diabetestalk.net

Type 4 Diabetes Alzheimer's

Review Is Alzheimer's Disease A Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal☆

Review Is Alzheimer's Disease A Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal☆

Highlights • • Molecular and cellular mechanisms between Type 2 Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease • Role of insulin signaling on amyloid beta oligomers • Recently researchers proposed the term ‘Type-3-Diabetes’ for Alzheimer's disease (ad) because of the shared molecular and cellular features among Type-1-Diabetes, Type-2-Diabetes and insulin resistance associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Recent clinical and basic studies on patients with diabetes and AD revealed previously unreported cellular and pathological among diabetes, insulin resistance and AD. These studies are also strengthened by various basic biological studies that decipher the effects of insulin in the pathology of AD through cellular and molecular mechanisms. For instance, insulin is involved in the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which in turn causes phosphorylation of tau, which involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Interestingly, insulin also plays a crucial role in the formation amyloid plaques. In this review, we discussed significant shared mechanisms between AD and diabetes and we also provided therapeutic avenues for diabetes and AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy. Graphical abstract Download high-res image (63KB) Download full-size image Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes and is currently a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. This is likely to worsen, given the rapidly increasing prevalence of this condition; therefore, an understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is of considerable importance. By definition, patients Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes: The Alarming Link Between Alzheimers And Diet

Type 3 Diabetes: The Alarming Link Between Alzheimers And Diet

If you haven’t heard of it, type 3 diabetes is what many specialists are now calling Alzheimer’s disease. The name covers the belief that Alzheimer’s results from insulin resistance of the brain. Alzheimer’s is a cruel, degenerative condition that devastates millions of lives around the world. And unfortunately, it’s only increasing in prevalence; as of 2016, 1 in 9 people over the age of 65 have Alzheimer’s. Surprisingly, the number of individuals aged 65 and over with the condition is expected to triple by the year 2050 ( 1 ). Could abnormal blood glucose regulation play a role? This article takes a look at the metabolic theory of type 3 diabetes, and how we might be able to prevent (or potentially halt) the condition. Type 3 diabetes—or Alzheimer’s disease—is a chronic condition in which brain neurons slowly degenerate and die ( 2 , 3 ). As a result, we see progressive memory loss and rapid declines in cognitive ability ( 4 ). I’ve personally seen the terrible effects of Alzheimer’s. As a young boy, I remember seeing my great grandfather hospitalized with late-stage Alzheimer’s. And then from the start of my late teenage years, I saw my granddad—a strong, well-built man—slowly succumb to the disease. Someone being physically fit or having an intelligent mind is not relevant; the disease doesn’t discriminate, and it takes no prisoners. Experiencing a slow deterioration, patients eventually lose the ability to interact with their environment, communicate, and even remember their family. Ultimately, Alzheimer’s disease is fatal, and patients usually die from a resulting complication such as pneumonia ( 5 ). Worse still, it’s not only the patient that suffers. Alzheimer’s caregivers often have to spend all their time and money to Continue reading >>

Alzheimer’s Disease Is Now Called Type 3 Diabetes

Alzheimer’s Disease Is Now Called Type 3 Diabetes

- and stable blood sugar helps to prevent it Science has found a link between unstable blood sugar levels, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (the leading cause of dementia). Type 2 diabetes is spreading like a bushfire, and people many are unware that they have early stages of the disease, typically characterized by fatigue, overweight, and cravings for fast carbohydrates or stimulants. People with Alzheimer’s disease have insulin resistance of the brain, which is why this disease is now referred to as type 3 diabetes. Because it takes many years for Alzheimer’s disease to develop, there is every reason in the world to start early prevention with exercise and a blood sugar-stabilizing diet. Also, a particular trace element may help increase insulin sensitivity, which is why it is vital to get enough of this nutrient. More than 35 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease causes the brain to malfunction because the neurons in different parts of the brain slowly deteriorate. Science has discovered that a slow build-up of proteins called beta-amyloid plaque displaces normal brain cells, resulting in local inflammation and symptoms such as the loss of memory, orientation, and other cognitive skills. Alzheimer’s develops slowly and usually leads to death after about 7-10 years. New research may be able to change this. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 50-60% The formation of beta-amyloid plaque in the brain was a mystery to science until the beginning of the third millennium when Professor Suzanne de la Monte from Brown University of Rhode Island, the United States, started blocking the insulin pathways in the brain Continue reading >>

Alzheimer’s = Type 3 Diabetes

Alzheimer’s = Type 3 Diabetes

“My parents are getting older and I want to do everything I can to help them prevent Alzheimer’s, considering both my grandmothers had this disease, and I am worried about getting it too.” writes this week’s house call. “What can we do to prevent dementia?” The truth is, dementia is a very big problem that’s becoming bigger every day. Statistics are grim. 10 percent of 65-year-olds, 25 percent of 75-year-olds, and 50 percent of 85-year-olds will develop dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. And the fastest growing segment of our population is the 85-year-olds. Researchers predict Alzheimer’s will affect 106 million people by 2050. It’s now the seventh leading cause of death. Scientists now call Alzheimer’s disease “Type 3 diabetes.” What’s the link between Alzheimer’s and diabetes? Well, new research shows insulin resistance, or what I call diabesity (from eating too many carbs and sugar and not enough fat) is one of the major factors that starts the brain-damage cascade, which robs the memory of over half the people in their 80s, leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. But don’t think too much insulin affects only older folks’ memories. It doesn’t just suddenly occur once you’re older. Dementia actually begins when you’re younger and takes decades to develop and worsen. Here’s the bad news/good news. Eating sugar and refined carbs can cause pre-dementia and dementia. But cutting out the sugar and refined carbs and adding lots of fat can prevent, and even reverse, pre-dementia and early dementia. More recent studies show people with diabetes have a four-fold risk for developing Alzheimer’s. People with pre-diabetes or metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for having pre-dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). You Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's Is Type 3 Diabetes

Alzheimer's Is Type 3 Diabetes

The idea that Alzheimer's is a form of diabetic disease has been gaining currency in medical circles for almost ten years. The accumulated evidence is now so strong that many specialists are now comfortable referring to Alzheimer's as type 3 diabetes . This shouldn't come as a surprise. Insulin doesn't merely signal the body's somatic cells to take up glucose; it also governs the brain's uptake of glucose. And glucose is what powers the brain. It's the brain's primary energy molecule. We've known for some time that the brain itself makes a certain amount of insulin, and various parts of the brain are rich in insulin receptors . It's also well established that cognitive decline is correlated with both obesity and metabolic abnormalities involving insulin. (See, for example, the Whitehall II cohort study .) The connection between mental decline and diabetes was actually observed hundreds of years ago by physician Thomas Willis. (Also, in 1935, American psychiatrist William Claire Menninger posited the existence of "psychogenic diabetes" and described a "diabetic personality.") The smoking gun (arguably) for abnormalities in brain insulin as the precipitating factor for Alzheimer's Disease was the publication, in 2011, of the Hisayama Study. This study monitored 1017 initially disease-free patients for 15 years and found: The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes than in those with normal glucose tolerance. American physician David Perlmutter, in his book Grain Brain (2013, Little, Brown), lays the blame squarely on diet, saying "Brain dysfunction starts in your daily bread." He lays out a detailed case (backed up by numerous references to the scientifi Continue reading >>

Connections Between Diabetes And Alzheimer’s Disease

Connections Between Diabetes And Alzheimer’s Disease

Relatively recently, it has been proposed that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a form of diabetes that primarily affects the nerve cells of the brain.[1],[2] Many researchers and physicians now refer to AD as Type3Diabetes or T3D. Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a form of dementia characterized by loss of short-term memory, confusion, forgetfulness and difficulties in speech. Later stages can be characterized by delusional thinking, repetitive behaviors, loss of long-term memory, sometime rapid mood swings and incontinence. It can only be definitively diagnosed by autopsy and microscopic examination of the brain when large amounts of protein (beta amyloid, tau) show up as tangled “threads” in the nerve cells. Currently, there is no blood or other test to diagnose AD. Alzheimer’s disease is believed to affect 20% of those over 65 to varying degrees. By the time an individual is in their 80s, the chances that they will show signs of AD reach 50%. AD, like T1D and T2D is a slowly progressive disease with both environmental and genetic factors at play. Studies have indicated that those individuals with T2D have a 50-65% higher risk of AD. Also, both AD and T2D are chronic inflammatory diseases with evidence of similar types of damage (oxidative) to the cells of the body. Most importantly, recent evidence indicates that the nerve cells of the brain show insulin resistance and resistance to another hormone, insulin-like growth factor or IGF. Insulin resistance and IGF resistance is considered a sign of prediabetes. Since glucose (blood sugar) is the primary source of energy for brain cells, it is thought likely that the increasing degree of insulin and IGF resistance essentially starves the brain cells of its most importance energy source. Over the long ter Continue reading >>

Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes

Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes

Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes ballyscanlon/Digital Vision/ Getty Images Alzheimer's disease is a type of progressive dementia that affects more than 5 million Americans, and those rates are projected to increase dramatically over the next several years. One link to Alzheimer's disease that researchers are exploring is diabetes. There have been several studies that have connected the two diseases together. In fact, some researchers have begun to call Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes." Although a small amount of research found an increased risk of dementia with type 1 diabetes, the vast majority of studies have concluded that this link between diabetes and Alzheimer's is specific to t ype 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes develops when insulin becomes less efficient at processing sugar through the bloodstream. Studies show that approximately half of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. With such a strong connection, the focus of some research studies is to explain the connection between the two disease. In type 1 or 2 diabetes, not enough insulin (or none at all) is produced to process glucose (sugar) correctly or the body no longer responds to insulin, and it affects the functioning fn the whole body. In Alzheimer's disease, it appears that a similar problem is occurring, but instead of causing problems in the entire body's functioning, the effects occur in the brain. Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia Newsletter Learn about the effects of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, along with coping skills for you and your loved one. Researchers found interesting evidence of this when they studied people's brains after their death. They noted that the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease who did not have type 1 or type 2 diabe Continue reading >>

Researchers Link Alzheimer’s Gene To Type 3 Diabetes

Researchers Link Alzheimer’s Gene To Type 3 Diabetes

Researchers have known for several years that being overweight and having Type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. But they’re now beginning to talk about another form of diabetes: Type 3 diabetes. This form of diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Type 3 diabetes occurs when neurons in the brain become unable to respond to insulin, which is essential for basic tasks, including memory and learning. Some researchers believe insulin deficiency is central to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer’s disease. Mayo Clinic’s Florida and Rochester campuses recently participated in a multi-institution clinical study, testing whether a new insulin nasal spray can improve Alzheimer’s symptoms. The results of that study are forthcoming. But how is this tied to the Alzheimer’s gene APOE? A new study from Guojun Bu, Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic neuroscientist and Mary Lowell Leary Professor of Medicine, found that the culprit is the variant of the Alzheimer’s gene known as APOE4. The team found that APOE4, which is present in approximately 20 percent of the general population and more than half of Alzheimer’s cases, is responsible for interrupting how the brain processes insulin. Mice with the APOE4 gene showed insulin impairment, particularly in old age. Also, a high-fat diet could accelerate the process in middle-aged mice with the gene. “The gene and the peripheral insulin resistance caused by the high-fat diet together induced insulin resistance in the brain,” Dr. Bu says. Their findings are published in Neuron. Journalists: Broadcast-quality sound bites with Dr. Bu are in the downloads. The team went on to describe how it all works in the neurons. They found that the APOE4 protein produced by the gene, can bind more aggressively Continue reading >>

Is Alzheimer's A Fourth Type Of Diabetes?

Is Alzheimer's A Fourth Type Of Diabetes?

THURSDAY, Sept. 27, 2012 — People with diabetes have a higher risk of dementia. But could dementia actually be a type of diabetes? Some researchers say yes. The disease that affects millions of Americans — Alzheimer's — is actually "type 3" diabetes, not a separate condition, some say. In clinical practice today, there are three types of diabetes: type 1, which has no known cause or cure and is typically diagnosed in childhood; type 2, called the "lifestyle" diabetes, though it is also caused by ethnicity and family history; and gestational, which strikes pregnant women and in 90 percent of cases goes away after women give birth. But as food writer and health advocate Mark Bittman writes in a recent New York Times op-ed, the idea that Alzheimer's is actually just another form of diet-induced diabetes was introduced in 2005 by neuropathologist and professor at Brown Medical School, Suzanne de la Monte, MD, MPH. In her research, de la Monte demonstrated that levels of insulin and its receptors diminish significantly in the brain during early Alzheimer's — and this trend continues as the disease progresses. "And many of the unexplained features of Alzheimer's, such as cell death and tangles in the brain, appear to be linked to abnormalities in insulin signaling. This demonstrates that the disease is most likely a neuroendocrine disorder, or another type of diabetes," she wrote in a press release when the study was published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. The "why" makes sense once you know how insulin works. Insulin is how your body regulates blood sugar — it prompts cells to pick up sugar from your blood and use that sugar as energy. When you eat a high-fat, high-sugar diet (as many Americans do), the cells are overwhelmed by all the sugar and stop react Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 3 Diabetes Symptoms

Why is Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) sometimes called “Type 3 diabetes?” What are the symptoms, and how can it be prevented? Alzheimer’s is a progressive brain disease. People who have this condition gradually lose memory and mental focus. They may have emotional and behavioral changes that put a great load on their families. The course of Alzheimer’s disease varies dramatically. Some people become severely disabled and die from it. Others may experience only a mild slowing of brain function. What causes Type 3 diabetes? How might diabetes cause Alzheimer’s symptoms? Gary Small, MD, a professor of psychiatry at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA and author of The Alzheimer’s Prevention Program said that high blood sugars cause inflammation throughout the body and brain. Chronic inflammation has been linked with two brain changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s, clumps of protein called beta-amyloid plaques form between the brain cells and may block communication. Researchers have discovered that many people with Type 2 diabetes have beta-amyloid deposits in their pancreas like the ones found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s. Tau tangles are twisted-up proteins that form within nerve cells of people with Alzheimer’s, interfering with cell function. We don’t know what causes this nerve damage, but studies done at Brown University and the University of Pennsylvania indicate that insulin resistance, the core of Type 2 diabetes, is a big part of it. Insulin resistance may deprive brain cells of glucose they need to function, causing damage. On Verywell.com, health writer Esther Heerema, MSW, said, “The brains of those with Alzheimer’s disease who did not have diabetes showed many of the same abnormal Continue reading >>

Faq On Type 4 Diabetes

Faq On Type 4 Diabetes

What is type 4 diabetes? Salk scientists use this to describe age-related insulin resistance that occurs in lean, elderly people. While type 1 diabetes is a result of the immune system destroying insulin-producing cells and type 2 diabetes is caused by diet and obesity, type 4 diabetes is associated with older age, rather than weight gain. Type 3 diabetes is suggested for a type of insulin resistance that results in symptoms mimicking Alzheimer’s disease. What do we know about type 4 diabetes? The Salk Institute labs of Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng discovered that diabetes in aged, lean mice has a different cellular cause than Type 2 diabetes, which results from weight gain. The mice with type 4 diabetes had abnormally high levels of immune cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs) inside their fat tissue. Mice with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, had abnormally low levels of Tregs within the tissue, despite having more fat tissue. Therapeutic intervention that blocks Treg cells from accumulating in the fat reverses age-associated type 4 diabetes. However, this kind of therapy does not prevent type 2 diabetes insulin resistance. The researchers now want to see if the same process will help humans with this type of diabetes. How can I sign up for a clinical trial on this work? The Salk Institute does not conduct human trials, but we do partner with a variety of research institutes and hospitals to test research. To find information on the current trial related to this work, visit: www.clinicaltrials.gov How can I donate to this work? To donate to the Salk Institute, please visit: To learn more about this research, please visit: Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes

Type 3 Diabetes

Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain. The categorization is not embraced by the medical community, though a limited number of published reviews have forwarded putative mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance.[1][2][3][4] The term has been widely applied within alternative healthcare circles. Other instances of the term: Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that relates to the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas.[5] See also[edit] Diabetes mellitus#Classification [edit] Continue reading >>

Animal Study Finds Fourth Diabetes Type - The San Diego Union-tribune

Animal Study Finds Fourth Diabetes Type - The San Diego Union-tribune

A new type of diabetes that's not associated with insulin deficiency or obesity has been discovered -- in mice. In a study published Wednesday, researchers led by Salk Institute scientists found that in a mouse model of the disease regarded as predictive of human diabetes, some develop an unusual type that affects old, lean mice. This disease is caused by overactivity of a certain kind of immune system cell. The researchers call this new form Type 4 diabetes. The study was published in the journal Nature. Go to j.mp/type4diabetes for the study. If the study is confirmed in people a big if the public health implications would be profound. Diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney and heart disease, and poor blood circulation that can lead to amputation. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity, and a form that is not may escape detection because doctors arent looking for it. The study was led by the Salk's Ronald Evans and Ye Zheng. Evans said it's possible that millions of Americans have this type of diabetes. Oftentimes people think that if theyre lean, theyre protected from diabetes, and most physicians would think that, Evans said. The researchers envision a potential treatment by developing an antibody drug to reduce levels of these overactive immune cells. That will take at least a few years, Evans said. Evans estimates that about 20 percent of diabetics over 65 have this newly identified version, and may not be getting the proper care. More than 9.4 million diabetic Americans are over 65 as of 2012, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. And that number doesnt count those who havent been diagnosed. So the total number of Americans with this new type of diabetes could reach about 2 million, if Evans estimate is accurate. Evans said treatment of lean, elderly d Continue reading >>

Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?

Is Alzheimer’s Type 3 Diabetes?

Just in case you need another reason to cut back on junk food, it now turns out that Alzheimer’s could well be a form of diet-induced diabetes. That’s the bad news. The good news is that laying off soda, doughnuts, processed meats and fries could allow you to keep your mind intact until your body fails you. We used to think there were two types of diabetes: the type you’re born with (Type 1) and the type you “get.” That’s called Type 2, and was called “adult onset” until it started ravaging kids. Type 2 is brought about by a combination of factors, including overeating, American-style. The idea that Alzheimer’s might be Type 3 diabetes has been around since 2005, but the connection between poor diet and Alzheimer’s is becoming more convincing, as summarized in a cover story in New Scientist entitled “Food for Thought: What You Eat May Be Killing Your Brain.” (The graphic — a chocolate brain with a huge piece missing — is creepy. But for the record: chocolate is not the enemy.) The studies [1] are increasingly persuasive, and unsurprising when you understand the role of insulin in the body. So, a brief lesson. We all need insulin: in non-diabetics, it’s released to help cells take in the blood sugar (glucose) they need for energy. But the cells can hold only so much; excess sugar is first stored as glycogen, and — when there’s enough of that — as fat. (Blood sugar doesn’t come only from sugar, but from carbohydrates of all kinds; easily digested carbohydrates flood the bloodstream with sugar.) Insulin not only keeps the blood vessels that supply the brain healthy, it also encourages the brain’s neurons to absorb glucose, and allows those neurons to change and become stronger. Low insulin levels in the brain mean reduced brain funct Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes | Elevated Blood Sugar Can Lead To 'brain Diabetes' - Dlife

Type 3 Diabetes | Elevated Blood Sugar Can Lead To 'brain Diabetes' - Dlife

At first blush, it may be hard to imagine a connection between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimers disease or other forms of dementia. But its realand its so strong that some experts are now referring to it as type 3 diabetes or brain diabetes. By any name, its the progression from type 2 diabetes to Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia marked by memory deficits and a dramatic decline in cognitive function. While all people with diabetes have a 60 percent increased risk of developing any type of dementia, including Alzheimers, recent research suggests that women with type 2 diabetes have a 19 percent greater risk of a certain type, known as vascular dementia (which is caused by problems with blood supply to the brain) than men do. Overall, older adults with type 2 diabetes suffer from greater declines in working memory and executive functioning (a set of mental processes that involve planning, organization, controlling attention, and flexible thinking) than their peers do. Granted, not everyone who has type 2 diabetes will develop Alzheimers disease, vascular dementia, or any other form of dementia, and there are many people who have Alzheimers or another form of dementia who dont have diabetes, notes Gary Small, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the UCLA Semel Institute and author of The Alzheimers Prevention Program. But the reality is, these risk factors tend to add up: If you have diabetes, that doubles the risk of developing Alzheimers. If you have a first-degree relativea parent or sibling, for examplewith Alzheimers, that doubles your risk. And if you have poorly controlled blood pressure, abdominal (a.k.a., central) obesity, or sleep apnea, your risk of developing dementia is increased even more. As far as how type 2 diabetes increases the risk of dementi Continue reading >>

More in diabetes