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Type 2 Diabetes Vs Type 1 Diabetes

Pre-diabetes And Type 1

Pre-diabetes And Type 1

Pre-Diabetes: Pre-Diabetes is a milder form of Diabetes that is sometimes called Impaired Glucose Tolerance. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. Symptoms: Blood sugar level is higher than normal Often there are no symptoms In certain populations (Hispanic, Native Americans and African Americans) a sign of Pre-Diabetes can be Acanthosis Nigricans, which is a skin disorder characterized by dark, thick, velvety skin in body folds and in creases Description: Likely to become Type 2 Diabetes within 10 years Ability to turn life around and keep yourself from developing Type 2 Diabetes 57 million people in the United States have Pre-Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Usually diagnosed in children, most commonly between the ages of 6-12 years and young adults, known as Juvenile Diabetes. Symptoms: Increased thirst and frequent urination Extreme hunger Weight loss despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger Fatigue: If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable Blurred vision: If your blood sugar level is too high, fluid may be pulled from your tissue. Description: Previously called Juvenile Diabetes and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Pancreas doesn’t allow insulin production needed to turn sugar into energy No cure right now, but with treatment can be managed 5-10% of people with diabetes have Type 1 Risk Factors: Decreases of the Pancreas: Injury or diseases of the pancreas, a gland located near the stomach that makes insulin, can inhibit the ability to produce insulin, which can lead to Type 1 Diabetes. Infection or Illness: A range of relatively rare infections or illnesses can damage the pancreas and cause Type 1 Diabetes. Immunosuppression or Auto Immune Response: Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or efficacy of the Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosis

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) require exogenous insulin for survival and should be identified as soon as possible to avoid high morbidity due to a delay in insulin treatment. T1D should be suspected in pediatric patients with hyperglycemia, particularly if they are younger than 10 years; the majority of these patients have T1D, regardless of race or ethnicity. Among adolescents and young adults, the ratio of T1D to T2D shifts. In the 2014 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diabetes Statistics report, the proportions of youth 10-19 years of age with newly diagnosed T1D were: Native Americans, 18%; Asians, 39%; non-Hispanic blacks, 40%; Hispanics, 52%; and non-Hispanic whites, 85% (1). Body mass index was once thought to be suggestive diabetes type, but as obesity rates have risen, patients’ physical characteristics are no longer reliable diagnostic indicators. Among 6222 adult participants in the T1D Exchange, a clinic registry of patients with T1D, 23% were obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2), and another 35% were overweight. Of 8394 children and adolescents, 14% were obese and 23% were overweight (2). Table 1 offers recommendations for the differential diagnosis of T1D and T2D (3,4). T1D is usually characterized by absolute insulin deficiency and should be confirmed by the presence of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, pancreatic islet β cells (tyrosine phosphatase IA-2), zinc transporter (ZnT8), and/or insulin. Documenting the levels of insulin and C-peptide and the presence or absence of immune markers in addition to the clinical presentation may help establish the correct diagnosis to distinguish between T1D and T2D in children or adults (3). Table 1. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics Used to Distinguish Type 1 and Type Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Diabetes In Children And Teens

Until recently, the common type of diabetes in children and teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose,or sugar, get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But now it is becoming more common in children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin well. Children have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if they are overweight or have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or are not active. Children who are African American, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American, or Pacific Islander also have a higher risk. To lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in children Have them maintain a healthy weight Be sure they are physically active Have them eat smaller portions of healthy foods Limit time with the TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet and exercise. If not, patients will need to take oral diabetes medicines or insulin. A blood test called the A1C can check on how you are managing your diabetes. Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

November is National Diabetes Awareness Month, a national health initiative to help the general public better understand what diabetes is, what its symptoms are, and how they can better manage and even prevent symptoms. One of the most common questions that people ask about diabetes is, “What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?” Take a look at some of the key differences between each type, as well as some tips for treatment and management. Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes There are two primary differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The first is that type 1 diabetes most frequently begins in childhood, which is why it is medically referred to as “juvenile-onset diabetes.” This type of diabetes is much more rare than type 2, with only about 5 percent of diabetes cases being type 1. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, can occur at any age but generally develops as an adult and is therefore called “adult-onset diabetes.” The second major difference between the two types lies in the way each affects the body. People with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce insulin, the hormone needed to regulate blood sugar levels and that allows your body to use glucose, or sugar, to create energy. People with type 2 diabetes have what is known as “insulin resistance,” meaning that while their bodies can produce insulin, they are unable to use it properly. Although there is no known cure for either type of diabetes, there are some effective strategies that you can use to help better manage the condition and to even reverse some of its effects. Most notably, it is crucial that those with diabetes take steps to eat a healthy, balanced diet, get regular exercise, and reduce stress. It’s also important that you work closely with your healthcare professio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1 And Type 2: How To Tell The Difference

Diabetes Type 1 And Type 2: How To Tell The Difference

The number of people living with diabetes in the UK has tipped over the 4 million mark for the first time, according to 2016 figures released by Diabetes UK. [Read more: Could you have diabetes? 5 hidden symptoms of diabetes that could mean you're suffering] But the good news is that because most of the 59.8% increase in diagnosis is in type 2 diabetes cases, simple diet and lifestyle changes can help reverse the trend. Diabetes UK says there are now a total of 3.6 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK, compared to nearly 2.1 million in 2005. However, many cases are type 2 diabetes, which is the form often linked to diet and obesity. And that means for some people, a diabetes-healthy lifestyle can control the illness, which is thought to be on the rise because of increasing obesity levels. Such a lifestyle includes losing weight if you're overweight, eating a healthy diet including lots of fruit and vegetables, and exercising. These measures can help reduce blood-sugar levels, and either reduce or even stop any diabetes symptoms. And while some people with type 2 diabetes need to take medication, making these healthy diet and lifestyle choices can mean they don't need to take their tablets any more. People with type 1 diabetes, however, will always need insulin injections. What's the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? While both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterised by having higher than normal blood-sugar levels, the cause and development of the conditions are different. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that means sufferers are unable to produce the hormone insulin, which helps the body use glucose in the blood to produce energy. The immune system attacks insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, and people with type 1 diabetes Continue reading >>

The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes

The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes

SCROLL FOR IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS Important Safety Information have a history of breathing problems have had shingles (herpes zoster) are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. DARZALEX® may harm your unborn baby. Females who are able to become pregnant should use an effective method of birth control during treatment and for at least 3 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider about birth control methods that you can use during this time. Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Your healthcare provider will decide the time between doses as well as how many treatments you will receive. Your healthcare provider will give you medicines before each dose of DARZALEX® and on the first day after each dose of DARZALEX® to help reduce the risk of infusion reactions. If you miss any appointments, call your healthcare provider as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. Infusion reactions. Infusion reactions are common with DARZALEX® and can be severe. Your healthcare provider may temporarily stop your infusion or completely stop treatment with DARZALEX® if you have infusion reactions. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or trouble breathing dizziness or lightheadedness (hypotension) cough wheezing throat tightness runny or stuffy nose headache itching nausea vomiting chills fever Changes in blood tests. DARZALEX® can affect the results of blood tests to match your blood type. These changes can last for up to 6 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to match your blood type before you st Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Workup

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Workup

Laboratory Studies Plasma glucose Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) typically present with symptoms of uncontrolled hyperglycemia (eg, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia). In such cases, the diagnosis of DM can be confirmed with a random (nonfasting) plasma glucose concentration of 200 mg/dL or a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 126 mg/dL (6.99 mmol/L) or higher. [2, 62] A fingerstick glucose test is appropriate in the emergency department (ED) for virtually all patients with diabetes. All fingerstick capillary glucose levels must be confirmed in serum or plasma to make the diagnosis. All other laboratory studies should be selected or omitted on the basis of the individual clinical situation. Intravenous (IV) glucose testing may be considered for possible early detection of subclinical diabetes. Individually measured glucose levels may differ considerably from estimated glucose averages calculated from measured hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. [64] Therefore, caution is urged when the decision is made to estimate rather than actually measure glucose concentration; the difference between the 2 has a potential impact on decision making. Hemoglobin A HbA1c is the stable product of nonenzymatic irreversible glycation of the beta chain of hemoglobin by plasma glucose and is formed at rates that increase with increasing plasma glucose levels. HbA1c levels provide an estimate of plasma glucose levels during the preceding 1-3 months. The reference range for nondiabetic people is 6% in most laboratories. Glycated hemoglobin levels also predict the progression of diabetic microvascular complications. American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend measuring HbA1c at least every 6 months in patients with diabetes who are meeting treatment goals an Continue reading >>

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 And 2 - Topic Overview

In general, people with diabetes either have a total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or they have too little insulin or cannot use insulin effectively (type 2 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes), accounts for 5 to 10 out of 100 people who have diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. But type 2 diabetes in children is rising. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes-90 to 95 out of 100 people. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn't able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency. How are these diseases different? Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease. Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines. It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy wei Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Elevated blood sugar has many causes. Diabetes is classified by type, based on causes. Knowing what type of diabetes you have will help you manage it. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a loss or malfunction of the insulin producing cells, called pancreatic beta cells. Damage to beta cells results in an absence or insufficient production of insulin produced by the body. Most cases of type 1 diabetes have an autoimmune basis, and the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys beta cells. Since insulin is necessary to sustain life, the missing insulin has to be replaced. The replacement insulin is administered by injection using a syringe or an insulin pump, which delivers the insulin under the skin. Basic facts about type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of diabetes worldwide. It is diagnosed in every ethnic group, but is most frequent in individuals of European ancestry. While type 1 diabetes is commonly diagnosed during adolescence and early adulthood, it can occur at any age. Older people who develop type 1 diabetes are often misdiagnosed as having Type 2 diabetes. Most people first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are lean. 85-90% will have no known family history of the disease. There are many theories about what causes type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune disease, viral infection, genetic disposition, and environmental factors may all play a role. There is a hereditary component to type 1 diabetes; however, it is still difficult to predict who will develop it. Among identical twins (who presumably have the same genetic and environmental risk), it is traditionally reported that only about 40% will both have the disease. Recent research suggests that the number may be much higher. Markers in your blood and the presence of certain gene types, coupled with test re Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes

Types Of Diabetes

What Is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease where the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 usually have certain autoantibodies that may appear years before the disease develops, even in the womb. These autoantibodies are used as markers of the disease, but do not necessarily cause the beta cell destruction. Some people, in fact, have these autoantibodies but never develop diabetes (Narendran et al. 2005). (The immune cells that cause the beta cell destruction are thought to be largely T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+), although other immune cells may also play a role.) A number of genes have been identified that are associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Some people, then, have a higher genetic risk than others, in other words, are more genetically susceptible. The genetic component of type 1 diabetes, however, is "neither sufficient nor necessary" (Vehik et al. 2008). That is, there is some environmental component to the disease: someone with high genetic risk might never develop it, while someone with low genetic risk might. More than 85% of the people who do develop type 1 diabetes do not have a parent or sibling with the disease (Larsson et al. 2004). (See the section at the bottom of this page for more on genetics). Type 1 has been divided into type 1A and type 1B, where type 1A has an autoimmune cause, and type 1B is "idiopathic" diabetes, that is, has no known cause. People diagnosed with type 1B show signs of type 1 but have no evidence of autoimmunity (American Diabetes Association, 2011). A surprisingly high percentage (16%) of children and young adults newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in a Colorado diabetes center test negativ Continue reading >>

New Cause Of Diabetes: How Toxins Can Trigger Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

New Cause Of Diabetes: How Toxins Can Trigger Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

PART 2 – New Cause of Diabetes: How Toxins Can Trigger Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Is there a solution to “Toxin Induced Insulin Resistance” (TIIR) for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetics? Epigenetic research reveals true answers to Diabetes. Toxins are in fact the 3rd main cause of cellular inflammation and, what I […] Continue reading >>

Association Of Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed During Childhood And Adolescence With Complications During Teenage Years And Young Adulthood.

Association Of Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed During Childhood And Adolescence With Complications During Teenage Years And Young Adulthood.

Abstract Importance: The burden and determinants of complications and comorbidities in contemporary youth-onset diabetes are unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for complications related to type 1 diabetes vs type 2 diabetes among teenagers and young adults who had been diagnosed with diabetes during childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study from 2002 to 2015 in 5 US locations, including 2018 participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed at younger than 20 years, with single outcome measures between 2011 and 2015. Exposures: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes and established risk factors (hemoglobin A1c level, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and mean arterial blood pressure). Main Outcomes and Measures: Diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. Results: Of 2018 participants, 1746 had type 1 diabetes (mean age, 17.9 years [SD, 4.1]; 1327 non-Hispanic white [76.0%]; 867 female patients [49.7%]), and 272 had type 2 (mean age, 22.1 years [SD, 3.5]; 72 non-Hispanic white [26.5%]; 181 female patients [66.5%]). Mean diabetes duration was 7.9 years (both groups). Patients with type 2 diabetes vs those with type 1 had higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (19.9% vs 5.8%; absolute difference [AD], 14.0%; 95% CI, 9.1%-19.9%; P < .001), retinopathy (9.1% vs 5.6%; AD, 3.5%; 95% CI, 0.4%-7.7%; P = .02), peripheral neuropathy (17.7% vs 8.5%; AD, 9.2%; 95% CI, 4.8%-14.4%; P < .001), arterial stiffness (47.4% vs 11.6%; AD, 35.9%; 95% CI, 29%-42.9%; P < .001), and hypertension (21.6% vs 10.1%; AD, 11.5%; 95% CI, 6.8%-16.9%; P < .001), but not cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (15.7% vs 14.4%; AD, Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the type of diabetes that typically develops in children and in young adults. In type 1 diabetes the body stops making insulin and the blood sugar (glucose) level goes very high. Treatment to control the blood glucose level is with insulin injections and a healthy diet. Other treatments aim to reduce the risk of complications. They include reducing blood pressure if it is high and advice to lead a healthy lifestyle. What is type 1 diabetes? What is type 1 diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. Diabetes mellitus (just called diabetes from now on) occurs when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood becomes higher than normal. There are two main types of diabetes. These are called type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually first develops in children or young adults. In the UK about 1 in 300 people develop type 1 diabetes at some stage. With type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

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