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Type 2 Diabetes Immune System

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Immune System

Type 2 Diabetes Linked To Immune System

The subject who is truly loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures. For decades, scientists have known that in type 1 diabetes the body's immune system malfunctions and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Insulin is the hormone that plays a key role in moving glucose, or sugar, from the bloodstream into the body's tissues where it's needed for energy. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, has never been considered an autoimmune disorder. People with this condition produce insulin but they don't use it very efficiently - although scientists don't know why. A new study by researchers at Stanford University and the University of Toronto, however, suggests that type 2 diabetes may involve immune-system abnormalities after all. In a series of laboratory experiments, the researchers found they could cause a mouse to develop this form of diabetes by manipulating its immune system. The researchers also found that blood samples of people with type 2 diabetes contained antibodies against some of their own proteins. In other words, their immune systems have turned on them. "This data is highly suggestive that there is an autoimmune component in type 2 diabetes," said Daniel Winer, one of the study's lead authors, along with his twin brother, Shawn Winer, both at the University of Toronto. If further research confirms these findings, published in the journal Nature Medicine, it could lead to new type 2 diabetes treatments that focus on the immune system. Continue reading >>

Type-2 Diabetes Linked To Autoimmune Reaction In Study

Type-2 Diabetes Linked To Autoimmune Reaction In Study

2011 Type-2 diabetes is likely to have its roots in an autoimmune reaction deep within the body, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the University of Toronto. The finding, coupled with a similar study by the same group in 2009, vaults the disorder into an entirely new, unexpected category that opens the door to novel potential therapies. One possible therapy that proved effective in laboratory mice, an antibody called anti-CD20, is already approved for use in humans to treat some blood cancers and autoimmune diseases, although the researchers say further study is needed to determine whether it might work against diabetes in humans. “We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease,” said Daniel Winer, MD, a former postdoctoral scholar in the laboratory of Stanford pathology professor Edgar Engleman, MD. “This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes.” Nearly all type-2 diabetes drugs marketed today are designed to control a patient’s high blood sugar levels — a symptom of the body’s inability to respond properly to insulin. However, the researchers found that anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells, could completely head off the development of type-2 diabetes in laboratory mice prone to the disorder and restore their blood sugar levels to normal. The researchers believe that insulin resistance arises when the B cells and other immune cells react against the body’s own tissues. The human counterpart of anti-CD20, called rituximab, is sold under the trade Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Diabetes Complications: The Immune System

Renegade macrophages—the garbage collectors of the immune system—go rogue in obesity and Type 2 Diabetes The interrelationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes, complications of diabetes, and immune dysfunction has been suspected for more than a decade1. But it has only been in recent years that many of the threads connecting these conditions have been defined. The diagram below illustrates how energy imbalance in adipose tissue, innate immune activation, and alterations in gut microbiota all contribute to potential chronic inflammation, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic complications. The starting point for this begins in white adipose tissue where innate immune cells such as macrophages and maturing adipocytes interact as they deal with diet-driven energy imbalances. The latter causes a massive infiltration of macrophages (the big eaters of the immune system) changing their representation in the tissue from 10% to an estimated 40% of cells. These macrophages polarize into a subtype (called M1) that are pro-inflammatory and behave as if they are fighting a never-ending bacterial infection. Specific lipid metabolites use toll-like and NOD receptors on macrophages to activate a protein complex known as the inflammasome, and this further increases cytokine (and other) mediators of inflammation produced by the M1 macrophages. The macrophage-driven inflammatory attack depletes the maturing adipocyte population causing those cells that survive to swell as they accumulate an inordinate amount of lipids per adipocyte. This progression of the macrophage inflammatory attack in the adipose tissue is bad enough but unlike what happens in Las Vegas, the inflammatory insult does not stay just in the adipose tissue. Instead, an increasing number of metabolically-intolerant, polarized Continue reading >>

What Is The Immune System?

What Is The Immune System?

Your immune system protects you from some things and tolerates others. To maintain health, the balance between a destructive response and a tolerant one has to be just right. To understand the autoimmune attack of beta cells in type 1 diabetes, it helps to understand how the immune system normally functions. In humans, the immune system protects the person from outside invaders (also known as pathogens), such as bacteria or viruses, and abnormal or diseased cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, the immune response allows some foreign material and normal cells for each individual (or “self”) to be tolerated. The balance between a destructive response and a tolerant response has to be just right; otherwise, people get autoimmune medical problems. On this page you will learn about: Lymphocytes & Immune Organs The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. Important immune organs or sites in the body are the thymus, bone marrow and lymph nodes. Lymphocytes include: T cells that can attack or kill infected or defective cells, and also regulate the immune response. The T cell receptors (TCRs) on their cell surface recognize and respond to foreign or abnormal tissue. This process is called cell-mediated immunity. See the glossary below for more about the different types of T cells B cells that make antibodies. B cells are involved in humoral – related to the blood – immunity. NK (natural killer) cells that cause cell death. Immune organs include: The thymus – a gland in the chest that programs the immune system. An important function is to choose and develop T cells that will protect the body and to eliminate T cells that could attack the body. Bone marrow – the source of precursor, or stem cells that can turn into new blood cells. Lymph Continue reading >>

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

10 Little-known Facts About Your Immune System

I honestly thought that with Type 1 diabetes, my immune system was shot to hell. But my husband and oldest daughter always get sick faster and longer than I do. Somehow I seem to fight off "bugs" better than they do. How can this be? Curious as ever, I spent a little time looking into the human immune system and found some pretty intriguing trivia, compiled here for your reading pleasure: 1) Type 1 diabetes doesn't hamper the day-to-day activity of your immune system if you have good blood glucose control. "The autoimmune part of type 1 is very particular, as only the beta cells in the islets are targeted; not the other cells in the islet, and not the other cells in the pancreas. In all of the usual ways, the immune system is just fine," my co-author Dr. Jackson tells me. "There are a few other autoimmune endocrine disorders that are slightly more likely if you have type 1 diabetes. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common, resulting in either an overactive or underactive thyroid." 2) Autoimmune (AI) disease is primarily a women's issue. This according to Rosalind Joffe in her new book, "Women, Work, and Autoimmune Disease" (due out in May '08). The ratios of AI diseases vary from 2:1 to 50:1 in favor of women, she says. 3) Allergies are also an "immune system mistake." "For some reason, in people with allergies, the immune system strongly reacts to an allergen that should be ignored. The allergen might be a certain food, or a certain type of pollen, or a certain type of animal fur. For example, a person allergic to a certain pollen will get a runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, etc." 4) Your immune system is a three-layer deal. Backing up for a moment, did you know that the immune system is composed of these three "layers" or mechanisms? (info from Bio-Medicine) i) Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: Is It An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 Diabetes: Is It An Autoimmune Disease?

For decades, doctors and researchers have believed type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. This type of disorder occurs when your body’s natural chemical processes don’t work properly. New research suggests type 2 diabetes may actually be an autoimmune disease. If that’s the case, new treatments and preventive measures may be developed to treat this condition. Currently, there isn’t enough evidence to fully support this idea. For now, doctors will continue to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes with diet, lifestyle changes, medications, and injected insulin. Read on to learn more about the research that’s being done and the implications it may have on the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has historically been viewed as a different type of disease from type 1 diabetes, despite their similar name. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin or can’t produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood to your cells. Your cells convert glucose to energy. Without insulin, your cells can’t use glucose, and symptoms of diabetes can occur. These symptoms may include fatigue, increased hunger, increased thirst, and blurred vision. Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called juvenile diabetes because it’s often diagnosed in children and teens, is an autoimmune disease. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy tissues of the body and destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The damage from these attacks prevents the pancreas from supplying insulin to the body. Without an adequate supply of insulin, cells can’t get the energy they need. Blood sugar levels rise, leading to symptoms such as frequent urination, increased thirst, and irritability. E Continue reading >>

Role Of T Lymphocytes In Type 2 Diabetes And Diabetes-associated Inflammation

Role Of T Lymphocytes In Type 2 Diabetes And Diabetes-associated Inflammation

Copyright © 2017 Chang Xia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Although a critical role of adaptive immune system has been confirmed in driving local and systemic inflammation in type 2 diabetes and promoting insulin resistance, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. Inflammatory regulation has been focused on innate immunity especially macrophage for a long time, while increasing evidence suggests T cells are crucial for the development of metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance since 2009. There was growing evidence supporting the critical implication of T cells in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We will discuss the available effect of T cells subsets in adaptive immune system associated with the procession of T2DM, which may unveil several potential strategies that could provide successful therapies in the future. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by impaired insulin secretion, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. T2DM is widely viewed as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease caused by long-term immune system imbalance, metabolic syndrome, or nutrient excess associated with obesity [1, 2]. In addition, T2DM associated complications in the kidneys, arteries, and eyes are also manifested by inflammatory process [3]. Therefore, inflammation is considered as a major driving force in T2DM and associated complications. Inflammation was first linked to insulin resistance and diabetes in the early 1990s. Hotamisligil et al. reported an increase of TNF-α in adipose tissue from different animal models of obesity and dia Continue reading >>

The Immune Systems Involvement In Obesity-driven Type 2 Diabetes

The Immune Systems Involvement In Obesity-driven Type 2 Diabetes

The immune systems involvement in obesity-driven type 2 diabetes 1Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 *Address correspondence to: Christophe Benoist and Diane Mathis, Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, [email protected] , Phone: (617) 432-7741, Fax: (617) 432-7744 D. Mathis and C. Benoist are inventors on a patent concerning adipose-tissue Tregs. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Semin Immunol See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Type 2 diabetes is now a worldwide epidemic, strongly correlated with an elevated incidence of obesity. Obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation is a major cause of the decreased insulin sensitivity seen in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shed light on the crosstalk between the immune system and organismal metabolism. This review discusses the connection between inflammation in adipose tissue and systemic insulin resistance, focusing on the roles of innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in the pathogenesis of this metabolic disease. Keywords: Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, Inflammation, Adipose tissue, Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem characterized by a defect in insulin secretion and/or a decrease in sensitivity to insulin, also termed insulin resistance. The result is an increase in blood glucose levels as adipocytes and muscle cells are compromised in their glucose uptake, while hepatocytes continue to produce glucose. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, currently a worldwide epidemic [ 1 , 2 ]. The association between these conditions is thought to refle Continue reading >>

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Overview

Almost everyone knows someone who has diabetes. An estimated 23.6 million people in the United States -- 7.8 percent of the population -- have diabetes, a serious, lifelong condition. Of those, 17.9 million have been diagnosed, and about 5.7 million people have not yet been diagnosed. Each year, about 1.6 million people aged 20 or older are diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism -- the way our bodies use digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food we eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach. When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into our cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of sugar. The three main types of diabetes are Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the body's system for fighting infection (the immune system) turns against a part of the body. In diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live. At present, scientists do not know exactly wh Continue reading >>

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Is Type 2 Diabetes An Autoimmune Disease?

Type 2 diabetes is in the process of being redefined as an autoimmune disease rather than just a metabolic disorder, said an author of a new study published in Nature Medicine this week, the findings of which may lead to new diabetes treatments that target the immune system instead of trying to control blood sugar. As part of the study the researchers showed that an antibody called anti-CD20, which targets and eliminates mature B cells in the immune system, stopped diabetes type 2 developing in lab mice prone to develop the disease, and restored their blood sugar level to normal. Anti-CD20, available in the US under the trade names Rituxan and MabThera, is already approved as a treatment for some autoimmune diseases and blood cancers in humans, but more research is needed to see if it will work against diabetes in humans. The researchers believe that insulin resistance, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (unlike type 1 diabetes where it is the insulin-producing cells that are destroyed), is the result of B cells and other immune cells attacking the body's own tissues. Co-first author Daniel Winer, now an endocrine pathologist at the University Health Network of the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, started working on the study as a postdoctoral scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine in California, USA. He told the press that: "We are in the process of redefining one of the most common diseases in America as an autoimmune disease, rather than a purely metabolic disease." "This work will change the way people think about obesity, and will likely impact medicine for years to come as physicians begin to switch their focus to immune-modulating treatments for type-2 diabetes," he added. The discovery brings type 2 diabetes, until now considered to be more of a Continue reading >>

Type 2: Autoimmune?

Type 2: Autoimmune?

Conventional wisdom holds that Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition — caused by a misguided attack by the immune system on the beta cells of the pancreas — while Type 2 diabetes is not, caused instead by a combination of genes and lifestyle. Experts have debated the relative importance of genes, lifestyle, and environmental factors in the development of Type 2 diabetes — and at times, studies linking Type 2 diabetes to pollution and toxins have fueled speculation that autoimmunity plays a role in its development. But until this month, there was little conclusive evidence of an autoimmune role in Type 2 diabetes. That changed last week, with the release of a study that addressed the potential connection between autoimmunity and Type 2 diabetes head-on. Published on the Web site of the journal Nature Medicine, the study had two components: one in humans, and one in mice. As described in a HealthDay article, for the mouse experiment, researchers fed mice a high-fat diet that would be expected to induce insulin resistance, a hallmark of Type 2 diabetes in humans. After five weeks, they gave some of the mice a drug, known as anti-CD20, that suppresses the immune system by depleting a type of immune system cell known as B cells. In mice given the drug, there was no sign of insulin resistance, and blood glucose levels were normal. All of the other mice developed insulin resistance. This result suggests that in overweight mice — and, most likely, humans — an immune system attack on fat cells, instigated by B cells, leads to insulin resistance. Conducting a similar experiment in humans would be much more complicated, both pragmatically and ethically, since the drug anti-CD20 (known as rituximab when intended for humans) broadly suppresses the immune system, not j Continue reading >>

New Research Suggests The Immune System Could Aid In Regulating Insulin In Type 2 Diabetes

New Research Suggests The Immune System Could Aid In Regulating Insulin In Type 2 Diabetes

The immune system could play a beneficial role in regulating insulin, according to a study from Switzerland. Researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have discovered a feedback mechanism in the pancreas of overweight patients with type 2 diabetes that could help maintain insulin production. In the study, which was published in Immunity, researchers looked at the impact the IL33 protein—which is activated during diabetic conditions—had on ILC2 immune cells located in the pancreas. They found that the IL33 protein stimulated ILC2 cells, triggering the release of insulin in overweight patients through the use of retinoic acid, according to a statement about the findings. The finding suggests that this release of insulin could help combat the failure of insulin production in diabetic individuals. "It's a proof of concept that the immune system can have a positive influence on insulin secretion," Marc Y. Donath, MD, one of the study's authors, told Drug Topics. Donath, who is Chief of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the University Hospital Basel, said that while the deleterious role of chronic inflammation during development of type 2 diabetes has already been established, this study demonstrates that the immune system also has components that could provide a protective or beneficial role to patients with the disease. "The complex interactions between endocrine cells and immune cells are clearly significant for the maintenance of insulin release," according to the statement. Before the immune system can be used to maintain insulin production, several questions still need to be answered, including what is the best molecule to target, the long-term effects of the strategy, safety concerns, and the translation of such research for humans, Donath told Continue reading >>

Immune (lymphatic) System And Diabetes - Components, White Blood Cells

Immune (lymphatic) System And Diabetes - Components, White Blood Cells

The immune system is also known as the lymphatic system The immune system plays an important role in the body by keeping us free from infection. As with other organ systems, problems with the immune system can occur, leading to the development of long term conditions, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes . The role of the immune system is to protect the body from bacteria, viruses and tumours. The immune system deals with these threats in a number of different ways, from engulfing bacteria to killing parasites, tumours and cells infected with viruses. The following organs make up the immune system: A key part of the immune system are the white blood cells which are produced by bone marrow and help the immune system to perform its role. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found within bones. Bone marrow is responsible for producing red and white blood cells . White blood cells play an important role in how the body fights infection. Read more about bone marrow Link to new content The thymus is an organ located between the heart and the breast bone. The thymus produces hormones involved in the immune system and is also responsible for the maturation of powerful immune cells called lymphocytes. The spleen is located between the stomach and the diaphragm and performs a number of activities for the immune system. The spleen filters bacteria and viruses out of the blood and stores red blood cells and lymphocytes for release when required. For example, if the body contracts an infection, the spleen can release a ready supply of lymphocytes to control the infection. The lymph nodes are situated at several parts of the body including at the: The lymph nodes filter the lymph fluid and white blood cells attack any bacteria or viruses that are present. The white blood cells play a very Continue reading >>

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

The Effects Of Diabetes On Your Body

When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Normally after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in the cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. The insulin can’t be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much-needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system. The effects of diabetes on your body also depends on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body’s ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as a child or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur i Continue reading >>

6 Ways To Boost Your Immunity With Diabetes

6 Ways To Boost Your Immunity With Diabetes

Diabetes is often considered an autoimmune disease, especially type 1. The body is unable to produce any insulin. In type 2, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not use it correctly. Either kind of diabetes can lower the actions of the immune system. People with diabetes are more prone to sickness and infection due to reduced action of white blood cells. Discover ways to boost your immunity with either type of diabetes and combat attacks from invaders such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Portion Size and Carbohydrates Make a Difference The foods we eat can boost our immune system and may help people with diabetes control blood sugar levels. Conversely, the wrong foods can be unhealthy and cause our blood sugar levels to rise which ends up decreasing our immunity. Portion control is crucial as weight gain can harm the immune system by increasing inflammation and make it more difficult to control blood sugar levels. Consider using portion plates to determine the proper amount of protein, carbohydrates and vegetables to serve during each meal. Never skip meals and always test your blood sugars as suggested. If snacks are recommended (depending on your medication regimen) eat them when scheduled. It may also be helpful to count calories. Too many calories can lead to weight gain which causes the immune system to slack. Instead of actual counting of calories, use a small kitchen scale or cup measurements to help you visualize portion size. After a while you will understand what a true portion is. You can also use common objects such as a fist, thumb, tennis ball or deck of cards to realize what a reasonable portion really looks like. Counting carbohydrates is critical to keeping blood sugars controlled and immune systems working properly. Schedule an app Continue reading >>

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