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Type 3b Diabetes

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

Diabetes And Kidney Disease (stages 1-4)

What is diabetes? Diabetes happens when your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone. It controls how much sugar is in your blood. A high level of sugar in your blood can cause problems in many parts of your body, including your heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. Over time, this can lead to kidney disease and kidney failure. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes generally begins when people are young. In this case, the body does not make enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually found in adults over 40, but is becoming more common in younger people. It is usually associated with being overweight and tends to run in families. In type 2 diabetes, the body makes insulin, but cannot use it well. What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Your kidneys are important because they keep the rest of your body in balance. They: Remove waste products from the body Balance the body’s fluids Help keep blood pressure under control Keep bones healthy Help make red blood cells. When you have kidney disease, it means that the kidneys have been damaged. Kidneys can get damaged from a disease like diabetes. Once your kidneys are damaged, they cannot filter your blood nor do other jobs as well as they should. When diabetes is not well controlled, the sugar level in your blood goes up. This is called hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can cause damage to many parts of your body, especially the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, eyes, feet, nerves. Diabetes can harm the kidneys by causing damage to: Blood vessels inside your kidneys. The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged. Without enough blood, the kid Continue reading >>

Type 3c Diabetes: More Common Than Type 1 And Often Misdiagnosed As Type 2

Type 3c Diabetes: More Common Than Type 1 And Often Misdiagnosed As Type 2

While type 2 diabetes often goes undetected and undiagnosed and type 1 diabetes is often caught too late or confused for type 2 diabetes in adults, there is another type of diabetes out there that patients have which is often not recognized. A new study published in the journal Diabetes Care writes that some people’s health is at risk due to “the failure of doctors to recognise which type of diabetes they have,” Researchers from the University of Surrey looked at primary care records of over 2 million patients and analyzed the frequency of different diabetes diagnosis and how accurate the diagnosis were. They gave special attention to a type of diabetes referred to as type 3c diabetes which is also known as pancreatogenic diabetes or diabetes of the exocrine pancreas. This type of diabetes “occurs as a result of pancreatic inflammation, abnormal growth of tissue on the organ or surgically removing part or all of the tissue, which affects the body’s ability to produce insulin,” states a press release from the University. Many Diagnosed With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Have Type 3c? Researchers found that up to 97.3 percent of people who had pancreatic disease at some point in life are generally diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when they really have type 3c diabetes. This is problematic because treatment for type 3c diabetes generally requires insulin before those with type 2 require it. Not getting the right treatment can cause high blood sugars that lead to complications such as nerve, eye, and kidney damage. Researchers also found that adults are more likely to develop type 3c diabetes thank type 1 diabetes. In the study, 205 more people were newly diagnosed with type 3c diabetes than with type 1 diabetes. This means that type 3c diabetes may be a more common o Continue reading >>

A Rare Combination Of Type 3 Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (aps-3) Or Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome (mas-3)

A Rare Combination Of Type 3 Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (aps-3) Or Multiple Autoimmune Syndrome (mas-3)

Abstract Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison’s disease; this is a frequent combination. We report the case of a 55 years old female patient with APS-3, with seven clinical or latent autoimmune manifestations. At 49 years of age she was admitted at the General Hospital for leukopenia, weight loss, tremors, anxiety and diarrhea. The personal history revealed ulcerative colitis and, during the last year, episodes of fever with migrant arthralgia and cutaneous lesions. The patient was evaluated for thyroid function and imaging, mielobiopsy, glycaemic control, gastrointestinal and rheumatologic disorders with specific biochemical tests, imaging and endoscopic procedures. We concluded that the patient was affected by APS-3, characterized by the association of Graves’ disease, autoimmune leukopenia, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), autoimmune gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Sjögren’s and anti-phospholipid syndromes. The patient started low doses of corticosteroid drugs for leukopenia, underwent 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism and later started substitutive thyroid therapy with l-thyroxine, insulin therapy for LADA, mesalazine for ulcerative colitis and artificial tears for Sjögren’s syndrome. In this article we report a complex case of APS-3, characterized by the association of seven different autoimmune diseases, which required a complex therapeutic strategy. APS-1 or APECED (autoimmune-poly-endocrine-candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy) Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis Chronic hypoparathyroidism Addison’s disease (at least two out of three) APS-2 or Schmidt’s syndrome Addison’s diseases + thyroid autoimmune disease and/or dia Continue reading >>

New Evidence Suggests Doctors Are Misdiagnosing A Third Type Of Diabetes

New Evidence Suggests Doctors Are Misdiagnosing A Third Type Of Diabetes

The common understanding of diabetes mellitus includes two types: type one and type two. But there’s a third type that’s been around for a while you may not have even heard of—and some doctors think it’s being misdiagnosed. Type 3c diabetes, or “Diabetes of the Exocrine Pancreas,” is a third type caused by pancreatic damage. But a recent study found that doctors were likely misdiagnosing this form of diabetes as type 2. But the two require different treatment. “Several drugs used for type 2 diabetes, such as gliclazide, may not be as effective in type 3c diabetes,” Andrew McGovern from the University of Surry wrote in The Conversation. “Misdiagnosis, therefore, can waste time and money attempting ineffective treatments while exposing the patient to high blood sugar levels.” Scientists have recognized other types of diabetes aside from type-1 (the body destroys its own insulin-producing cells) or type-2 (the body can’t make enough insulin) for a long time. Back in 2008, researchers worried that type 3c had been under- and misdiagnosed. A new study, published recently in the journal Diabetes Care, adds further evidence to that worry after a search through millions of health records in the United Kingdom. The researchers found over 30,000 adult-onset cases of diabetes, and found 559 occurred after pancreatic disease. Despite the link between pancreatic disease and type 3c diabetes, 88 percent of those cases were still diagnosed with the more common type of adult-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes and only 3 percent diagnosed as type 3c—implying at least some level of misdiagnosis. Those with diabetes following their pancreatic disorder generally had worse control over their blood sugar and required more insulin. Obviously this is an observational study Continue reading >>

Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed

Alzheimer's Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes–evidence Reviewed

Go to: Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic histopathological, molecular, and biochemical abnormalities, including cell loss; abundant neurofibrillary tangles; dystrophic neurites; amyloid precursor protein, amyloid-β (APP-Aβ) deposits; increased activation of prodeath genes and signaling pathways; impaired energy metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; chronic oxidative stress; and DNA damage. Gaining a better understanding of AD pathogenesis will require a framework that mechanistically interlinks all these phenomena. Currently, there is a rapid growth in the literature pointing toward insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD-type neurodegeneration, but this surge of new information is riddled with conflicting and unresolved concepts regarding the potential contributions of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and obesity to AD pathogenesis. Herein, we review the evidence that (1) T2DM causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, but its aggregate effects fall far short of mimicking AD; (2) extensive disturbances in brain insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mechanisms represent early and progressive abnormalities and could account for the majority of molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD; (3) experimental brain diabetes produced by intracerebral administration of streptozotocin shares many features with AD, including cognitive impairment and disturbances in acetylcholine homeostasis; and (4) experimental brain diabetes is treatable with insulin sensitizer agents, i.e., drugs currently used to treat T2DM. We conclude that the term “type 3 diabetes” accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves t Continue reading >>

Review Crosstalk Between Diabetes And Brain: Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Mimetics As A Promising Therapy Against Neurodegeneration

Review Crosstalk Between Diabetes And Brain: Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Mimetics As A Promising Therapy Against Neurodegeneration

According to World Health Organization estimates, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an epidemic (particularly in under development countries) and a socio-economic challenge. This is even more relevant since increasing evidence points T2D as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), supporting the hypothesis that AD is a “type 3 diabetes” or “brain insulin resistant state”. Despite the limited knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and the etiological complexity of both pathologies, evidence suggests that neurodegeneration/death underlying cognitive dysfunction (and ultimately dementia) upon long-term T2D may arise from a complex interplay between T2D and brain aging. Additionally, decreased brain insulin levels/signaling and glucose metabolism in both pathologies further suggests that an effective treatment strategy for one disorder may be also beneficial in the other. In this regard, one such promising strategy is a novel successful anti-T2D class of drugs, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics (e.g. exendin-4 or liraglutide), whose potential neuroprotective effects have been increasingly shown in the last years. In fact, several studies showed that, besides improving peripheral (and probably brain) insulin signaling, GLP-1 analogs minimize cell loss and possibly rescue cognitive decline in models of AD, Parkinson's (PD) or Huntington's disease. Interestingly, exendin-4 is undergoing clinical trials to test its potential as an anti-PD therapy. Herewith, we aim to integrate the available data on the metabolic and neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 mimetics in the central nervous system (CNS) with the complex crosstalk between T2D-AD, as well as their potential therapeutic value against T2D-associated cognitive dysfunction. ► A complex interaction between brain ag Continue reading >>

Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes

Why Alzheimer's Disease Is Called Type 3 Diabetes

Alzheimer's disease is a type of progressive dementia that affects more than 5 million Americans, and those rates are projected to increase dramatically over the next several years. One link to Alzheimer's disease that researchers are exploring is diabetes. There have been several studies that have connected the two diseases together. In fact, some researchers have begun to call Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes." Although a small amount of research found an increased risk of dementia with type 1 diabetes, the vast majority of studies have concluded that this link between diabetes and Alzheimer's is specific to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes develops when insulin becomes less efficient at processing sugar through the bloodstream. Studies show that approximately half of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's disease. With such a strong connection, the focus of some research studies is to explain the connection between the two disease. Type 3 Diabetes In type 1 or 2 diabetes, not enough insulin (or none at all) is produced to process glucose (sugar) correctly or the body no longer responds to insulin, and it affects the functioning on the whole body. In Alzheimer's disease, it appears that a similar problem is occurring, but instead of causing problems in the entire body's functioning, the effects occur in the brain. Researchers found interesting evidence of this when they studied people's brains after their death. They noted that the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease who did not have type 1 or type 2 diabetes showed many of the same abnormalities of those with diabetes, including reduced levels of insulin in the brain. This led researchers to conclude that perhaps Alzheimer's is a brain-specific type of diabetes which they termed "type Continue reading >>

What Is Type 3 Diabetes?

What Is Type 3 Diabetes?

There is no agreed upon definition of type 3 diabetes. Unlike type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which are well-defined and have specific causes, symptoms and treatments, what constitutes type 3 diabetes is up for debate. The term, however, is sometimes used to describe gestational diabetes, double diabetes, hybrid diabetes or "brain diabetes" that triggers the neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease. Given the debate, any treatment for type 3 diabetics would depend on how one defines the condition. Type 3 diabetes may refer to a case of double diabetes or hybrid diabetes, meaning a patient has both type 1 and type 2 forms of the disease. This may happen, for example, if a type 1 patient gains weights and develops type 2 diabetes. The insulin needed to treat the type 1 diabetes becomes ineffective because of the insulin resistance caused by the type 2 diabetes. This form also is referred to as type 1 1/2 diabetes, in addition to type 3. Others refer to this kind of diabetes as "brain diabetes." A team of researchers at a medical school in Rhode Island, U.S., first coined this usage in 2005 after publishing a study concluding that the brain, not just the pancreas, produces insulin. The researchers suggest that the brain's inability to produce insulin may lead to Alzheimer's disease, which they call brain diabetes or type 3 diabetes. Supporters of this research point to established evidence that diabetics have an increased chance of developing Alzheimer's disease. Type 3 diabetes also may refer to unstable blood sugar levels caused by electrosensitivity to "dirty energy." Proponents of this school of thought believe that certain electronic devices, including cell phones, computers and microwaves, emit electropollution. The electropollution exposure causes blood sugar levels to spi Continue reading >>

Metabolic Surgery In The Treatment Algorithm For Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement By International Diabetes Organizations

Metabolic Surgery In The Treatment Algorithm For Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Statement By International Diabetes Organizations

BACKGROUND Despite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options. AIM The 2nd Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), an international consensus conference, was convened in collaboration with leading diabetes organizations to develop global guidelines to inform clinicians and policymakers about benefits and limitations of metabolic surgery for T2D. METHODS A multidisciplinary group of 48 international clinicians/scholars (75% nonsurgeons), including representatives of leading diabetes organizations, participated in DSS-II. After evidence appraisal (MEDLINE [1 January 2005–30 September 2015]), three rounds of Delphi-like questionnaires were used to measure consensus for 32 data-based conclusions. These drafts were presented at the combined DSS-II and 3rd World Congress on Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes (London, U.K., 28–30 September 2015), where they were open to public comment by other professionals and amended face-to-face by the Expert Committee. RESULTS Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to manage T2D. Numerous randomized clinical trials, albeit mostly short/midterm, demonstrate that metabolic surgery achieves excellent glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular risk factors. On the basis of such evidence, metabolic surgery should be recommended to treat T2D in patients with class III obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) and in those with class II obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2) when hyperglycemia is inadequately controlled by lifestyle and optimal medical therapy. Surgery should also be considered for patients with T2D and BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 if hyperglycemia is inadequately controll Continue reading >>

Sleep Duration And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Studies

Sleep Duration And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Of Prospective Studies

OBJECTIVE It remains unclear how many hours of sleep are associated with the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched up to 20 March 2014 for prospective observational studies that assessed the relationship of sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes. Both semiparametric and parametric methods were used. RESULTS Ten articles with 11 reports were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 18,443 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained among 482,502 participants with follow-up periods ranging from 2.5 to 16 years. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes, with the lowest risk observed at a sleep duration category of 7–8 h per day. Compared with 7-h sleep duration per day, the pooled relative risks for type 2 diabetes were 1.09 (95% CI 1.04–1.15) for each 1-h shorter sleep duration among individuals who slept <7 h per day and 1.14 (1.03–1.26) for each 1-h increment of sleep duration among individuals with longer sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Our dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies shows a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and risk of type 2 diabetes, with the lowest type 2 diabetes risk at 7–8 h per day of sleep duration. Both short and long sleep duration are associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, underscoring the importance of appropriate sleep duration in the delay or prevention of type 2 diabetes. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the estimated number of diabetic patients worldwide was 382 million in 2013 and will rise to 592 million Continue reading >>

Analysis Of The Insulin-sensitive Phosphodiesterase 3b Gene In Type 2 Diabetes

Analysis Of The Insulin-sensitive Phosphodiesterase 3b Gene In Type 2 Diabetes

Abstract We screened for mutations in the gene of insulin–sensitive phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), which regulates antilipolytic actions of insulin via reduction of intracellular cyclic AMP levels, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus using single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis and Southern analysis and investigated frequencies of variable number of tandem repeats. A silent polymorphism at the Arg463 codon (AGG→AGA) in exon 4 was identified after examining all 16 exons and exon–intron splicing junctions of the gene. This polymorphism was found in 53 of 100 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 2 of 5 lipoatrophic diabetic patients and 24 of 50 control subjects, without any significant difference in allele frequency between groups. An EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphism was identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and control subjects, again with no differences in occurrence. The allelic distribution of two polymorphic tandem repeats sequences in introns 5 and 12 of the gene did not differ significantly between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and control subjects. In conclusion, alterations in the PDE3B gene are unlikely to contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus or lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus in Japan. Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus

Is there a "Type 3 Diabetes"? Well, maybe… The "official" descriptions of various varieties of diabetes mellitus as promulgated by the American Diabetes Association are in a position statement titled Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. They list type 1 (previously referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes), which is usually due to autoimmune destruction of the β-cells of the pancreas, and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), with both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. They go on to list other varieties of diabetes, but none of them were deemed worthy of having a name that includes "Type whatever number is next." This has led to an interesting situation: on the Internet, one can find that various people have christened various varying disorders as "Type 3 Diabetes" (T3DM). None of which are official, of course: Several years ago, there was a push to label Alzheimer’s disease as T3DM. For example, there is a publication Alzheimer’s Disease Is Type 3 Diabetes-Evidence Reviewed where the authors opined "We conclude that the term ‘type 3 diabetes’ accurately reflects the fact that AD represents a form of diabetes that selectively involves the brain and has molecular and biochemical features that overlap with both type 1 diabetes mellitus and T2DM." Well, that’s one opinion. Another opinion on whether Alzheimer’s should be labeled T3DM: "There is no justification for classifying Alzheimer’s disease or any of other diseases mentioned above as type 3 diabetes mellitus." Some authors seem to want to persuade the ADA that they should add more types, and these authors proceed to choose which types of diabetes should have which numbers assigned. For instance, a listing at a dental webs Continue reading >>

What Is Type 3 Diabetes ?

What Is Type 3 Diabetes ?

It was found that the brain produces insulin. Yes, the brain really produces insulin. This brain insulin is not affected by the level of glucose in the blood as in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However with type3 diabetes the brain produces lower than normal levels of brain insulin. If the brain cells are deprived of insulin they eventually die causing memory loss and other degenerative diseases. This new type of diabetes also strengthens scientists’ belief that people with diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from Alzheimer’s disease by up to 65%. Alzheimer is a degenerative brain disorder. Discovered by Dr Suzanne de la Monte You are about to leave ResearchGate. Click to proceed to: Continue reading >>

Type 3 Diabetes

Type 3 Diabetes

Type 3 diabetes is a proposed term for Alzheimer's disease resulting in an insulin resistance in the brain. The categorization is not embraced by the medical community, though a limited number of published reviews have forwarded putative mechanisms linking Alzheimer's and insulin resistance.[1][2][3][4] The term has been widely applied within alternative healthcare circles. Other instances of the term: Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes is a form of diabetes that relates to the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas.[5] See also[edit] Diabetes mellitus#Classification [edit] Continue reading >>

Phase 3 Trial Of Transplantation Of Human Islets In Type 1 Diabetes Complicated By Severe Hypoglycemia

Phase 3 Trial Of Transplantation Of Human Islets In Type 1 Diabetes Complicated By Severe Hypoglycemia

OBJECTIVE Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) and severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Current therapies are effective in preventing SHEs in 50–80% of patients with IAH and SHEs, leaving a substantial number of patients at risk. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of a standardized human pancreatic islet product in subjects in whom IAH and SHEs persisted despite medical treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This multicenter, single-arm, phase 3 study of the investigational product purified human pancreatic islets (PHPI) was conducted at eight centers in North America. Forty-eight adults with T1D for >5 years, absent stimulated C-peptide, and documented IAH and SHEs despite expert care were enrolled. Each received immunosuppression and one or more transplants of PHPI, manufactured on-site under good manufacturing practice conditions using a common batch record and standardized lot release criteria and test methods. The primary end point was the achievement of HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) at day 365 and freedom from SHEs from day 28 to day 365 after the first transplant. RESULTS The primary end point was successfully met by 87.5% of subjects at 1 year and by 71% at 2 years. The median HbA1c level was 5.6% (38 mmol/mol) at both 1 and 2 years. Hypoglycemia awareness was restored, with highly significant improvements in Clarke and HYPO scores (P > 0.0001). No study-related deaths or disabilities occurred. Five of the enrollees (10.4%) experienced bleeds requiring transfusions (corresponding to 5 of 75 procedures), and two enrollees (4.1%) had infections attributed to immunosuppression. Glomerular filtration rate decreased significantly on immunosuppression, and donor-specific antibodies Continue reading >>

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