Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms
Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Dementia - Is There A Connection?
Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? Diabetes and dementia - is there a connection? What do diabetes and dementia have in common? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin it makes properly. Insulin is a hormone used by the body to control glucose levels, or the amount of sugar, in your blood. Glucose is one of the main sources of fuel for the body, providing energy the body needs to perform all necessary functions. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. A third type, gestational diabetes, occurs temporarily during pregnancy.Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes can be a risk factor for Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia and other types of dementia because cardiovascular problems associated with diabetes are also associated with dementia. These include: Heart disease or family history of heart disease Research has also proved that, similar to diabetes, glucose is not used properly in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. This may be caused by nerve cell death, which reduces the brains ability to interpret messages.In the case of vascular dementia, brain cells die due to lack of oxygen, preventing brain cells from communicating with each other. Beta amyloid plaques, which build up in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease, have also been shown to prevent insulin receptors in the brain from doing their job. This can impact insulin production and cause brain cells to become insensitive to insulin. Is Alzheimers disease type 3 diabetes? Recent studies suggest that the brains of people with Alzheimers disease are in a diabetic state, partly due to the decrease in or insensitivity to insulin.There are many similarities in the brains of people with diabetes and the brains of people with Alzh Continue reading >>
Review Is Alzheimer's Disease A Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal☆
Highlights • • Molecular and cellular mechanisms between Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease • Role of insulin signaling on amyloid beta oligomers • Recently researchers proposed the term ‘Type-3-Diabetes’ for Alzheimer's disease (ad) because of the shared molecular and cellular features among Type-1-Diabetes, Type-2-Diabetes and insulin resistance associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Recent clinical and basic studies on patients with diabetes and AD revealed previously unreported cellular and pathological among diabetes, insulin resistance and AD. These studies are also strengthened by various basic biological studies that decipher the effects of insulin in the pathology of AD through cellular and molecular mechanisms. For instance, insulin is involved in the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which in turn causes phosphorylation of tau, which involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Interestingly, insulin also plays a crucial role in the formation amyloid plaques. In this review, we discussed significant shared mechanisms between AD and diabetes and we also provided therapeutic avenues for diabetes and AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy. Graphical abstract Download high-res image (63KB) Download full-size image Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients Continue reading >>
Researchers Link Alzheimer’s Gene To Type 3 Diabetes
Researchers have known for several years that being overweight and having Type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. But they’re now beginning to talk about another form of diabetes: Type 3 diabetes. This form of diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Type 3 diabetes occurs when neurons in the brain become unable to respond to insulin, which is essential for basic tasks, including memory and learning. Some researchers believe insulin deficiency is central to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease. Mayo Clinic’s Florida and Rochester campuses recently participated in a multi-institution clinical study, testing whether a new insulin nasal spray can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms. The results of that study are forthcoming. But how is this tied to the Alzheimer’s gene APOE? A new study from Guojun Bu, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic neuroscientist and Mary Lowell Leary Professor of Medicine, found that the culprit is the variant of the Alzheimer’s gene known as APOE4. The team found that APOE4, which is present in approximately 20 percent of the general population and more than half of Alzheimer’s cases, is responsible for interrupting how the brain processes insulin. Mice with the APOE4 gene showed insulin impairment, particularly in old age. Also, a high-fat diet could accelerate the process in middle-aged mice with the gene. “The gene and the peripheral insulin resistance caused by the high-fat diet together induced insulin resistance in the brain,” Dr. Bu says. Their findings are published in Neuron. Journalists: Broadcast-quality sound bites with Dr. Bu are in the downloads. The team went on to describe how it all works in the neurons. They found that the APOE4 protein produced by the gene, can bind more aggressively Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: Cross Talk Between Differentially Regulated Proteins Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Alzheimer’s Disease
Type 3 Diabetes (T3D) is a neuroendocrine disorder that represents the progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). T3D contributes in the increase of the total load of Alzheimer’s patients worldwide. The protein network based strategies were used for the analysis of protein interactions and hypothesis was derived describing the possible routes of communications among proteins. The hypothesis provides the insight on the probable mechanism of the disease progression for T3D. The current study also suggests that insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) could be the major player which holds the capacity to shift T2DM to T3D by altering metabolic pathways like regulation of beta-cell development, negative regulation of PI3K/AKT pathways and amyloid beta degradation. Insulin signaling pathways are conserved in various types of cells and tissues. It regulates the energy metabolism, homeostasis and reproduction in living system. It reaches the brain via cerebral spinal fluid and transporters present at the blood brain barrier. It is proposed to enhance cognitive abilities via activation of insulin receptors in the hippocampal region of brain. It stimulates translocation of GLUT4 to hippocampal plasma membranes thereby enhancing the glucose uptake in the time dependent manner1. Glucose utilization during neuronal activity is similar in both peripheral tissue and hippocampal region1. Scientists have worked extensively to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the production and secretion of insulin in the brain and pancreas2. Their findings suggest that both beta cells and neurons respond to glucose and hormonal stimuli by depolarization of ATP sensitive potassium channels in similar fashion. Few studies report that insulin was stored in synapti Continue reading >>
Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed
Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: The Alarming Link Between Alzheimers And Diet
If you haven’t heard of it, type 3 diabetes is what many specialists are now calling Alzheimer’s disease. The name covers the belief that Alzheimer’s results from insulin resistance of the brain. Alzheimer’s is a cruel, degenerative condition that devastates millions of lives around the world. And unfortunately, it’s only increasing in prevalence; as of 2016, 1 in 9 people over the age of 65 have Alzheimer’s. Surprisingly, the number of individuals aged 65 and over with the condition is expected to triple by the year 2050 ( 1 ). Could abnormal blood glucose regulation play a role? This article takes a look at the metabolic theory of type 3 diabetes, and how we might be able to prevent (or potentially halt) the condition. Type 3 diabetes—or Alzheimer’s disease—is a chronic condition in which brain neurons slowly degenerate and die ( 2 , 3 ). As a result, we see progressive memory loss and rapid declines in cognitive ability ( 4 ). I’ve personally seen the terrible effects of Alzheimer’s. As a young boy, I remember seeing my great grandfather hospitalized with late-stage Alzheimer’s. And then from the start of my late teenage years, I saw my granddad—a strong, well-built man—slowly succumb to the disease. Someone being physically fit or having an intelligent mind is not relevant; the disease doesn’t discriminate, and it takes no prisoners. Experiencing a slow deterioration, patients eventually lose the ability to interact with their environment, communicate, and even remember their family. Ultimately, Alzheimer’s disease is fatal, and patients usually die from a resulting complication such as pneumonia ( 5 ). Worse still, it’s not only the patient that suffers. Alzheimer’s caregivers often have to spend all their time and money to Continue reading >>
What Is Type 3 Diabetes?
Most of us are familiar with the two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is primarily autoimmune; the autoantibodies (antibodies produced against your own cells) destroy most of the beta cells that produce insulin, so people with type 1 require insulin shots, although some people with type 1 have some insulin resistance and can be helped with type 2 drugs in addition to insulin. Type 2 is caused by insulin resistance (by definition), although some people with type 2 have small amounts of autoantibodies, and many people with type 2 take insulin shots, especially after many years with the disease. However, there are also other forms of diabetes, and some of these have been called type 1.5 or type 3, sometimes both. It’s confusing, because different authors use the terms differently. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, or LADA, is like type 1 in that it’s autoimmune and patients will eventually have to use insulin, but it’s like type 2 in that patients are usually diagnosed as adults and the disease progresses slowly, so many are originally told that they have type 2. Because it’s sort of between types 1 and 2, it’s often called type 1.5. But some use the term type 1.5 when people have autoimmune diabetes but also have a lot of insulin resistance because of obesity. This can also be called "double diabetes," because you have both type 1 and type 2. There’s a lot of debate surrounding the pros and cons of using artificial sweeteners especially when living with diabetes. Here are some highlights of recent research. The term type 3 diabetes has been used in many different ways. Some people call Alzheimer’s disease (AD) type 3 diabetes because there is some evidence that people with AD are not able to take up enough glucose into the brain. That is Continue reading >>
Alzheimer’s Disease Is Now Called Type 3 Diabetes
- and stable blood sugar helps to prevent it Science has found a link between unstable blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (the leading cause of dementia). Type 2 diabetes is spreading like a bushfire, and people many are unware that they have early stages of the disease, typically characterized by fatigue, overweight, and cravings for fast carbohydrates or stimulants. People with Alzheimer’s disease have insulin resistance of the brain, which is why this disease is now referred to as type 3 diabetes. Because it takes many years for Alzheimer’s disease to develop, there is every reason in the world to start early prevention with exercise and a blood sugar-stabilizing diet. Also, a particular trace element may help increase insulin sensitivity, which is why it is vital to get enough of this nutrient. More than 35 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease causes the brain to malfunction because the neurons in different parts of the brain slowly deteriorate. Science has discovered that a slow build-up of proteins called beta-amyloid plaque displaces normal brain cells, resulting in local inflammation and symptoms such as the loss of memory, orientation, and other cognitive skills. Alzheimer’s develops slowly and usually leads to death after about 7-10 years. New research may be able to change this. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 50-60% The formation of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain was a mystery to science until the beginning of the third millennium when Professor Suzanne de la Monte from Brown University of Rhode Island, the United States, started blocking the insulin pathways in the brain Continue reading >>
Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?
Just in case you need another reason to cut back on junk food, it now turns out that Alzheimer’s could well be a form of diet-induced diabetes. That’s the bad news. The good news is that laying off soda, doughnuts, processed meats and fries could allow you to keep your mind intact until your body fails you. We used to think there were two types of diabetes: the type you’re born with (Type 1) and the type you “get.” That’s called Type 2, and was called “adult onset” until it started ravaging kids. Type 2 is brought about by a combination of factors, including overeating, American-style. The idea that Alzheimer’s might be Type 3 diabetes has been around since 2005, but the connection between poor diet and Alzheimer’s is becoming more convincing, as summarized in a cover story in New Scientist entitled “Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain.” (The graphic — a chocolate brain with a huge piece missing — is creepy. But for the record: chocolate is not the enemy.) The studies  are increasingly persuasive, and unsurprising when you understand the role of insulin in the body. So, a brief lesson. We all need insulin: in non-diabetics, it’s released to help cells take in the blood sugar (glucose) they need for energy. But the cells can hold only so much; excess sugar is first stored as glycogen, and — when there’s enough of that — as fat. (Blood sugar doesn’t come only from sugar, but from carbohydrates of all kinds; easily digested carbohydrates flood the bloodstream with sugar.) Insulin not only keeps the blood vessels that supply the brain healthy, it also encourages the brain’s neurons to absorb glucose, and allows those neurons to change and become stronger. Low insulin levels in the brain mean reduced brain funct Continue reading >>
Characteristic Features Of Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus In Adults: Comparison With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes
Characteristic Features of Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: Comparison with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes The differences between the tw The differences between the two forms of diabetes are not always straightforward, and in many cases, common pathogenic processes may be involved. Recent studies described a new form of diabetes in children and adolescents named ‘type (1+2) 3 diabetes’. However, reports on type 3 diabetes in adults are scarce; we aimed to study the characteristic features of this form of diabetes. Among 3,031 patient files that have been treated for diabetes for the last 2 years in two diabetes centers, 25 (13F/12M) patients were identified with type 3 diabetes. All had baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2, 85% had positive family history of diabetes, and required insulin within 2 months of diagnosis. Age at onset of diabetes was over 18 years. This group of patients are compared with groups of adult-onset type 1 (13F/12M) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (18F/12M). The mean age in type 3 diabetes group (37.4±10.3 yr) was higher than type 1 (30.2±6.2 yr, p=0.032) but lower than type 2 diabetes group (51.3±11.5 yr, p<0.001). Sex distribution (p=0.555) and duration of diabetes (p=0.598) were not different between groups. Baseline BMI in type 3 diabetes group (31.4±4.9 kg/m2) was higher than type 1 (24.8±3.1 kg/m2, p<0.001) but similar to type 2 diabetes group (30.8±4.3 kg/m2, p=0.882). Of the patients in type 3 diabetes group, 91% had positive anti-GAD (64%) and/or ICA (40%). Mean titers of anti-GAD was significantly lower than type 1 diabetes group (p=0.016). All patients with type 3 diabetes had low serum fasting C-peptide levels (between 0.5 and <0.001 ng/ml). Insulin requirement (0.65±0.35 IU/kg/day) was not different from type 1 and type 2 groups. Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes
Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain. The categorization is not embraced by the medical community, though a limited number of published reviews have forwarded putative mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance. The term has been widely applied within alternative healthcare circles. Other instances of the term: Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that relates to the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas. See also Diabetes mellitus#Classification  Continue reading >>
Paleo And Alzheimer’s: All About “type 3 Diabetes”
You might have heard Alzheimer’s disease described as “Type 3 Diabetes,” implying that it’s another “disease of civilization,” a consequence of the modern diet and lifestyle more than anything else. The “Diabetes” label in particular makes it seem like Alzheimer’s is all about the carbs. But it’s actually more complicated than that (isn’t it always?). Alzheimer’s Disease probably does have something to do with dietary carbs, but it’s much more complicated than “insulin wrecks your brain.” And it also has connections to other parts of the modern diet, especially overload of Omega-6 fats. So here’s a look at Alzheimer’s from a Paleo perspective, focusing on the potential role of diet in long-term prevention and therapy. This post is not an explanation of how to “cure” Alzheimer’s Disease, or even what causes it, and if you meet anyone trying to tell you either of those things, they’re probably lying. It’s just a look at some possible connections between diet and Alzheimer’s What Is Alzheimer’s Disease? Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive, age-related brain disease that starts off by causing forgetfulness and confusion and progresses to more serious problems like mood, language, and behavioral issues. A few people get it earlier, but it’s primarily found in people in their 60s and up. Alzheimer’s isn’t just an extension of normal age-related forgetfulness, though. In Alzheimer’s Disease, neurons in the brain actually die – this doesn’t happen in normal aging, even though most people’s brains do shrink a little bit with age. In most cases of Alzheimer’s, nobody’s really sure what causes it – we can identify hallmark signs of the disease (amyloid-beta plaques and tangled proteins) and certain genes that m Continue reading >>
Type 3 Diabetes: An Alias For Alzheimer's Disease?
Type 3 Diabetes: An Alias for Alzheimer's Disease? When you see the term type 3 diabetes, one may think its simply another type or form of diabetes. This is at least what I thought when Dr. Ronald Peterman, a clinical pharmacy specialist, initially introduced me to this topic. I would have never thought that type 3 diabetes was an alias for Alzheimers disease (AD). Impaired insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) production seems to play a role in the development of AD. Just like there are insulin genes being expressed in our pancreas, an insulin gene is also expressed in the adult human brain.1 Appropriately controlling blood glucose may not only prevent diabetic complications such as neuropathy, but could also potentially reduce enhancing patient progression to AD. A study showed that type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose occur significantly more frequently in patients with AD than in patients that did not have AD.1 People that have insulin resistance, in particular those with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from Alzheimer's disease estimated to be between 50% and 65% higher.2 A patient with diabetes may be at an increased risk of developing AD, but no direct causation has been found. It was found that diffuse and neuritic plaques were similarly abundant in the brains of patients with type 2 diabetes and no type 2 diabetes.1 Neurofibrillary tangles, common characteristic in patients with AD, were not increased in type 2 diabetes patients thus inhibiting the assumption of type 2 diabetes causing AD. 1 Various in vitro and in vivo experiments performed by multiple researchers has led to the conclusion that neuronal cell survival and homeostatic function is dependent on the integrity of insulin and IGF signaling mechanism in our brain.1 Insuli Continue reading >>
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes
Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes ballyscanlon/Digital Vision/ Getty Images Alzheimer's disease is a type of progressive dementia that affects more than 5 million Americans, and those rates are projected to increase dramatically over the next several years. One link to Alzheimer's disease that researchers are exploring is diabetes. There have been several studies that have connected the two diseases together. In fact, some researchers have begun to call Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes." Although a small amount of research found an increased risk of dementia with type 1 diabetes, the vast majority of studies have concluded that this link between diabetes and Alzheimer's is specific to t ype 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes develops when insulin becomes less efficient at processing sugar through the bloodstream. Studies show that approximately half of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. With such a strong connection, the focus of some research studies is to explain the connection between the two disease. In type 1 or 2 diabetes, not enough insulin (or none at all) is produced to process glucose (sugar) correctly or the body no longer responds to insulin, and it affects the functioning fn the whole body. In Alzheimer's disease, it appears that a similar problem is occurring, but instead of causing problems in the entire body's functioning, the effects occur in the brain. Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia Newsletter Learn about the effects of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, along with coping skills for you and your loved one. Researchers found interesting evidence of this when they studied people's brains after their death. They noted that the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease who did not have type 1 or type 2 diabe Continue reading >>