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Type 2 Diabetes Would Be Considered A(n) __________.

Shared Flashcard Set

Shared Flashcard Set

Details Title Chapter 17 Questions Description Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured Total Cards 86 Subject Health Care Level Undergraduate 1 Created 03/12/2014 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Health Care Flashcards Cards Term Common signs and symptoms of diabetic coma include all of the following EXCEPT: A. warm, dry skin B. rapid, thready pulse C. cool, clammy skin D. acetone breath odor Definition C. cool, clammy skin Term Diabetes is MOST accurately defined as a/an: A. abnormally high blood glucose level B. disorder of carbohydrates metabolism C. lack of insulin production in the pancreas D. mass excretion of glucose by the kidneys Definition B. disorder of carbohydrates metabolism Term A 28-year old female patient is found to be responsive to verbal stimuli only. her roomate states that she was recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and has had difficulty controlling her blood sugar level. She further tells you that the patient has been urinating excessively and has progressively worsened over the last 24 to 36 hours. On the basis of this patient's clinical presentation, you should suspect that she: A.has a urinary tract infection B. has low blood glucose level C. has overdosed on her insulin D. is signically hyperglycemic Definition D. is signically hyperglycemic Term The signs and symptoms of insulin shock are the result of: A. prolonged and severe dehydration B. fat metabolism within cells C. increased blood glucose levels D. decreased blood glucose levels Definition D. decreased blood glucose levels Term Kussmaul respirations are an indication that the body is: A. trying to generate energy by breathing deeply B. attempting to eliminate acids from the blood C. compensating for Continue reading >>

Assessing Your Weight And Health Risk

Assessing Your Weight And Health Risk

Assessment of weight and health risk involves using three key measures: Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity BMI is a useful measure of overweight and obesity. It is calculated from your height and weight. BMI is an estimate of body fat and a good gauge of your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat. The higher your BMI, the higher your risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers. Although BMI can be used for most men and women, it does have some limits: It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle. Use the BMI Calculator or BMI Tables to estimate your body fat. The BMI score means the following: Measuring waist circumference helps screen for possible health risks that come with overweight and obesity. If most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, youre at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk goes up with a waist size that is greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men. To correctly measure your waist, stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones. Measure your waist just after you breathe out. The table Risks of Obesity-Associated Diseases by BMI and Waist Circumference provides you with an idea of whether your BMI combined with your waist circumference increases your risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along with being overweight or obese, the following conditions will put you at greater risk for heart disease and other conditions: Family histo Continue reading >>

Measures Of Disease Frequency And Disease Burden

Measures Of Disease Frequency And Disease Burden

Measures of disease frequency and disease burden You will learn about commonly used epidemiological measurements to describe the occurrence of disease. This section covers: d) Issues in defining the population at risk e) The relationships between incidence and prevalence f) Commonly used measures of disease frequency The essence of epidemiology is to measure disease occurrence and make comparisons between population groups. The current section introduces the commonly used measures that help our understanding of the distribution of disease in a given population. A principal role of epidemiology is to describe and explain differences in the distribution of disease or other health outcomes of interest between populations. Examples of health outcomes measured in epidemiological studies include: Measures of disease frequency are used to describe how common an illness (or other health event) is with reference to the size of the population (the population at risk) and a measure of time. There are two main measures of disease frequency: Prevalence measures the proportion of individuals in a defined population that have a disease or other health outcomes of interest at a specified point in time (point prevalence) or during a specified period of time (period prevalence). Of 10,000 female residents in town A on 1st January 2006, 1,000 have hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among women in town A on this date is calculated as: Prevalence is a useful measure for quantifying the burden of disease in a population at a given point in time Calculating prevalence of various conditions across different geographical areas or amongst different sub-groups of the population and then examining prevalence of other potential risk factors can be of particular use when planning health s Continue reading >>

Common Noncommunicable Diseases

Common Noncommunicable Diseases

Which of the following is an autoimmune disorder? Which of the following diseases is caused by an abnormal chromosome inherited before birth? Type 2 diabetes is treated with a medication to make the body sensitive to insulin. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body produces too much insulin. Type 2 diabetes would be considered a(n) __________. Immune disorders result from both underactive and overactive immune systems. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a mutated gene. In your opinion, why might a person with a noncommunicable disease like diabetes be more accepted in social settings than a person with HIV? Most people are aware that diabetes is not a contagious disease, so people are more accepting of it. With HIV, many people still have misconceptions about how the virus is spread, leading them to discriminate against those with HIV. Which of the following hereditary diseases involves multiple genetic mutations? Diabetes is characterized by excessively low blood sugar levels. Name one similarity and one difference between cystic fibrosis and Down syndrome. Both diseases are hereditary, but cystic fibrosis occurs as a result of a single gene that is mutated during the development of the fetus; Down syndrome happens when a fetus inherits an extra copy of the 21st chromosome. Which of the following factors can influence the development and progression of noncommunicable diseases? What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes because it begins during childhood. Type 2 diabetes happens later in life as a result of obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and poor choices in diet. Which of the following diseases is caused by a single mutated gene? Which of the following results from an incomplete chromosome? Which of the follow Continue reading >>

What Is Insulin?

What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy. If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin. If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time. Insulin Treatment for Diabetes People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia. People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process Continue reading >>

Principles Of Epidemiology In Public Health Practice, Third Edition An Introduction To Applied Epidemiology And Biostatistics

Principles Of Epidemiology In Public Health Practice, Third Edition An Introduction To Applied Epidemiology And Biostatistics

Students of journalism are taught that a good news story, whether it be about a bank robbery, dramatic rescue, or presidential candidate's speech, must include the 5 W's: what, who, where, when and why (sometimes cited as why/how). The 5 W's are the essential components of a news story because if any of the five are missing, the story is incomplete. The same is true in characterizing epidemiologic events, whether it be an outbreak of norovirus among cruise ship passengers or the use of mammograms to detect early breast cancer. The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W's: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how). The word epidemiology comes from the Greek words epi, meaning on or upon, demos, meaning people, and logos, meaning the study of. In other words, the word epidemiology has its roots in the study of what befalls a population. Many definitions have been proposed, but the following definition captures the underlying principles and public health spirit of epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems ( 1 ). Key terms in this definition reflect some of the important principles of epidemiology. Epidemiology is a scientific discipline with sound methods of scientific inquiry at its foundation. Epidemiology is data-driven and relies on a systematic and unbiased approach to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Basic epidemiologic methods tend to rely on careful observation and use of valid comparison groups to assess whether what was observed, such as the number of cases Continue reading >>

Waisthip Ratio - Wikipedia

Waisthip Ratio - Wikipedia

Waisthip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips . This is calculated as waist measurement divided by hip measurement (W H). For example, a person with a 30 (76cm) waist and 38 (97cm) hips has a waisthip ratio of about 0.78. The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health, and the risk of developing serious health conditions. WHR correlates with fertility (with different optimal values in males and females). According to the World Health Organisation 's data gathering protocol, [1] the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest , using a stretchresistant tape that provides a constant 100g tension. Hip circumference should be measured around the widest portion of the buttocks, with the tape parallel to the floor. [2] Other organizations use slightly different standards. The United States National Institutes of Health and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest. Waist measurements are usually obtained by laypersons by measuring around the waist at the navel , but research has shown that these measurements may underestimate the true waist circumference. [2] For both measurements, the individual should stand with feet close together, arms at the side and body weight evenly distributed, and should wear little clothing. The subject should be relaxed, and the measurements should be taken at the end of a normal respiration. Each measurement should be repeated twice; if the measurements are within 1cm of one another, the average should be calculated. If the difference between the two measurements exceeds 1cm, the two measurem Continue reading >>

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Answers to Study Questions 1. Name three sensory aspects of food that influence our food choices. Any three of the following: taste, smell, texture, appearance 2. How do our health beliefs affect our food choices? Health beliefs are characterized by an individual's perception that he or she is susceptible to a disease and, if so, that action can be taken to prevent or delay its onset. People who feel susceptible to a disease are more likely to heed recommendations based on information about the links between dietary choices and the risk of that disease. They see that dietary changes may lead to positive results. 3. List the six classes of nutrients. Carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water 4. List the 13 vitamins. Fat-soluble: vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K Water-soluble: thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamin (B12), folate, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin C 5. What determines whether a mineral is a macromineral or a micro- (trace) mineral? Macrominerals are found in and used by the body in the largest amounts. Microminerals are found in and used by the body in smaller amounts. 6. How many kilocalories are in 1 gram of carbohydrate, of protein, and of fat? Carbohydrates have 4 kilocalories per gram; proteins have 4 kilocalories per gram; and fats have 9 kilocalories per gram. 7. What is an epidemiological study? An epidemiological study observes and compares how disease rates vary among different population groups and identifies conditions related to diseases or conditions within the populations. This enables researchers to identify associations between factors within the population and the particular disease being studied. 8. What is the difference between an experimental and co Continue reading >>

Epidemics, Pandemics, And Outbreaks

Epidemics, Pandemics, And Outbreaks

When is a disease outbreak a concern? And what is the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic? Learn the basics about the spread of serious diseases and what you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your community. A disease outbreak happens when a disease occurs in greater numbers than expected in a community or region or during a season. An outbreak may occur in one community or even extend to several countries. It can last from days to years. Sometimes a single case of a contagious disease is considered an outbreak. This may be true if it is an unknown disease, is new to a community, or has been absent from a population for a long time. If you observe what you think might be a disease outbreak, report it right away to your health care provider or public health department. An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people. For example, in 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide. A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. HIV /AIDS is an example of one of the most destructive global pandemics in history. Influenza pandemics have occurred more than once. Spanish influenza killed 40-50 million people in 1918. Asian influenza killed 2 million people in 1957. Hong Kong influenza killed 1 million people in 1968. A new subtype of virus arises. This means humans have little or no immunity to it. Everyone is at risk. The virus spreads easily from person to person, such as through sneezing or coughing . The virus begins to cause serious illness worldwide. With past flu pandemics, the virus reached all parts of the globe within six to nine months. With the speed of air travel today, public health experts believe an influenza pandemic could spread much more quickly. A pandemi Continue reading >>

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

How Insulin And Glucagon Work

Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body. Insulin and glucagon work together to balance your blood sugar levels, keeping them in the narrow range that your body requires. These hormones are like the yin and yang of blood glucose maintenance. Read on to learn more about how they function and what can happen when they don’t work well. Insulin and glucagon work in what’s called a negative feedback loop. During this process, one event triggers another, which triggers another, and so on, to keep your blood sugar levels balanced. How insulin works During digestion, foods that contain carbohydrates are converted into glucose. Most of this glucose is sent into your bloodstream, causing a rise in blood glucose levels. This increase in blood glucose signals your pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin tells cells throughout your body to take in glucose from your bloodstream. As the glucose moves into your cells, your blood glucose levels go down. Some cells use the glucose as energy. Other cells, such as in your liver and muscles, store any excess glucose as a substance called glycogen. Your body uses glycogen for fuel between meals. Read more: Simple vs. complex carbs » How glucagon works Glucagon works to counterbalance the actions of insulin. About four to six hours after you eat, the glucose levels in your blood decrease, triggering your pancreas to produce glucagon. This hormone signals your liver and muscle cells to change the stored glycogen back into glucose. These cells then release the glucose into your bloodstream so your other cells can use it for energy. This whole feedback loop with insulin and gluca Continue reading >>

Free Fitness Flashcards About Ace Group Instructor

Free Fitness Flashcards About Ace Group Instructor

Personal trainers and group fitness instructors are considered rehabilitation professionals. - True/False Group fitness instructors are valuable members of the healthcare continuum. - True/False Physicians cannot refer patients to a fitness professional without first referring to a physical therapist or athletic trainer. - True/False Physicians are the gatekeepers of allied healthcare. - True/False Recognizes a relatively narrow scope of specialized knowledge in performing duties or tasks as part of a certain profession or occupation- 1. Licensure 2. Cert of completion 3. Professional Cert 4. Knowledge-based cert 5. Registration 6. Curriculum-based A voluntary process by which a non-governmental body grants a time-limited recognition and use of a credential to individuals who have demonstrated that they have met the criteria for required knowledge, skills, or competencies for safe and effective prac Issued after an individual attends or participates in a particular learning event - 1. Licensure 2. Cert of completion 3. Professional Cert 4. Knowledge-based cert 5. Registration 6. Curriculum-based cert Either the professional designation defined by a governmental entity in professional regulations or rules, or to a listing of practitioners - 1. Licensure 2. Cert of completion 3. Professional Cert 4. Knowledge-based cert 5. Registration 6. Curriculum-bas The mandatory process by which a governmental agency grants a time-limited permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation after verifying that he or she has met standardized criteria and offers title protection for those who meet the criteria Issued after an individual completes a course or series of courses and passes an assessment - 1. Licensure 2. Cert of completion 3. Professional Cert 4. Knowledge-based Continue reading >>

How Pathogens Cause Disease

How Pathogens Cause Disease

Summarize Kochs postulates and molecular Kochs postulates, respectively, and explain their significance and limitations Explain the concept of pathogenicity (virulence) in terms of infectious and lethal dose Distinguish between primary and opportunistic pathogens and identify specific examples of each Explain the roles of portals of entry and exit in the transmission of disease and identify specific examples of these portals For most infectious diseases, the ability to accurately identify the causative pathogen is a critical step in finding or prescribing effective treatments. Todays physicians, patients, and researchers owe a sizable debt to the physician Robert Koch (18431910), who devised a systematic approach for confirming causative relationships between diseases and specific pathogens. In 1884, Koch published four postulatesthat summarized his method for determining whether a particular microorganism was the cause of a particular disease: The suspected pathogen must be found in every case of disease and not be found in healthy individuals. The suspected pathogen can be isolated and grown in pure culture. A healthy test subject infected with the suspected pathogen must develop the same signs and symptoms of disease as seen in postulate 1. The pathogen must be re-isolated from the new host and must be identical to the pathogen from postulate 2. Each of Kochs postulates represents a criterion that must be met before a disease can be positively linked with a pathogen. In order to determine whether the criteria are met, tests are performed on laboratory animals and cultures from healthy and diseased animals are compared (Figure1). Figure1. The steps for confirming that a pathogen is the cause of a particular disease using Kochs postulates. In many ways, Kochs postulat Continue reading >>

Chapter2.sociological Research

Chapter2.sociological Research

Outline some of the issues of value neutrality in sociology In the university cafeteria, you set your lunch tray down at a table, grab a chair, join a group of your classmates, and hear the start of two discussions. One person says, Its weird how Justin Bieber has 48 million followers on Twitter. Another says, Disney World is packed year round. Those two seemingly benign statements are claims, or opinions, based on everyday observation of human behaviour. Perhaps the speakers had firsthand experience, talked to experts, conducted online research, or saw news segments on TV. In response, two conversations erupt. I dont see why anyone would want to go to Disney World and stand in those long lines. Are you kidding?! Going to Disney World is one of my favourite childhood memories. Its the opposite for me with Justin Bieber. Seeing people camp out outside his hotel just to get a glimpse of him; it doesnt make sense. Well, youre not a teenage girl. Going to a theme park is way different than trying to see a teenage heart throb. But both are things people do for the same reason: theyre looking for a good time. If you call getting crushed by a crowd of strangers fun. As your classmates at the lunch table discuss what they know or believe, the two topics converge. The conversation becomes a debate. Someone compares Beliebers to Beatles fans. Someone else compares Disney World to a cruise. Students take sides, agreeing or disagreeing, as the conversation veers to topics such as crowd control, mob mentality, political protests, and group dynamics. If you contributed your expanding knowledge of sociological research to this conversation, you might make statements like these: Justin Biebers fans long for an escape from the boredom of real teenage life. Beliebers join together claim Continue reading >>

Increasing Exercise Adherence In People With Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes Using Self-monitoring Strategies : A Feasibility Study. - Ubc Library Open Collections

Increasing Exercise Adherence In People With Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes Using Self-monitoring Strategies : A Feasibility Study. - Ubc Library Open Collections

Increasing exercise adherence in people with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes using self-monitoring strategies : a feasibility study. Exercise levels in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are poor. Exercise can help this population manage their condition by improving blood glucose (BG) regulation for up to 24hr post-exercise. Self-monitoring is a crucial skill for facilitating health behaviour change, and may be particularly relevant for people with prediabetes and T2D as self-monitoring BG can improve many clinically relevant health markers. The impact of self-monitoring BG to improve exercise adherence is not well established. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the efficacy of a self-monitoring group-based intervention using continuous glucose monitors (CGM) at increasing exercise behaviour in individuals with impaired BG.Thirteen participants with prediabetes or T2D were randomized to an 8-week standard care exercise program (CON; n = 7) or 8-week self-monitoring exercise program (SM; n = 6). Participants in SM were taught how to self-monitor their exercise and BG, goal set, and observe how exercise influences BG using CGM. It was hypothesized that monitoring and being privy to real-time personal BG feedback would facilitate self-monitoring, resulting in greater exercise adherence. RM ANOVA revealed significant Group x Time interactions for self-monitoring (p < .01), goal-setting (p = .01), and self-efficacy to self-monitor (p = .01), such that participants in the SM condition increased significantly more across the 8-week program and at 1-month follow-up compared to the CON condition. Exercise behaviour was not significantly different between conditions, but medium effect sizes suggest the SM condition had greater increases compared to CON. T Continue reading >>

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