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Type 2 Diabetes Age Of Onset

Diabetes Onset At 3145 Years Of Age Is Associated With An Increased Risk Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Onset At 3145 Years Of Age Is Associated With An Increased Risk Of Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes

Article | Open Diabetes Onset at 3145 Years of Age is Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Scientific Reports volume 6, Articlenumber:38113 (2016) This hospital-based, cross-sectional study investigated the effect of age of diabetes onset on the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. A total of 5,214 patients with type 2 DM who were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology at the Shanghai First Peoples Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was eligible for inclusion. Diabetic retinopathy status was classified using the grading system of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Logistic and hierarchical regression analyses were used to identify independent variables affecting the development of DR. Upon multiple logistic regression analysis, patient age at the time of diabetes onset was significantly associated with development of DR. Further, when the risk of retinopathy was stratified by patient age at the onset of diabetes, the risk was highest in patients in whom diabetes developed at an age of 3145 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.815 [1.1392.892]; p = 0.012). Furthermore, when patients were divided into four groups based on the duration of diabetes, DR development was maximal at a diabetes onset age of 3145 years within each group. A diabetes onset age of 3145 years is an independent risk factor for DR development in Chinese type 2 DM patients. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased dramatically in young adults worldwide 1 . Currently, approximately one in three new cases of type 2 DM occur in patients younger than 18 years in the United States 2 . It is well known that diabetes is always associated with long-term complications, and diabetic retino Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Mortality In People Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes At An Older Age: A Systematic Review

Mortality In People Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes At An Older Age: A Systematic Review

Mortality in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at an older age: a systematic review Address correspondence to: Karen N. Barnett. Tel: (+44) 1382 420076. Fax: (+44) 1382 420101. Email: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Age and Ageing, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2006, Pages 463468, Karen N. Barnett, Marion E. T. McMurdo, Simon A. Ogston, Andrew D. Morris, Josie M. M. Evans; Mortality in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at an older age: a systematic review, Age and Ageing, Volume 35, Issue 5, 1 September 2006, Pages 463468, Objectives: to review all published observational studies reporting on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes to determine the degree of increased mortality when diagnosed at an older age. Setting: the review included studies carried out in populations from Germany, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Italy, Western Australia, Netherlands and Sweden. Measurements: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, National Research Register and Cochrane Reviews were systematically searched from 1975 to 2004. We identified observational studies that reported overall mortality for people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when they were over the age of 60, compared with a non-diabetic population. Outcome measures were expressed as risk ratios or relative risks. Results: among 14 eligible studies, one study reported reduced mortality for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes over the age of 60, whereas another found virtually no increased risk of mortality. However, 7 of the 14 studies reported increased mortality in all patients diagnosed when older, and 5 studies for certain subgroups only. A meta-analysis showed the combined relative risks (with 95% CI) of increased mortality for men diagnosed between the ages of 60 Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Is More Common Than Type 1 Diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes Is More Common Than Type 1 Diabetes.

Whereas type 1 diabetes is characterized by the onset in young persons (average age at diagnosis = 14), type 2 diabetes usually develops in middle age or later. This tendency to develop later in life has given rise to the term "adult onset diabetes," although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in younger people is rising, making this term somewhat inaccurate and outdated. The typical type 2 diabetes patient is overweight ,although there are exceptions. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, symptoms often have a more gradual onset. Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance rather than the lack of insulin, as seen in type 1 diabetes. This often is obtained as a hereditary tendency from one's parents. Insulin levels in these patients are usually normal or higher than average but the body's cells are rather sluggish to respond to it. This lack of insulin activity results in higher than normal blood glucose levels. Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. This disease exists in all populations, but prevalence varies greatly, ie, 1% in Japan, and greater than 40% in the Pima Indians of Arizona. In Caucasians, the figure is somewhere between 1-2% of the entire population. The high incidence of type 2 diabetes in certain groups such as the Pima Indians appears to be a relatively recent development that followed a change in the type of food intake (from relatively little food to plenty of food). With this came the development of obesity within their culture which results in diabetes developing in those that are genetically predisposed. This "urbanization phenomenon" has been most carefully studied in non-white populations, but is probably ethnically and racially nonspecific. In other words, obesity tends to promote diabetes in those Continue reading >>

Typical Age Of Onset For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Typical Age Of Onset For Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Prior to 1997 (ref 1,p.1184) type 1 diabetes was called childhood or juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, and the initial diagnoses almost always occurred in childhood. Conversely, type 2 diabetes was called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes, and it was typically diagnosed in adults 40 and older. Continue reading >>

Changes In Age At Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In The United States, 1988 To 2000

Changes In Age At Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In The United States, 1988 To 2000

Changes in Age at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, 1988 to 2000 We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Changes in Age at Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the United States, 1988 to 2000 Richelle J. Koopman, MD, MS, Arch G. Mainous, III, PhD, [...], and Mark E. Geesey, MS PURPOSE The prevalence of diabetes in the United States is increasing. There is also concern that diabetes may be occurring at a greater frequency in youth and in young adults. We describe US population trends in self-reported age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS We undertook a secondary analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 19992000 and NHANES III (19881994). Both surveys are stratified, multistage probability samples targeting the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population, which allow calculation of population estimates. We included adults aged 20 years and older. We compared self-reported age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes between the 2 survey periods. RESULTS The mean age at diagnosis decreased from 52.0 to 46.0 years (P <.05). Racial and ethnic differences in age at diagnosis found in 1988 to 1994 are no longer found in 1999 to 2000. CONCLUSIONS The age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time. This finding likely represents a combination of changing diagnostic criteria, improved physician recognition of diabetes, and increa Continue reading >>

Diagnosis: Type 2 Diabetes. Age: 24.

Diagnosis: Type 2 Diabetes. Age: 24.

A few days after Christmas 2008, Mike Durbin of Fort Wayne, Ind., got an unwanted holiday surprise: a double diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and congestive heart failure. His blood glucose was well above normal, and his heart was functioning at only 30 to 35 percent of its capacity. “That scared the hell out of me,” he says. His diabetes diagnosis, however, was not a complete shock. His grandmother has type 2 diabetes, and his great-grandparents had the condition as well. He also had a number of risk factors, including excess weight, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and triglycerides. Yet he had one advantage — his age. He was only 24. It might seem surprising that someone so young could develop type 2 diabetes, but the disease is on the rise among the under-30 set. In fact, 5.7 percent of all new cases of diabetes occur in people between 18 and 29, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates. Another 3.5 percent of diagnoses happen before patients’ 35th birthdays. In Durbin’s case, he was sent to the doctor with a diabetes symptom that just wouldn’t quit — a yeast infection. “As I’ve learned, yeast infections are common among people living with the various types of diabetes,” Durbin says. “The infection led me to the doctor. Tests were done, and I was diagnosed with type 2. Other tests done at that time revealed that I had congestive heart failure as well. In hindsight, I realized I had a lot of the typical symptoms also — increased thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, and headaches.” Creating a Diabetes Management Plan Durbin has made important lifestyle changes now that he’s living with type 2 diabetes. For starters, he checks his blood glucose at least four times a day: when he wakes up, befo Continue reading >>

Correlates Of Age Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black And White Adults In A Community

Correlates Of Age Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black And White Adults In A Community

Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community Tulane Center for Cardiovascular Health, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana Corresponding author: Gerald S. Berenson, [email protected] . Received 2011 Sep 19; Accepted 2011 Dec 19. Copyright 2012 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 1850 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 1829, 3039, and 4050 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend 0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (1829 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 3039 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 4050 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Fu Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin and/or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. We do not know what causes type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors. Type 2 diabetes also has strong genetic and family related risk factors. Type 2 diabetes: Is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (reduced insulin production) and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells of the body do not respond to insulin effectively (known as insulin resistance) Represents 85–90 per cent of all cases of diabetes Usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults Is more likely in people with a family history of type 2 diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds For some the first sign may be a complication of diabetes such as a heart attack, vision problems or a foot ulcer Is managed with a combination of regular physical activity, healthy eating and weight reduction. As type 2 diabetes is often progressive, most people will need oral medications and/or insulin injections in addition to lifestyle changes over time. Type 2 diabetes develops over a long period of time (years). During this period of time insulin resistance starts, this is where the insulin is increasingly ineffective at managing the blood glucose levels. As a result of this insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater and greater amounts of insulin, to try and achieve some degree of management of the blood glucose levels. As insulin overproduction occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pan Continue reading >>

12 Things That Make Type 2 Diabetes More Likely

12 Things That Make Type 2 Diabetes More Likely

You're more likely to get type 2 diabetes if: 1. Diabetes runs in your family. If you have a parent, brother, or sister who has it, your chances rise. But you can take action through everyday lifestyle habits, like exercise and healthy eating, to lower your odds of following in their footsteps. 2. You have prediabetes. That means your blood sugar level is above normal but you don't have the disease yet. To keep it that way, get more active and lose any extra weight. Your doctor may recommend you take the prescription drug metformin. 3. You're not physically active. It's never too late to change that. Check in with your doctor first, so you know what's safe for you to do. 4. You're overweight, especially around your waist. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, but extra pounds make you more likely to get the condition. Belly fat seems to be particularly risky. 5. You've had heart disease. 6. You have high blood pressure. 7. Your "good" cholesterol level is low. It's too low if it's less than 40 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). 8. Your triglyceride level is high. It's too high if it's over 150 mg/dL. 9. You've had diabetes during pregnancy before. That condition (called gestational diabetes) or delivering a baby over 9 pounds can make you more likely to get type 2 diabetes. 10. You're a woman who has PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). 11. You're age 45 or older. The chance of getting type 2 diabetes rises with age. But diabetes isn't a normal part of aging. 12. You're Hispanic, African-American, Native American, or Asian American. Diabetes is more common among these groups. Talk with your doctor to get a better sense of your risk. He can help you make a plan that will keep you in good health. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

What is Diabetes Mellitus Type 2? Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a condition in which the body fails to metabolise glucose (sugar) correctly. This causes levels of sugar in the blood to increase, a state known as hyperglycaemia. When a person does not have diabetes, a gland called the pancreas produces and secretes a hormone called insulin. The hormone is used by the body’s tissues to metabolise glucose. Usually the amount of insulin secreted increases in relation to the amount of carbohydrate (sugar) a person consumes. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion from the pancreas often decreases. This is referred to as reduced insulin secretion. In addition the body tissues do not respond adequately to the insulin which is produced. Normally the insulin would be used by the body to draw glucose into the cells, where it could be stored as energy which could be used by the body later (e.g. when exercising or any of the other activities which involve energy expenditure). In type 2 diabetes, the glucose is not taken into the cells. This is referred to as insulin resistance. It causes glucose to stay in the blood stream and hyperglycaemia is the result. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was previously called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and late onset diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because they are inaccurate. Insulin is often used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The condition is increasingly diagnosed in young people. Statistics Almost one in 20 Australians, or one million people, were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2008. The actual proportion of Australians with the condition may be higher as many people are not diagnosed until they develop complications, for example diabetic retinopathy. Of those who have been diagnosed Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. More common in adults, type 2 diabetes increasingly affects children as childhood obesity increases. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but you may be able to manage the condition by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you also may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. Symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: Increased thirst and frequent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual. Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger. Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine. Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable. Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus. Slow-healing sores o Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is The Average Age Of Onset?

Type 2 Diabetes: What Is The Average Age Of Onset?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes. The variations between individual diagnoses are too great for there to be an exact age of onset for type 2 diabetes. There is evidence, however, that the likelihood of developing the condition increases drastically after the age of 45. Average age of onset for type 2 diabetes The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommend annual diabetes screening tests after the age of 45. But the age at which someone develops the condition depends on too many differing factors to accurately predict. A wide mix of individual health and lifestyle factors can influence the progression of the condition. Many people have diabetes for years before being diagnosed, causing a large variation between the age of onset and age of diagnosis. Meanwhile, some estimates claim that nearly one-third of those with diabetes do not know they have it, which further complicates estimates. And many national surveys and studies do not distinguish between rates of type 1 and 2 diabetes in adults. According to the CDC, from 1997 through to 2011, the average age at which a person was diagnosed with diabetes in the United States was largely the same, at around 54 years of age. While there might not be a set age for onset for type 2 diabetes, age greatly increases the chances of developing the condition. In 2014, an estimated 4.3 percent of Americans over 20 years of age had diabetes, while 13.4 percent of those aged 45-64, and 11.2 percent of those aged 65 or older, had the condition. A 2016 study found that the rates of type 2 diabetes were up to seven times higher in Chinese adults, aged 55-74, than they were in those aged 20-34 years. The ADA report that rates of diabetes remain high i Continue reading >>

Mortality In People Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes At An Older Age: A Systematic Review

Mortality In People Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes At An Older Age: A Systematic Review

Objectives: to review all published observational studies reporting on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes to determine the degree of increased mortality when diagnosed at an older age. Design: systematic literature search. Setting: the review included studies carried out in populations from Germany, United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Italy, Western Australia, Netherlands and Sweden. Measurements: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, National Research Register and Cochrane Reviews were systematically searched from 1975 to 2004. We identified observational studies that reported overall mortality for people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when they were over the age of 60, compared with a non-diabetic population. Outcome measures were expressed as risk ratios or relative risks. Results: among 14 eligible studies, one study reported reduced mortality for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes over the age of 60, whereas another found virtually no increased risk of mortality. However, 7 of the 14 studies reported increased mortality in all patients diagnosed when older, and 5 studies for certain subgroups only. A meta-analysis showed the combined relative risks (with 95% CI) of increased mortality for men diagnosed between the ages of 60 and 70 to be 1.38 (1.08–1.76) and 1.13 (0.88–1.45) for men diagnosed aged 70 years or older. A similar pattern was found for the same age groups for women, with combined relative risks of 1.40 (1.10–1.79) and 1.19 (0.93–1.52) respectively. Conclusion: increased mortality associated with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes at an older age is lower than that reported for the general older diabetic population. Objective: to investigate variations in the use of specialist palliative care (SPC) services for adult cancer patients, in r Continue reading >>

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