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Type 2 Diabetes Explained

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which sugar, or glucose, levels build up in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin helps move the sugar from your blood into your cells, which are where the sugar is used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells aren’t able to respond to insulin as well as they should. In later stages of the disease your body may also not produce enough insulin. Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels, causing several symptoms and potentially leading to serious complications. In type 2 diabetes your body isn’t able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms. Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include: constant hunger a lack of energy fatigue weight loss excessive thirst frequent urination dry mouth itchy skin blurry vision As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially dangerous. If your blood sugar levels have been high for a long time, the symptoms can include: yeast infections slow-healing cuts or sores dark patches on your skin foot pain feelings of numbness in your extremities, or neuropathy If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should see your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening. Diabetes has a powerful effect on your heart. Women with diabetes are twice as likely to have another heart attack after the first one. They’re at quadruple the risk of heart failure when compared to women without diabetes. Diabetes can also lead to complications during pregnancy. Diet is an imp Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Too much glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells. The good news is that you can take steps to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes. Who is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes? You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or obese. Diabetes is more common in people who are African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander. Physical inactivity and certain health problems such as high blood pressure affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes. What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger feeling tired blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people have no symptoms. Some people do not fi Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, And Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Signs, Diet, And Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar (glucose) efficiently for energy. This happens when the cells become insensitive to insulin and the blood sugar gradually gets too high. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In type 2, the pancreas still makes insulin, but the cells cannot use it very efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make insulin due to auto-immune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Type 2 can be caused by: Lack of activity (sedentary behavior) Genetics Risk factors include: Being overweight Being sedentary including watching more than 2 hours of TV per day Drinking soda Consuming too much sugar and processed food The signs and symptoms of this type of this type of diabetes are sometimes subtle. The major symptom is often being overweight. Other symptoms and signs include: Urinating a lot Gaining or losing weight unintentionally Dark skin under armpits, chin, or groin Unusual odor to urine Blurry vision Often there are no specific symptoms of the condition and it goes undiagnosed until routine blood tests are ordered. A blood sugar level more than 125 when fasting or more than 200 randomly is a diagnosis for diabetes. Treatment is with diet and lifestyle changes that include eating less sugary foods, and foods that are high in simple carbohydrates (sugar, bread, and pasta.) Sometimes a person will need to take drugs, for example, metformin (Glucophage). People with both types of diabetes need monitor their blood sugar levels often to avoid high (hyperglycemia) and low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). Complications include heart and kidney disease, neuropathy, sexual and/or urinary problems, foot problems, and eye problems. This health condition can be prevented by following a Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy. Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes. Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chan Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose , the main type of sugar in the blood. Our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients we need, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers the pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either can't make or can't respond to insulin properly. Insulin works like a key that opens the doors to cells and lets the glucose in. Without insulin, glucose can't get into the cells (the doors are "locked" and there is no key) and so it stays in the bloodstream. As a result, the level of sugar in the blood remains higher than normal. High blood sugar levels are a problem because they can cause a number of health problems. The two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. Both make blood sugar levels higher than normal but they do so in different ways. Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system attacks and destroys the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Kids with type 1 diabetes need insulin to help keep their blood sugar levels in a normal range. Type 2 diabetes is different. A person with type 2 diabetes still produces insulin but the body doesn't respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (a problem called insulin resistance ). This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal. People with insulin resistance may or may not develop type 2 diabetes it all depends on whether the pancreas can make enough insulin to keep b Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Overview Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin These pages are about type 2 diabetes. Read more about type 1 diabetes. Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear after birth. Symptoms of diabetes The symptoms of diabetes occur because the lack of insulin means glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. Your body tries to reduce blood glucose levels by getting rid of the excess glucose in your urine. Typical symptoms include: feeling very thirsty passing urine more often than usual, particularly at night feeling very tired weight loss and loss of muscle bulk See your GP if you think you may have diabetes. It's very important for it to be diagnosed as soon as possible as it will get progressively worse if left untreated. Causes of type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. This means glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity and tends to be diagnosed in older people. It's far more common than type 1 diabetes. Treating type 2 diabetes As type 2 diabetes usually gets worse, you may eventually need medication – usually tablets – to keep your blood glucose at normal levels. Complications of type 2 diabetes Diabetes can cause serious long-term heal Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells, called beta cells. The pancreas is below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults. Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease. Continue reading >>

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Articles Ontype 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a life-long disease that affects the way your body handles glucose, a kind of sugar, in your blood. Most people with the condition have type 2. There are about 27 million people in the U.S. with it. Another 86 million have prediabetes: Their blood glucose is not normal, but not high enough to be diabetes yet. Your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It's what lets your cells turn glucose from the food you eat into energy. People with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. Doctors call this insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells. But eventually it can't keep up, and the sugar builds up in your blood instead. Usually a combination of things cause type 2 diabetes, including: Genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extra weight. Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around the middle. Now type 2 diabetes affects kids and teens as well as adults, mainly because of childhood obesity. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood glucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol and triglycerides. Too much glucose from your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and usually the liver will slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers don't. They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes cells send the wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, a chain reac Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. Learn what diabetes is and how it affects your body, what kind of diabetes you have, and how to manage your health. Understanding diabetes is the first step toward managing it. So what do you need to know? First, you need to know what diabetes is and how it affects your body. And you’ll need to know what kind of diabetes you have. Next you have to know how to maintain your health, treat your diabetes, know when your treatment is successful and what to do when it’s not. This section will take you through the answers to these first questions, and give you important information that will help you live a healthy life with diabetes. In this section you will learn: What is type 2 diabetes?: Information about how people develop type 2 diabetes and who gets type 2 diabetes How The Body Processes Sugar: Information about the natural control of blood sugar, and what is different when you have diabetes Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes, Explained

Type 2 Diabetes, Explained

Almost one million people in Australia have type 2 diabetes – a metabolic condition that leads to uncontrolled levels of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. Blood glucose levels that are consistently above the normal range can cause serious complications: vision loss, kidney disease, foot and leg problems, and an increased risk of stroke and heart disease. It’s important to find the best treatment to keep your blood glucose levels within your target range. Continue reading >>

Explained

Explained

About Diabetes Diabetes is a chronic condition where a person has high blood glucose (sometimes called blood sugar) levels. For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. To understand diabetes, it’s helpful to understand the basics of how your body metabolises (breaks down) blood glucose. Most of the cells in your body need glucose as a source of energy. When you eat carbohydrate, such as a bowl of cereal, pasta or fruit, your digestive system breaks down the carbohydrates into glucose (simple sugars), which travel through your blood stream to energise cells. Insulin is released by the beta cells in response to the rise in blood glucose levels after eating. Insulin directs the glucose into the liver and muscle cells, promoting the storage of nutrients and preventing your blood glucose levels to rise excessively. Insulin also increases the uptake of amino acids (building blocks of protein) and fatty acids (building blocks of fats) into protein and fat stores. Insulin is therefore important for regulating metabolism by promoting energy storage and cell growth. The liver converts glucose that is not needed immediately for energy into glycogen (which is stored in the liver). When blood glucose levels drop too low, insulin secretion falls and your pancreas releases the hormone glucagon, which prompts your liver to reconvert stored glycogen into glucose and release into the bloodstream. A normal functioning pancreas ensures there is a staple supply of nutrients for your body. This is important for certain organs such as your brain which depend on a steady supply of glucose. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. Instead of being turned into energy the glucose stays Continue reading >>

Confused By Diabetes? Here's A Simple Explanation

Confused By Diabetes? Here's A Simple Explanation

What is Diabetes? Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to regulate the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Carbohydrate foods are broken down to produce glucose, causing the blood glucose level (BGL) to rise. The liver also stores glucose, which is used to avoid low BGL when we’re not eating. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the BGL between certain limits. It can remove glucose from the blood and transport it into the cells of the body where it is needed for energy. Insulin also regulates the production of glucose by the liver and switches off production when the BGL is high. Normally, the body produces enough insulin to keep the BGL between ideal levels at all times by removing excess glucose from the blood and regulating how much the liver produces. But people with diabetes are not able to remove excess glucose from the blood and the BGL rises. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes usually starts in children and young people under the age of 30 comes on quite quickly the persons own immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that makes the insulin cannot make insulin and need to have insulin injections right from the start. Type 2 Diabetes usually develops in older people begins gradually some insulin is still produced, but it does not work properly, known as insulin resistance managed by diet and exercise, ad some people may need tablets or insulin as diabetes progresses. What causes Type 2 Diabetes? The causes of Type 2 Diabetes are a combination of: Family history Getting older Being overweight Being physically inactive Diabetes: explained When food is eaten it is digested in the stomach and intestines where it is broken down into glucose, and then absorbed into the blood stream. Glucose then moves into the ce Continue reading >>

Questions About Type 2 Diabetes | Joslin Diabetes Center

Questions About Type 2 Diabetes | Joslin Diabetes Center

tingling or numbness in the hands or feet In some cases of type 2 diabetes, there are no symptoms. In this case, people can live for months, even years, without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, although the incidence of this type of diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes ) are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Currently, there is no cure for type 2 diabetes. There has been speculation about the role of gastric bypass surgery in "curing" type 2, however, a causal link has not been established between the surgery and the cure of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is often treated with oral medication because many people with this type of diabetes make some insulin on their own. The pills people take to control type 2 diabetes do not contain insulin. Instead, medications such as metformin, sulfonylureas, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and many others are used to make the insulin that the body still produces more effective. Some people with type 2 diabetes are treated with insulin. Insulin is either injected with a syringe several times per day, or delivered via an insulin pump. The goal of insulin therapy is to mimic the way the pancreas would produce and distribute its own insulin, if it were able Continue reading >>

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