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Body Mass Index History And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer And Nutrition (epic)potsdam Study

Body Mass Index History And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer And Nutrition (epic)potsdam Study

Background: Obesity and increases in body weight in adults are considered to be among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective was to evaluate and compare the associations between weight changes during 2 different periods of adult life and the risk of type 2 diabetes and age at diagnosis. Design: The study included 7720 men and 10 371 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)Potsdam Study with information on weight history; 390 men and 303 women of these participants received a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes during 7 y of follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of weight changes between ages 25 and 40 y and ages 40 and 55 y. Results: RR estimates in men and women were slightly higher for each unit of BMI gain between ages 25 and 40 y [men: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.30); women: 1.24 (1.20, 1.27)] than between ages 40 and 55 y [men: 1.13 (1.10, 1.16); women: 1.11 (1.08, 1.14)]. Severe weight gain between ages 25 and 40 y was associated with a higher diabetes risk in men (1.5 times) and in women (4.3 times) than were stable weight in early adulthood and weight gain in later life, and it resulted in an average lower age at diabetes diagnosis in men (5 y) and in women (3 y). Conclusion: Weight gain in early adulthood is related to a higher risk and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes than is weight gain between 40 and 55 y of age. Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes - Getting Diagnosed - Nhs.uk

Type 2 Diabetes - Getting Diagnosed - Nhs.uk

Type 2 diabetes is often diagnosed following blood or urine tests for something else. However, you should see your GP straight away if you have any symptoms of diabetes . To find out if you have type 2 diabetes, you usually have to go through the following steps: Your GP will check your urine and arrange a blood test to check your blood sugar levels. It usually takes about 1 to 2 days for the results to come back. If you have diabetes, your GP will ask you to come in again so they can explain the test results and what will happen next. What your GP will discuss with you during your appointment depends on the diagnosis and the treatment they recommend. what high blood sugar means for your health your lifestyle for example, alcohol and smoking Your GP will do their best to discuss the diagnosis with you, but this first appointment might only be 10 to 15 minutes. If you have questions about your diagnosis It's usually difficult to take in everything the GP tells you during the appointment. Talk to family and friends about what the GP told you, and write down any questions you have. Then make another GP appointment and take your list of questions with you. There's also a lot of information on diabetes available. Usually, the following things happen after your diagnosis: Your GP will prescribe medication . It might take time for you to get used to the medication and to find the right doses for you. Continue reading >>

Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes

Common Questions About Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body fails to properly use and store glucose. Instead of converting sugar into energy, it backs up in the bloodstream and causes a variety of symptoms. Type 2 (formerly called 'adult-onset' or 'non insulin-dependent') diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as ‘insulin resistance’). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40 years of age, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly found in younger people. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a variety of factors: being overweight, being physically inactive, or your body’s inability to properly use the insulin it produces. In addition, those who have been previously identified as having impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are also at risk. What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes? People with type 2 diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include: being very thirsty frequent urination blurry vision irritability tingling or numbness in the hands or feet frequent skin, bladder or gum infections wounds that don't heal extreme unexplained fatigue In some cases of type 2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Who gets type 2 diabetes? Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overwei Continue reading >>

Seeley Clinical Impact: Diabetes Mellitus

Seeley Clinical Impact: Diabetes Mellitus

How many people are affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus? It results from diminished insulin secretion developed by autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islets. What percent of pancreatic islets need to be destroyed for symptoms to present? Which kind of diabetes mellitus developes in young people What is noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus? the inability of tissues to respond to insulin People older than 40-45 years of age. (beginning to be more common in younger people) Which percent of people with diabetes have type 2? How does type 2 diabetes effect the body? People with type 2 diabetes have reduced number of functional receptors for insulin or one or more of the enzymes activated by insulin receptor are slow, resulting in high glucose after a meal. Obesity is common in which kind of diabetes? Why is obesity common in type 2 diabetes? elevated glucose levels cause adipose cells to convert glucose to lipid, even though the rate at which adipose cells take up glucose is impaired What causes hyperosmolality of blood and dehydration of cells? increased blood glucose and increased urine production How does poor use of nutrients and dehydration of cells effect the body? This causes lethargy, fatigue and periods of irritability How does elevated blood glucose effect the body? effects endothelial tissue of blood vessels, nervous systems ability to respond to tactile sensation resulting in recurrent injury and infection esp. in distal tissues (eg. feet) How do type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ? Type 2- do not experience sudden, large increase in blood glucose and sever tissue wasting because slow rate of glucose uptake does occur even though the receptors are defective How does type 2 diabetes turn into type 1? insulin production eventually decreases because pancreat Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Canagliflozin And Heart Failure In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Canvas Program (canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study)

Canagliflozin And Heart Failure In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From The Canvas Program (canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study)

Canagliflozin and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) Karin Rdholm, Gemma Figtree, Vlado Perkovic, Scott D. Solomon, Kenneth W. Mahaffey, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Terrance D. Barrett, Wayne Shaw, Mehul Desai, David R. Matthews, Bruce Neal Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Local Care West, County Council of stergtland, Linkping University, Sweden; The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia For correspondence: [email protected] The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Royal North Shore Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom The George Institute for Global Health and Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Australia; Imperial College London, United Kingdom BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. We report the effects on heart failure and cardiovascular death overall, in those with and without a baseline history of heart failure, and in other participant subgroups. METHODS: The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) enrolled 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo and followed for a mean of 188 weeks. The primary end point for these analyses wa Continue reading >>

Top Ten Research Priorities For Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The Diabetes Uk–james Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

Top Ten Research Priorities For Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The Diabetes Uk–james Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership

About 20% of the UK population are living with, or are at risk of, type 2 diabetes, with estimated annual National Health Service treatment costs of £8·8 billion.1 This rising tide identifies an urgent need to reduce uncertainties around the causes, prevention, and treatment of type 2 diabetes. A patient-centred approach is a cornerstone of high-quality diabetes care and is mirrored in research by an increasing focus on patient and public involvement.2 The James Lind Alliance has a 13-year history of collaboration with patients, carers, and clinicians in identifying and prioritising unmet research needs to drive improvements in clinical care. A Priority Setting Partnership was set up in 2015 by Diabetes UK and the James Lind Alliance to identify key priorities for future type 2 diabetes research. The four-step process3 was led by a steering group of people living with type 2 diabetes and their carers and multidisciplinarwy health-care professionals. A pretested questionnaire was distributed to more than 70 000 people to identify uncertainties or unanswered questions by asking, “what questions about type 2 diabetes would you like to see answered by research?” 2588 individual respondents to the questionnaire (1936 [75%] people with diabetes or carers, 620 [24%] health-care professionals, and 32 [1%] participants who were not specified; 466 respondents [18% of all respondents] were from black, Asian, and other minority ethnic [BAME] groups) submitted 7978 questions that were classified and collated in a preliminary prioritisation step to form 114 indicative questions. The indicative questions formed a subsequent interim survey to which 1506 people responded and ranked their top ten questions. The top ten questions ranked by people with type 2 diabetes and carers, hea Continue reading >>

Fruit Consumption And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Fruit Consumption And Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies BMJ 2013; 347 doi: (Published 29 August 2013) Cite this as: BMJ 2013;347:f5001 Fumiaki Imamura, investigator scientist 2 , JoAnn E Manson, professor of medicine 3 4 5 , Frank B Hu, professor of nutrition and epidemiology 1 3 5 , Walter C Willett, professor of epidemiology and nutrition 1 3 5 , 1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 3Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA 4Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 5Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 6Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore Correspondence to: Q Sun qisun{at}hsph.harvard.edu Objective To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 66 105 women from the Nurses Health Study (1984-2008), 85 104 women from the Nurses Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36 173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies. Main outcome measure Incident cases of typ Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults. Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease. Continue reading >>

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

Depression And Diabetes Distress In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The Australian National Diabetes Audit (anda) 2016

Depression And Diabetes Distress In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From The Australian National Diabetes Audit (anda) 2016

Depression and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA) 2016 Scientific Reportsvolume8, Articlenumber:7846 (2018) | Download Citation This study explores the prevalence of, and factors associated with, likely depression and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes in a large, national sample. Australian National Diabetes Audit data were analysed from adults with type 2 diabetes attending 50 diabetes centres. The Brief Case find for Depression and Diabetes Distress Score 17 were administered to screen for likely depression and diabetes-related distress, respectively. A total of 2,552 adults with type 2 diabetes participated: (mean SD) age was 63 13 years, diabetes duration was 12 10 years, and HbA1c was 8 2%. Twenty-nine percent of patients had likely depression, 7% had high diabetes distress, and 5% had both. Difficulty following dietary recommendations, smoking, forgetting medications, and diabetes distress were all associated with greater odds of depression whereas higher own health rating was associated with lower odds (all p < 0.02). Female gender, increasing HbA1c, insulin use, difficulty following dietary recommendations and depression were all associated with greater odds of diabetes distress & older age, higher own health rating and monitoring blood glucose levels as recommended were associated with lower odds (all p < 0.04). Depression was associated with sub-optimal self-care, while diabetes distress was associated with higher HbA1c and sub-optimal self-care. Driven by ageing, obesity and sedentary lifestyles, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) currently affects just under 400 million individuals worldwide and is expected to rise exponentially, affecting 592 million by 2035 1 . Globally, Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis To diagnose type 2 diabetes, you'll be given a: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions — such as if you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — that can make the A1C test inaccurate, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood s Continue reading >>

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition have type 2. There are about 27 million people in the U.S. with it. Another 86 million have prediabetes: Their blood glucose is not normal, but not high enough to be diabetes yet. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It's what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. But eventually it can't keep up, and the sugar builds up in your blood instead. Usually a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including: Genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extra weight. Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reac Continue reading >>

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