cells, which make insulin and release it into the blood stream. These cells are located in an organ called the pancreas. When the immune system destroys the beta cells, the body stops being able to make insulin. Signs of type 1 diabetes start to show up when half or more of the beta cells have been destroyed. People who have type 1 diabetes will begin to take insulin shots right away, to replace the insulin their bodies no longer make. Type 1 diabetes is inherited, which means a group of genes that can lead to type 1 diabetes is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. A person with a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes has a greater chance of also developing type 1 diabetes. Genes play an important role in determining who gets type 1 diabetes and who doesn't. But they might not be the only influence. Environmental factors, including viruses and allergies, appear to trigger type 1 diabetes in some people who have inherited the genes. These factors can trigger type 1 diabetes at any point in a person's life. That's why some people don't develop type 1 diabetes until they're adults, while others develop it when they're children. The symptoms for type 1 diabetes usually show up over a few days or even a few weeks and are caused by high levels of sugar in the blood. Urinating more than usual. The k Continue reading >>

How I Was Misdiagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes In My 40’s

How I Was Misdiagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes In My 40’s

How I Was Misdiagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes In My 40’s Written By: Erin Clausen In my 42 years leading up to my Type 1 diabetes diagnosis, I’d never been the type of person to get sick much at all. An occasional cold every couple of years. Maybe a quick 24-hour flu a couple of times in my entire life. My immune system always seemed to function incredibly well. Better than most I’d always thought. Eight months before my diagnosis, I had the flu. It was the most awful three days. I couldn’t keep anything down. My bones ached miserably. A seemingly inescapable relentless aching that made me want to scream. I could do nothing but hope to sleep in between diarrhea, vomiting, and dry heaves. In the months that followed that horrible flu. I noticed I wasn’t feeling up to par. I started having to use the bathroom in the middle if the night. Where before, I almost never got up to pee during the night. It soon became two to three times a night. I also noticed that I was often very thirsty. I would wake up every couple of hours and drink from the 32-ounce glass of water on my nightstand. I even started to run out halfway through the night and needed to refill my cup. Then the frequent urination became five to six times a night. The conversations I’d have in my mind every time I’d wake up needing to pee went like this. “Dammit Erin, stop drinking so much water and you won’t have to pee so much!” or “I wonder if I should see my doctor about overactive bladder issues?” I had also been losing weight easily. I chalked it up to the fact that I was a massage therapist and I expended a ton of energy during the day working on clients. I even wore a fitness activity/calorie burn monitor. It confirmed that I was burning a lot of calories. In hindsight, my job and leve Continue reading >>

How To Fuel For A Long Run With Type 1 Diabetes

How To Fuel For A Long Run With Type 1 Diabetes

We recently got reader mail asking for help with balancing long runs, fueling, and Type 1 diabetes. Keith, a longtime runner, wrote in to tell us he was recently diagnosed with rare, late-onset Type 1 diabetes. Being diagnosed with Type 1 as an adult is rare in the sense that Type 1 is typically diagnosed earlier in life; the condition was once referred to as juvenile diabetes. Keith notes that during long runs, he takes a GU energy gel every 15 minutes, and he successfully fueled for a half-marathon using this formula. While Keith tolerates the GU and has designed it so he ends up with blood sugar levels just slightly above normal, he was wondering if there was another gel that might be better for diabetics—perhaps one that lasts longer. Or, he asks, "if it ain't broke, don't fix it?" Keith, I'm so glad you asked. As you know, there are many health benefits of exercise for athletes with diabetes (and we covered many of them here when discussing Type 2 diabetes). But unlike running with Type 2, running with Type 1 (especially long-distance running) requires more planning and precautionary measures. Type 1 diabetes accounts for only 5-10% of all cases, yet most avid athletes with diabetes fall into the Type 1 category. While athletes with Type 2 often make their own insulin and rely on changes to the diet and exercise (and maybe oral meds) to manage the disease, athletes with Type 1 have absolute insulin deficiency, which means that this chronic disease is treated with diet and exercise along with insulin injections. While most runners don't need to think twice about insulin or glucagon levels—or even glucose production during exercise—for the athlete with Type 1, careful consideration must be given to these factors before, during, and after each run. Many variable Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes – where the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin type 2 diabetes – where the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body's cells don't react to insulin Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. During pregnancy, some women have such high levels of blood glucose that their body is unable to produce enough insulin to absorb it all. This is known as gestational diabetes. Pre-diabetes Many more people have blood sugar levels above the normal range, but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes. This is sometimes known as pre-diabetes. If your blood sugar level is above the normal range, your risk of developing full-blown diabetes is increased. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as early as possible because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. When to see a doctor Visit your GP as soon as possible if you experience the main symptoms of diabetes, which include: urinating more frequently than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk cuts or wounds that heal slowly blurred vision Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly over weeks or even days. Many people have type 2 diabetes for years without realising because the early symptoms tend to be general. Causes of diabetes The amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it's broken down to produce ene Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Type 1 Diabetes In Children

What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes an unhealthy amount of a simple sugar (glucose) to build up in a person's blood. Someone with type 1 diabetes can't produce enough insulin, a hormone that moves glucose from the bloodstream into cells throughout the body, where it supplies energy and fuels growth. Normally, a child's immune system protects her body from diseases by destroying unhealthy cells and germs. But when a child has type 1 diabetes, her body also mistakenly attacks the healthy insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach). Without these cells, her pancreas produces very little or no insulin, which leads to an abnormally high amount of sugar in her blood. Without proper care, type 1 diabetes can cause serious, wide-ranging health problems that can damage organs throughout the body over the long-term. If your child has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it's understandable that you might worry. But diabetes can be kept under control by carefully monitoring your child's blood sugar and following her treatment plan. A team of doctors, nurses, and nutritionists can help your child be as healthy as possible and teach her to manage the condition so she stays that way. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children? Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: Extreme thirst Peeing more than usual (You might notice more wet diapers if your child is very young, or "accidents" if your child is potty trained.) Extreme hunger Weight loss Unusual tiredness Crankiness Yeast infection or diaper rash If your child has one or more of these symptoms, call his doctor right away. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can start quickly and become very serious without treatment. Get medical care immediately if your child has any of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by inherited and/or acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced. Such a deficiency results in increased concentrations of glucose in the blood, which in turn damage many of the body's systems, in particular the blood vessels and nerves. There are two principle forms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent) in which the pancreas fails to produce the insulin which is essential for survival. This form develops most frequently in children and adolescents, but is being increasingly noted later in life. Type 2 diabetes (formerly named non-insulin-dependent) which results from the body's inability to respond properly to the action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. It occurs most frequently in adults, but is being noted increasingly in adolescents as well. Certain genetic markers have been shown to increase the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is strongly familial, but it is only recently that some genes have been consistently associated with increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in certain populations. Both types of diabetes are complex diseases caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors. Diabetes in pregnancy may give rise to several adverse outcomes, including congenital malformations, increased birth weight and an elevated risk of perinatal mortality. Strict metabolic control may reduce these risks to the level of those of non-diabetic expectant mothers. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) refer to levels of blood glucose concentration above the normal r Continue reading >>

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults

Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles.[3] Adults with LADA may initially be diagnosed incorrectly as having type 2 diabetes based on their age, particularly if they have risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as a strong family history or obesity. The diagnosis is typically based on the finding of hyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that islet failure rather than insulin resistance is the main cause; detection of a low C-peptide and raised antibodies against the islets of Langerhans support the diagnosis. It can only be treated with the usual oral treatments for type 2 diabetes for a certain period of time,[4][5] after which insulin treatment is usually necessary, as well as long-term monitoring for complications. The concept of LADA was first introduced in 1993,[6] though The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus does not recognize the term, instead including it under the standard definition of diabetes mellitus type 1.[7] Signs and symptoms[edit] The symptoms of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults are similar to those of other forms of diabetes: polydipsia (excessive thirst and drinking), polyuria (excessive urination), and often blurred vision.[8] Compared to juvenile type 1 diabetes, the symptoms develop comparatively slowly, over a period of at least six months.[9] Diagnosis[edit] It is estimated that more than 50% of persons diagnosed as having non-obesity-related type 2 diabetes may actually have LADA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA), islet cell autoantibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibody, and zinc transporter autoantibody (ZnT8) t Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body cannot properly use glucose (a form of sugar), the body's main source of fuel. During digestion, most of the carbohydrates we eat are converted to glucose, which passes into the bloodstream where it is available to the cells for use as energy. 80% of the glucose in the blood goes to the muscles. But in order for glucose to enter the cells and be used as energy, insulin, a hormone secreted in the islets of the pancreas, must be present. Without insulin, the body cannot convert food into energy. The cells that produce insulin are called beta cells. They are normally stimulated to produce insulin by the rising level of blood glucose. In that way, the body has a system by which the right amount of insulin is secreted for the right amount of glucose present. Once the glucose has entered the cells, the blood glucose level decreases, and the beta cells stop secreting insulin. Q: What are the different types of diabetes? A: There are basically two types of diabetes. In one type, the beta cells are destroyed by the immune system and no longer secrete insulin. This is called type I diabetes and is characterized by an absolute deficit of insulin. The other type, called type II diabetes, is due to "insulin resistance," an initial resistance of the body's cells to obey the orders of insulin. To overcome this resistance, the beta cells secrete more insulin, and glucose is eventually forced into the cells. Glucose is maintained within normal limits, but at the expense of increased insulin secretion by the beta cells. After many years of such increased secretion, the beta cells become "tired" from working overtime, and the fatigue process begins. This fatigue tends to be progressive, and in time the compensation of insulin resi Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Clinical Manifestations Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have little or no insulin secretory capacity and depend on exogenous insulin to prevent metabolic decompensation and death. Classically, symptoms appear relatively abruptly (i.e., over days or weeks) in previously healthy, nonobese children or young adults who may have close relatives with the disease but more commonly do not. Older patients often present more gradually. At the time of initial evaluation, most type 1 diabetic patients are ill and symptomatic, most commonly presenting with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, blurred vision, fatigue, and weight loss; such patients may also present with ketoacidosis. Type 1 diabetes is believed to have a prolonged asymptomatic preclinical phase (often lasting years), during which pancreatic β cells are gradually destroyed by an autoimmune attack influenced by HLA and other genetic factors as well as by the environment (see Fig. 236-2). In some patients an acute illness and the development of secondary insulin resistance may speed the transition from the preclinical phase to clinical disease. Initially, most type 1 patients require high-dose insulin therapy to restore a disordered metabolism. However, a so-called honeymoon period may follow (lasting weeks or months), during which smaller doses of insulin are needed because of partial recovery of β-cell function and reversal of the insulin resistance caused by acute illness. Thereafter, insulin secretory capacity is gradually lost; in some patients, particularly older individuals, this process commonly takes several years, sometimes referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood. The rate of decline is slowed by intensive insulin therapy targeting near normoglycemia. Clinical Manifestations Patients with Continue reading >>

Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or A High Risk For It — And Many Of Them Are Unaware

Half Of Americans Have Diabetes Or A High Risk For It — And Many Of Them Are Unaware

That’s right. The metabolic condition is about as American as you can get, according to a new national report card on diabetes released Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The report shows that nearly half of Americans have diabetes or prediabetes, which puts them at high risk for the condition. A good number of these folks haven’t been diagnosed and don’t even realize their predicament. People with diabetes have too much sugar in their blood. If the disease isn’t controlled, they can wind up with heart disease, nerve damage, kidney problems, eye damage and other serious health problems. The new report combines data from the CDC, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Indian Health Service and the Census Bureau. Here’s a numerical look at what they reveal about diabetes in America. 30.3 million The number of people in the U.S. who had diabetes in 2015. The percentage of the U.S. population that has diabetes. That’s nearly 1 in 10. 1.5 million The number of newly diagnosed cases of diabetes among U.S. adults in 2015. That works out to 6.7 new cases per 1,000 people. 24% The percentage of Americans with diabetes who don’t even know they have it. That’s 7.2 million people. 7 Where diabetes ranked on the list of leading causes of death in the U.S. in 2015. Diabetes was listed as a cause of death on 252,806 death certificates that year, including 79,535 that identified diabetes as the primary cause of death. There were two kinds of diabetes included in the study. Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as juvenile diabetes) occurs when the immune system prevents the body from making insulin, and type 2 diabetes (formerly known as adult-onset diabetes) occurs when the body can’t make enough insulin or can’t use it well. About 95 Continue reading >>

Running A Marathon With Type 1 Diabetes

Running A Marathon With Type 1 Diabetes

How to Run a Half Marathon With Type 1 Diabetes My name is Jacob Seltzer, I am 20 years old, and a Type 1 Diabetic. I was diagnosed with diabetes on my half birthday, November 21, 2011 at the ageof 15. I have had diabetes for roughly 5 years and I do not let it get in my way. I am currently going into my junior year of college at Stony BrookUniversity as an athletic training major. Recently, I decided to start up my own blog . My reasoning behind this was to spread awareness of the disease,better educate people, and most of all serve as a peer to help newly diagnosed diabetics cope with their disease. This blog, among so many others online today, will have to serve us as we work together to find a cure for this disease. I have alsoentered a contest from Runners Worldmagazine, to be featured on the cover of the December issue! Please vote for me at the Runners World website!! Running 26.2 miles sounds pleasant right? Im sure many people reading this disagree. Pleasant isnt the right word to use for long distance running. However, it is one of the most rewarding things that I have ever experienced. One thing that I have learned is training for this distance is not an easy thing to do. In fact, mentally it can be very draining. All runners experience the highs and lows of running while training for a marathon (or any other race), however, as a runner with diabetes, you literally experience highs and lows with running. There is no such thing as a perfect training strategy since everyone is different, but a beginner plan is the way to start off. My mom bought me a book consisting of three training plans for half marathons and three training plans for full marathons all of which include a taper period (shortened distances by the end of the training). In order to truly unders Continue reading >>

371 Million People Have Diabetes Globally, About Half Undiagnosed

371 Million People Have Diabetes Globally, About Half Undiagnosed

Diabetes is now a disease that affects 371 million people worldwide, and 187 million of them do not even know they have the disease, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). That represents an increase from last year's estimate, which showed 366 million people had the disease. While 4 million people died from the diabetes in 2011, estimates show that 4.8 million people will die this year from complications from the disease -- with people under 60 accounting for half the deaths. The results were released on Nov. 14, World Diabetes Day 2012, in order to bring awareness to the global problem. Researchers estimate that the diabetes dilemma will only increase. By 2030, they expect 552 million people will have the disease. "As millions of undiagnosed people develop diabetes complications, we can expect to see the mortality rate climb," Jean Claude Mbanya, President of the IDF, said in a press release. "On World Diabetes Day, we want to raise awareness that this disease can be controlled and in some cases prevented." The seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., diabetes is a problem that occurs when blood glucose levels are above normal, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports. Glucose is the sugar that is processed from the food we eat, and our pancreas is supposed to make a hormone called insulin which helps the glucose get into our cells to give them energy. Having diabetes indicates that your body is not making enough insulin or isn't utilizing insulin as it should be. There are many types of diabetes, but the most common are Type 1 diabetes (5 percent of diagnosed cases), Type 2 diabetes (about 90 to 95 percent of diagnosed cases) and gestational diabetes (about 2 to 10 percent of diagnosed cases). Type 2 diabetes risk factors include ag Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1.5: Overview

Diabetes Type 1.5: Overview

There are two major types of diabetes, Type 1 ("Juvenile diabetes" or "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus") and Type 2 ("Adult onset" or "non-insulin dependent" diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This article discusses a newer classification, Type 1.5. Type 1.5 is one of several names now applied to those who are diagnosed with diabetes as adults, but who do not immediately require insulin for treatment, are often not overweight, and have little or no resistance to insulin. When special lab tests are done, they are found to have antibodies, especially GAD65 antibodies, that attack their beta cells. This sort of diabetes is sometimes called Slow Onset Type 1 or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). One study performed in Bruneck, Italy [Diabetes, October 1998] found that 84% of the people diagnosed as Type 2 had insulin resistance, but the other 16% did not, suggesting these individuals had Type 1.5 diabetes. Several other studies have shown similar results as well as the presence of antibodies, especially those against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), characteristic of Type 1 in this group of people diagnosed with Type 2. Causes and Development Type 1.5 diabetes has virtually the same underlying cause as type 1. The difference is that type 1.5 happens in people older than 25, whereas type 1 happens in childhood, the teen years and young adulthood. People as old as 80 have been diagnosed with type 1.5. Diagnosis and Tests A misdiagnosis is easy to make when the patient is older and responds well at first to treatment with oral medications. If someone does not clearly fit the model for Type 1 diabetes, they may be mistakenly placed on oral agents even though limited capacity for insulin production remains. The immune system's slower and more selective attack on the beta Continue reading >>

Half Of Adults In The U.s. Have Diabetes Or Pre-diabetes, Study Finds

Half Of Adults In The U.s. Have Diabetes Or Pre-diabetes, Study Finds

A national wake up call to intensify efforts to control the obesity crisis with added focus on diet, exercise and monitoring blood sugar According to a study published online in JAMA today, nearly 50% of adults living in the U.S. have diabetes or pre-diabetes, a condition where a person already has elevated blood sugar and is at risk to develop diabetes. Diabetes, a condition where blood sugar is elevated, may reflect lack of production of insulin to lower blood sugar (Type 1) or insulin resistance (Type 2), generally the result of obesity, poor diet or lack of exercise leading to the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is a costly disease in the U.S, racking up an estimated 245 billion in 2012, related to consumption and utilization of health care resources as well as lost productivity, according to the researchers in the study. Diabetes can damage blood vessels, the eyes and kidneys, also resulting in poor wound healing and devastating soft tissue infections. And nearly 71,000 persons die annually due to complications associated with diabetes, based on recent statistics from the American Diabetes Association. Investigators in the study defined undiagnosed diabetes as those persons having a fasting blood sugar greater than 126 mg/dl or a hemoglobin A1C > 6.5 %, a measure of long term glucose control. Pre-diabetes was defined as having a fasting blood sugar 100-125 mg/dl, or a hemoglobin A1C of 5.7-6.4%. Researchers evaluated 5,000 patients who were part of a national survey designed to assess the prevalence of diabetes and explore trends in different subgroups and ethnicities. Results from the study indicated that in 2012, between 12% and 14% of adults had diabetes, the most recent data available. The majority of these diabetics are type 2, the result of poor diet, obesity an Continue reading >>

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