Diabetes In Your Dna? Scientists Zero In On The Genetic Signature Of Risk
ANN ARBOR—Why do some people get type 2 diabetes, while others who live the same lifestyle never do? For decades, scientists have tried to solve this mystery—and have found more than 80 tiny DNA differences that seem to raise the risk of the disease in some people, or protect others from the damagingly high levels of blood sugar that are its hallmark. But no one "type 2 diabetes signature" has emerged from this search. Now, a team of scientists has reported a discovery that might explain how multiple genetic flaws can lead to the same disease. They've identified something that some of those diabetes-linked genetic defects have in common: they seem to change the way certain cells in the pancreas "read" their genes. The discovery could eventually help lead to more personalized treatments for diabetes. But for now, it's the first demonstration that many type 2 diabetes-linked DNA changes have to do with the same DNA-reading molecule. Called Regulatory Factor X, or RFX, it's a master regulator for a number of genes. The team reporting the findings in a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences comes from the University of Michigan, National Institutes of Health, Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, University of North Carolina and University of Southern California. They report that many diabetes-linked DNA changes affect the ability of RFX to bind to specific locations in the genomes of pancreas cell clusters called islets. And that in turn changes the cells' ability to carry out important functions. Islets contain the cells that make hormones, including insulin and glucagon, which keep blood sugar balanced in healthy people. In people with diabetes, that regulation goes awry—leading to a range of health problems that can develop over many y Continue reading >>
Prevalence Of Type 2 Diabetes Is Higher In Peripheral Artery Disease Than In Coronary Artery Disease Patients
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for atherosclerosis and are highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in patients with peripheral artery disease is not as well elucidated. We aimed at comparing prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes, which were diagnosed according to the current American Diabetes Association criteria, among 364 patients with peripheral artery disease, 529 patients with coronary artery disease and 383 controls. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in peripheral artery disease patients was 49.7%. It was significantly higher in these patients than in coronary artery disease patients (34.4%; p < 0.001) and controls (21.4%; p < 0.001). Adjusted for sex, age and body mass index, odds ratios for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5–2.6) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with the coronary artery disease group (p < 0.001) and 4.0 (2.8–5.8) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with controls (p < 0.001). The prevalence of pre-diabetes among non-diabetic subjects was high in all three study groups (64.5% in peripheral artery disease patients, 63.4% in coronary artery disease patients and 61.8% in controls), without significant between-group differences. In conclusion, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is even higher in peripheral artery disease patients than in coronary artery disease patients. This observation underlines the need to consider impaired glucose regulation in the management of peripheral artery disease. 1. Bartnik, M, Rydén, L, Ferrari, R.; Euro Heart Survey Investigators. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Continue reading >>
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Genetic Regulatory Signatures Underlying Islet Gene Expression And Type 2 Diabetes.
Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 independent SNPs that modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of most of these SNPs remain elusive. Here, we examined genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic profiles in human pancreatic islets to understand the links between genetic variation, chromatin landscape, and gene expression in the context of T2D. We first integrated genome and transcriptome variation across 112 islet samples to produce dense cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) maps. Additional integration with chromatin-state maps for islets and other diverse tissue types revealed that cis-eQTLs for islet-specific genes are specifically and significantly enriched in islet stretch enhancers. High-resolution chromatin accessibility profiling using assay for transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) in two islet samples enabled us to identify specific transcription factor (TF) footprints embedded in active regulatory elements, which are highly enriched for islet cis-eQTL. Aggregate allelic bias signatures in TF footprints enabled us de novo to reconstruct TF binding affinities genetically, which support the high-quality nature of the TF footprint predictions. Interestingly, we found that T2D GWAS loci were strikingly and specifically enriched in islet Regulatory Factor X (RFX) footprints. Remarkably, within and across independent loci, T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic compo Continue reading >>
- Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism
- Relative contribution of type 1 and type 2 diabetes loci to the genetic etiology of adult-onset, non-insulin-requiring autoimmune diabetes
- Researchers identify gene variants linked to both type 2 diabetes and CHD risk
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4 Facts You Should Know About Type 1 Diabetes
Kristy writes: I was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when I was 11 years old. I grew up hearing comments like "You're diabetic? Oh, I'm sorry you can't have sugar" or "You take insulin? Wow, your diabetes must be really bad." Can you PLEASE teach people that Type 1 diabetes isn't caused by poor lifestyle choices and cannot be reversed with diet and exercise?" Kristy's right: Type 2 diabetes gets a lot more attention in the mainstream press. For one thing, it's a lot more common, accounting for about 90% of diabetes patients. The other reason nutritionists and other health experts talk so much about it is that an awful lot of Type 2 diabetes could be prevented (or even reversed) through diet and exercise. See also: Can You Reverse Diabetes with Diet? Those with Type 1 diabetes are suffering from a completely different disease, with completely different causes and treatments. I can certainly understand the frustration of Type 1 sufferers when people don't understand the difference and make what must feel like insensitive or unsupportive comments. Here are a few things to know about Type 1 diabetes. 1. Type 1 diabetes is not caused by eating too much sugar or being overweight. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease that attacks the pancreas and destroys the body's ability to produce insulin. The condition cannot be prevented or treated with a healthy diet and lifestyle or by losing weight. In fact, dramatic unexplained weight loss can be a warning sign for undiagnosed Type 1 diabetes. 2. Type 1 diabetics do not just need insulin when they eat something sweet. They need to take insulin no matter what they eat. The amount of insulin they take is adjusted to reflect the carbohydrate content of their meals and their blood sugar levels. This, by the way, is exactly what happe Continue reading >>
Should Type 2 Be Capitalized?
When writing medical terminologies, people are often confused as to when they should capitalize the terminology, italicize it or leave it as such. For diabetes, people are very confused whether or not it should be capitalized. Some tend to type Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in small caps while others would capitalize its first letters. Medical agencies have also varied when it comes to capitalizing Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in its reports or articles. Many have expressed their frustration regarding these types and the way it has to be written. However, back in the past, capitalizing Type 2 diabetes was not a problem for those hoping to ensure that their grammar was correct when using these terminologies. Not many know but diabetes was not previously divided into types such as Type 1 or Type 2 back in the past. In 1979, the nomenclature or classification for diabetes was introduced by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG). Under the document, the two major types of diabetes were given descriptive names based on their clinical structure: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The World Health Organization (WHO) approved this typing a year later; however, since research has continuously discovered new things about the disease, the typing was no longer suitable. Many patients ended up getting the wrong classification for their diabetes type, affecting their evaluation and treatment. Research has also pointed out new types of diabetes which did not fit the two major types cited by the NDDG, thus the necessity to revise the typing and establish new criteria for diagnosis. Eventually, the new classification system indicated four major types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 (Type I), type 2 (Type II), other types and gestationa Continue reading >>
—should Be Placed On News Releases Between Contact Information And The News Release Headline. Links Should Take The Reader Directly To The Page Containing The Information On Healthnews.uc.edu. Must Take The Following Form:
Academic Health Center—The University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center is located in the Corryville neighborhood of Cincinnati and includes the colleges of allied health sciences, medicine, nursing and pharmacy, Hoxworth Blood Center, UC Cancer Institute at University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the Metabolic Diseases Institute on UC's Reading Campus and UC Health University of Cincinnati Physicians. Teaching and research affiliates include University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Shriners Hospital for Children–Cincinnati, Jewish Hospital, Christ Hospital and the UC Gardner Neuroscience Institute. African-American—Always hyphenated, both as compound adjective and noun. According to AP, black is the preferred term. Abbreviations—Don’t use periods in MD, IV, USA, PhD, etc. Note: An abbreviation is not necessarily an acronym, which is an abbreviation that can be pronounced as a word, e.g., UNESCO, NATO. Don’t use an abbreviation of an organization’s name in parentheses following the name , e.g., Food and Drug Administration (FDA), unless the organization is referred to again in the copy. Then in subsequent references use the abbreviation. When abbreviating units of measure, follow Webster, e.g., mm, a 20-mm instrument. In nonscientific copy, however, it’s normal to spell out units of measure (pound, inch, year, day, month, minute, etc.). Academic fields (specialties)—Not capped when used outside of an official name or title, e.g., "He studied radiology at Harvard." "She is now chair of radiology." Acronyms—No periods, e.g., CORVA, HUD, ORSANCO. Note: a group of initials is called an "acronym" only when it forms a pronounceable "word.” E. Continue reading >>
Potato And Potatoes, Tomato And Tomatoes
The plural form of potato is potatoes. The plural form of tomato is tomatoes. There are many rules in English for the construction of plural nouns, potatoes and tomatoes are examples of plural nouns that are exceptions to a rule. Some dictionaries list the word potatoe as a variant spelling of potato, this variation doesn’t appear to be wide-spread. In general, nouns that end in -o form plurals by simply adding -s, such as volcanos, tacos, zoos. Potato and tomato belong to a set of nouns that end with the letter -o that form plurals by adding -es. Other plurals formed by adding -es to words ending with -o are echoes, torpedoes and vetoes. Advertisement Examples Potatoes are the vegetable that take breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks to the next level of yum. (The Las Vegas Review-Journal) Since any cream, milk or broth should be warmed first (more on this later) before adding it to the potatoes, add the garlic to any of these as they warm. (The Times Record) However replacing three servings of potatoes a week with wholegrains – such as rice, quinoa, wheat and corn – could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes by 12 per cent, researchers concluded. (The Daily Mail) Tomato juice in the United States is often made from tomato paste, but Canadian regulations require fresh tomatoes. (The New York Times) The price of tomatoes, which surged higher after a hot, dry summer and then retreated, is climbing higher again just three months later because of a virus that is taking a heavy toll on the local crop. (Haaretz) Israel on Tuesday dispelled the notion that several tons of Gaza-produced tomatoes were rejected from import because they were found to contain carcinogenic chemicals. (The Times of Israel) Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes And Dna: Scientists Zero In On The Genetic Signature Of Risk
A new discovery helps explain how multiple DNA differences can lead to development of the same disease: type 2 diabetes. Why do some people get type 2 diabetes, while others who live the same lifestyle don’t? For decades, scientists have tried to solve this mystery — and have found more than 80 tiny DNA differences that seem to either raise the diabetes risk in some people or protect others from the disease’s damagingly high blood sugar levels. MORE FROM THE LAB: Subscribe to our weekly newsletter But no one type 2 diabetes signature has emerged from this search. Now, a team of scientists reports a commonality among some diabetes-linked genetic defects, a discovery that might explain how multiple genetic flaws can lead to the same disease. Specifically, the flaws seem to change the way certain cells in the pancreas “read” genes. It’s the first demonstration that many type 2 diabetes-linked DNA changes have to do with the same DNA-reading molecule. Called regulatory factor X, or RFX, it’s a master regulator for a number of genes. The discovery could lead to more personalized treatments for diabetes. The work from the University of Michigan, the National Institutes of Health, the Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, the University of North Carolina and the University of Southern California is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Many diabetes-linked DNA changes affect the ability of RFX to bind to specific locations in the genomes of pancreas cell clusters called islets, the team reports. This in turn changes the cells’ ability to carry out important functions. Islets contain the cells that make hormones, including insulin and glucagon, which keep blood sugar balanced in healthy people. In people with diabetes, that regulat Continue reading >>
2 Diabetes Type Mellitus Papers Research
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Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada with more than 60,000 new cases yearly. Nine out of ten people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. The good news is that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or postponed by making healthy lifestyle choices. Diabetes is a lifelong condition where either your body does not produce enough insulin, or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. The body needs insulin in order to change the sugar from food into energy. If your body does not have insulin or cannot use it properly, the result is a high blood sugar (glucose) level. There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1, where the body makes little or no insulin. Type 2, where the body makes insulin but cannot use it properly. Gestational diabetes, where the body does not properly use insulin during pregnancy. This type of diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born. At the present, type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, and people living with type 1 diabetes depend on insulin to stay alive. It is estimated that close to two million Canadian adults have diabetes. One third of these people are unaware that they have the disease. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in Canada and the cost of diabetes is estimated to be up to $9 billion a year. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes The classic symptoms of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) are the following: fatigue; frequent urination; unusual thirst; and unexplained weight loss. In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms usually progress quickly and are often dramatic. In type 2 diabetes, symptoms are slower to progress. However, it is important to note that many people who have type 2 diabetes may have no symptoms. These people may find out they have type 2 diabetes when they go to the doctor for another, unrelated prob Continue reading >>
Genetic Signature For Type 2 Diabetes Risk May Have Been Identified
Scientists believe they've finally pinpointed the genetic reason some people get Type 2 diabetes while others with similar lifestyles do not. The Type 2 diabetes signature has been known for some time, but not very well understood. A new study has determined that some of those signature links may change the way certain cells in the pancreas operate. The genes specifically affect how certain pancreatic cells "read" their genetic code. These DNA-reading molecules are part of Regulatory Factor X (RFX), which is a "master regulator" for a number of genes. The findings could lead to personalized treatments for Type 2 diabetes. A new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences outlines the findings. Those findings are the property of cooperative research between the University of Michigan, the National Institutes of Health, the Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, the University of North Carolina, and the University of Southern California. Many diabetes-linked DNA changes affect the ability of RFX to bind to specific locations in genomes of pancreas cell clusters (called islets). This in turn affects the cells' ability to function. "We have found that many of the subtle DNA spelling differences that increase risk of Type 2 diabetes appear to disrupt a common regulatory grammar in islet cells," says Stephen C.J. Parker, Ph.D., an assistant professor of computational medicine and bioinformatics, and of human genetics, at the U-M Medical School. "RFX is probably unable to read the misspelled words, and this disruption of regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic risk of Type 2 diabetes." The researchers note that this same process could be part of a neonatal diabetes that is particularly fatal. Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabet Continue reading >>
Can Texting Improve Spelling And Grammar?
Children who use unorthodox spelling and grammar while texting—such as using abbreviations and incomplete sentences—may not affect their ability to learn the proper rules of English in the long run, according to a new study. Scientists at Coventry University and the University of Tasmania recruited more than 160 children between ages eight and 16. The children were asked to take a range of formal spelling, grammar and cognitive tests and were also asked to copy out all of their text messages over a two-day period. The researchers then looked at how many incidences and types of spelling and grammar “violations” the children used and compared them with the children’s results from the formal tests. After 12 months, the researchers repeated the process. The study’s findings, published in the British Journal of Developmental Psychology, showed that the most creative texters were among the best spellers. The children who used word reduction, ungrammatical word forms and unconventional spelling fared better on spelling tests 12 months later. Researchers said that the study’s results could be explained by the fact that abbreviations used in text messages are typically phonetically based, by which children may practice their understanding of letters and corresponding sounds. The study did not conclude that using unorthodox language in text messages directly improves spelling and grammar; rather, the findings suggested that communicating on digital devices may not hinder children from learning conventional rules of formal grammar. NEXT: First kidney transplant: June 17, 1950 Sourced from: BBC, Texting ‘can boost children’s spelling and grammar’ Men who eat more processed red meat may be at increased risk of heart failure, according to a new study. While previo Continue reading >>
To Hyphenate Or Not To Hyphenate?
Recently, in editing my essays for my forthcoming book, The Business of Editing: Effective and Efficient Ways to Think, Work, and Prosper (ISBN 978-1-4341-0369-7; Waking Lion Press; 2014), Ruth Thaler-Carter raised this question: “Shouldn’t custom built locally be custom-built locally?” There are three editors on this project — Ruth, myself, and Jack Lyon — which has meant there have been some lively language discussions and this was another such discussion. The opinion was split 2-1 in favor of hyphenation. I was the dissenting opinion and so won the battle as the author and final decider, but that doesn’t mean my decision was the grammatically right decision; it just means that as the named author I had final decision-making power and exercised it. If you lookup “custom built” in the dictionary (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language [5th ed] and the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary [11th ed]), you find the entry hyphenated followed by “adj.” It is those three letters that cause the problem. I agree that custom built needs to be hyphenated in an adjectival phrase, such as custom-built computer. But when not used in an adjectival phrase, as in “custom built locally,” I see no reason to hyphenate. What does hyphenation accomplish? Is a reader misled in the absence of the hyphenation? Is “custom built locally” more understandable when hyphenated and, conversely, less understandable when not hyphenated? This is similar to the questions raised by short term and long term. A look at the dictionaries indicates that these are also adjectives and hyphenated. But there is no mention of when they are not adjectives. For example, “When the short term expires, payment will be due.” Editors rely on dictionaries and other us Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) type 2 is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). In 2012, it was estimated that approximately 9.3% of the United States population had diabetes, with roughly 90% of these cases being type 2. In contrast to type 1, in which pancreatic β-cells are actively destroyed by an autoimmune process, type 2 diabetes has no clear destruction of β-cells—cells responsible for the synthesis and secretion of the regulatory hormone insulin. Instead, it appears that a number of factors produce a relative insufficiency of insulin to adequately control and process glucose in peripheral tissues. As such, type 2 DM is often referred to as “insulin resistant” diabetes. Table 1 shows some normal functions of insulin. Table 1: Normal functions of insulin. The effects of insulin on various metabolic functions are shown with respect to anatomical distribution. Insulin resistance is defined as the failure of tissues to respond normally to insulin, leading to decreased uptake of glucose in muscle, reduced glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation in the liver, and unregulated gluconeogenesis. As the β-cells themselves are still capable of producing and secreting insulin, the hyperglycemic conditions wrought by insulin resistance continue to up-regulate these functions. This produces significant strain on the cells, and may ultimately lead to β-cell failure due to this increased stress. Certain environmental factors may play an important role in the development of clinically evident type 2 DM such as a sedentary lifestyle, diet, aging, and obesity. The physiologic changes seen in obesity, including increased adipose tissue and free fatty acids, inflammation and associated inflammatory mediators, insulin resistance and an overa Continue reading >>
- Women in India with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Strategy (WINGS): Methodology and development of model of care for gestational diabetes mellitus (WINGS 4)
- Postprandial Blood Glucose Is a Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than Fasting Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Particularly in Women: Lessons from the San Luigi Gonzaga Diabetes Study
- Metabolic surgery for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Now supported by the world's leading diabetes organizations