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Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes Venn Diagram

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

What's The Difference Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the problem of high levels of blood sugar. The inability to control blood sugar causes the symptoms and the complications of both types of diabetes. But type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are two different diseases in many ways. According to the latest (2014) estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people, or 9.3 percent of the U.S. population, have diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects just 5 percent of those adults, with type 2 diabetes affecting up to 95 percent. Here’s what else you need to know to be health-savvy in the age of the diabetes epidemic. What Causes Diabetes? "Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease — the body's immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin," a hormone, says Andjela Drincic, MD, associate professor of internal medicine in the division of diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. The exact cause is not known, but it's probably a combination of the genes a person is born with and something in the environment that triggers the genes to become active. "The cause of type 2 diabetes is multifactorial," says Dr. Drincic. "People inherit genes that make them susceptible to type 2, but lifestyle factors, like obesity and inactivity, are also important. In type 2 diabetes, at least in the early stages, there is enough insulin, but the body becomes resistant to it." Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include a family history of the disease, a poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. African-Americans, Latin Americans, and certain Native American groups have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans. Juvenile or Adult-Onset: When Does Diabetes Start? Usually, type 1 diabetes in dia Continue reading >>

The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes

The Difference Between Type 1, Type 2 & Gestational Diabetes

SCROLL FOR IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION AND INDICATIONS Important Safety Information have a history of breathing problems have had shingles (herpes zoster) are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. DARZALEX® may harm your unborn baby. Females who are able to become pregnant should use an effective method of birth control during treatment and for at least 3 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Talk to your healthcare provider about birth control methods that you can use during this time. Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Your healthcare provider will decide the time between doses as well as how many treatments you will receive. Your healthcare provider will give you medicines before each dose of DARZALEX® and on the first day after each dose of DARZALEX® to help reduce the risk of infusion reactions. If you miss any appointments, call your healthcare provider as soon as possible to reschedule your appointment. Infusion reactions. Infusion reactions are common with DARZALEX® and can be severe. Your healthcare provider may temporarily stop your infusion or completely stop treatment with DARZALEX® if you have infusion reactions. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath or trouble breathing dizziness or lightheadedness (hypotension) cough wheezing throat tightness runny or stuffy nose headache itching nausea vomiting chills fever Changes in blood tests. DARZALEX® can affect the results of blood tests to match your blood type. These changes can last for up to 6 months after your final dose of DARZALEX®. Your healthcare provider will do blood tests to match your blood type before you st Continue reading >>

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes: The Differences Between Types 1 And 2

Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus (DM), is a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly store and use sugar. It affects the body's ability to use glucose, a type of sugar found in the blood, as fuel. This happens because the body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells do not correctly respond to insulin to use glucose as energy. Insulin is a type of hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate how blood sugar becomes energy. An imbalance of insulin or resistance to insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, vision loss, neurological conditions, and damage to blood vessels and organs. There is type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. They have different causes and risk factors, and different lines of treatment. This article will compare the similarities and differences of types 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. However, having gestational diabetes also increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy, so patients are often screened for type 2 diabetes at a later date. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 29.1 million people in the United States (U.S.) have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1. For every person with type 1 diabetes, 20 will have type 2. Type 2 can be hereditary, but excess weight, a lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet increase At least a third of people in the U.S. will develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Both types can lead to heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney damage, and possible amputation of limbs. Causes In type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. These cells are destro Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Differences Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Despite sharing a name, type 1 and type 2 diabetes are quite different. Understanding the key differences in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes is critical for research into finding a way to cure, treat and prevent diabetes, but also for caring for someone with diabetes and managing your own diabetes. How these diseases begin, how they affect the body and how they are treated are all quite different. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is the result of the human immune system mistaking the body’s beta cells, which produce insulin, for foreign cells and causing their destruction. Insulin is a protein that allows the transport of sugar into cells to provide energy. When sugar can’t get from the blood into the cells, the cells have no access to the glucose they need and cannot function correctly. The composition of our blood also gets off balance, with high blood sugar levels leading to detrimental effects on other organs of the body. Injecting synthetic insulin solves this problem because it keeps blood glucose levels in the right range and helps glucose reach our cells. What is Type 2 Diabetes? Although type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1, the causes for it aren’t fully understood. What doctors and scientists do know is that excess weight, inactivity, age and genetic makeup contribute to development of the disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes make insulin, but the cells in the body cannot respond to it adequately so they cannot take up glucose. Later on, especially when treatment fails, type 2 diabetes is aggravated by exhausted beta cells, decreasing their insulin production resulting in further increases in blood sugar levels. Since beta cells aren’t killed off in type 2 diabetes, at least initially, blood sugar levels often become elevated Continue reading >>

Identification Of Unique Antigenic Determinants In The Amino Terminus Of Ia-2 (ica512) In Childhood And Adult Autoimmune Diabetes: New Biomarker Development

Identification Of Unique Antigenic Determinants In The Amino Terminus Of Ia-2 (ica512) In Childhood And Adult Autoimmune Diabetes: New Biomarker Development

OBJECTIVE The characterization of diverse subtypes of diabetes is a dynamic field of clinical research and an active area of discussion. The objective of this study was to identify new antigenic determinants in the neuroendocrine autoantigen IA-2 (ICA512) and assess whether circulating autoantibodies directed to new IA-2 epitopes identify autoimmune diabetes in young and adult populations with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinically diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 258; diabetes duration: 0.01–31 years) were evaluated using a new biomarker detecting autoantibodies directed to the extracellular domain of the neuroendocrine autoantigen IA-2 (IA-2ec). The proportion of IA-2ec autoantibodies was also evaluated in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 150; diabetes duration: 0.04–0.49 years). In addition, IA-2 (intracellular domain), GAD65, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies were assayed. RESULTS IA-2ec autoantibodies were detected in patients with type 1 diabetes and, surprisingly, in 5% of patients with type 2 diabetes without serologic responses to other IA-2 antigenic epitopes or other islet autoantigens. We also assessed the ability of IA-2ec–derived peptides to elicit CD4+ T-cell responses by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 18) and HLA-matched healthy subjects (n = 13) with peptides and staining with the peptide/DQ8-specific tetramers, observing disease-associated responses to previously unreported epitopes within IA-2ec. CONCLUSIONS We developed a new antibody biomarker identifying novel antigenic determinants within the N terminus of IA-2. IA-2ec autoantibodies can be detected in patients with type 1 diabetes and in a subgroup of adult autoimmune patients with type 2 dia Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Diagram

Type 2 Diabetes Diagram

Onset of type2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented through proper nutrition and regular exercise. [60][61] Intensive lifestyle measures may reduce the risk by over half. [62] The benefit of exercise occurs regardless of the person's initial weight or subsequent weight loss. [63] High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of diabetes by about 28%. [64] Evidence for the benefit of dietary changes alone, however, is limited,[65] with some evidence for a diet high in green leafy vegetables[66] and some for limiting the intake of sugary drinks. In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes. [67] Lifestyle interventions are more effective than metformin. A 2017 review found that, long term, lifestyle changes decreased the risk by 28%, while medication does not reduce risk after withdrawal. [68] While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 does not improve that risk. [69] Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes (similarities And Differences) Center

Type 1 Vs Type 2 Diabetes (similarities And Differences) Center

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. Over 29.1 million children and adults in the US have diabetes. Of that, 8.1 million people have diabetes and don't even know it. Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent, juvenile) is caused by a problem with insulin production by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is caused by: Eating a lot of foods and drinking beverages with simple carbohydrates (pizza, white breads, pastas, cereals, pastries, etc.) and simple sugars (donuts, candy, etc.) Consuming too many products with artificial sweeteners (We found out that they are bad for us!) Lack of activity Exercise Stress Genetics While the signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are the same, which include: However, the treatments are different. Type 1 diabetes is insulin dependent, which means a person with this type of diabetes requires treatment with insulin. People with type 2 diabetes require medication, lifestyle changes like eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise. Read more: Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes (Similarities and Differences) Article What Is Type 2 Diabetes? Type 2 diabetes can affect all people, regardless of age. Early symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be missed, so those affected may not even know they have the condition. An estimated one out of every three people within the early stages of type 2 diabetes are not aware they have it. Diabetes interferes with the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates for energy, leading to high levels of blood sugar. These chronically high blood sugar levels increase a person's risk of developing serious health problems. Potential Consequences of High Blood Sugar Nerve problems Vision loss Joint deformities Cardiovascular disease Diabetic Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2

Type 1 And Type 2

Differences Between Understanding diabetes starts with knowing the different types of diabetes and their key differences. The two most common types are type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body makes little or no insulin due to an overactive immune system. So people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and young adults but can also appear in older adults. Type 2 diabetes In type 2 diabetes, your body prevents the insulin it does make from working right. Your body may make some insulin but not enough. Most people with diabetes—about 90% to 95%—have type 2. This kind of diabetes usually happens in people who are older, although even younger adults may be diagnosed with it. Type 2 diabetes also usually occurs in people who are overweight. In fact, about 8 out of 10 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes) Some women may develop diabetes during pregnancy, which is called gestational diabetes. Being diagnosed with gestational diabetes doesn't mean a woman had diabetes before or would continue to have diabetes after giving birth. A woman should follow her health care provider's advice closely during pregnancy. Continue reading >>

Type 1

Type 1

Type 1 Takes place when the pancreas does not produce insulin because the body attacked the beta cells Normally, appears before the age of 40 AKA Juvenile/Childhood Diabetes Type 1 diabetics have to inject themselves with insulin regularly to stay alive Not preventable 15% of diabetics have Type 1 Type 2 Takes place when the person's cells do not respond to the insulin, or there is too much insulin produced by the pancreas Can appear at any age AKA Gestational Diabetes Because the cells do not respond to the pancreas-made insulin, a Type 2 diabetic must also inject man-made insulin that the cells will respond to Now-a-days, most often occurs because of diet and lack of exercise (obesity), but also occurs through genetics 85% of diabetics have Type 2 diabetes Similarities Both types of diabetes generally have the same symptoms. Both types of diabetics must keep a close eye on their blood sugar levels. Both types of diabetics need to stay in close contact with their diabetic specialists in case their blood sugar levels get too high or too low. Continue reading >>

Spatio-temporal Analysis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based On Differential Expression Networks

Spatio-temporal Analysis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based On Differential Expression Networks

Spatio-temporal analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on differential expression networks Scientific Reports volume 3, Articlenumber:2268 (2013) | Download Citation T2DM is complex in its dynamical dependence on multiple tissues, disease states, and factors' interactions. However, most existing work devoted to characterizing its pathophysiology from one static tissue, individual factors, or single state. Here we perform a spatio-temporal analysis on T2DM by developing a new form of molecular network, i.e. differential expression network (DEN), which can reflect phenotype differences at network level. Static DENs show that three tissues (white adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver) all suffer from severe inflammation and perturbed metabolism, among which metabolic functions are seriously affected in liver. Dynamical analysis on DENs reveals metabolic function changes in adipose and liver are consistent with insulin resistance (IR) deterioration. Close investigation on IR pathway identifies disease interactions, revealing that IR deterioration is earlier than that on SlC2A4 in adipose and muscle. Our analysis also provides evidence that rising of insulin secretion is the root cause of IR in diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is mainly a glucose metabolism disorder closely associated with modern life style, has become one of the leading health problems in the world 1 . It is widely believed that T2DM is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the complicated interplay of multiple tissues and various factors (genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors) in a dynamical manner. For instance, one of the main challenges stemming from studying T2DM is to reveal the mechanism of insulin resistance (IR), which is associated with complex interactions of liver, a Continue reading >>

Identification Of Novel Biomarkers To Monitor Β-cell Function And Enable Early Detection Of Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Identification Of Novel Biomarkers To Monitor Β-cell Function And Enable Early Detection Of Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Abstract A decline in β-cell function is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes, yet the level of β-cell function in individuals at risk of the condition is rarely measured. This is due, in part, to the fact that current methods for assessing β-cell function are inaccurate, prone to error, labor-intensive, or affected by glucose-lowering therapy. The aim of the current study was to identify novel circulating biomarkers to monitor β-cell function and to identify individuals at high risk of developing β-cell dysfunction. In a nested case-control study from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) cohort (n = 1157), proteomics and miRNA profiling were performed on fasting plasma samples from 43 individuals who progressed to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 43 controls who maintained normal glucose tolerance (NGT) over three years. Groups were matched at baseline for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp) and β-cell glucose sensitivity (mathematical modeling). Proteomic profiling was performed using the SomaLogic platform (Colorado, USA); miRNA expression was performed using a modified RT-PCR protocol (Regulus Therapeutics, California, USA). Results showed differentially expressed proteins and miRNAs including some with known links to type 2 diabetes, such as adiponectin, but also novel biomarkers and pathways. In cross sectional analysis at year 3, the top differentially expressed biomarkers in people with IGT/ reduced β-cell glucose sensitivity were adiponectin, alpha1-antitrypsin (known to regulate adiponectin levels), endocan, miR-181a, miR-342, and miR-323. At baseline, adiponectin, cathepsin D and NCAM.L1 (proteins expressed by pancreatic β-cells) were significantly lo Continue reading >>

The Differences & Similarities Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

The Differences & Similarities Between Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

“Oh, you have diabetes? That’s where you can’t eat sugar and have to poke yourself with needles and stuff because you ate too much candy as a kid…right?” *sigh* Wrong. Most people have no clue what diabetes is let alone that there is more than one type of diabetes. Type 1, type 2, LADA, MODY, and gestational are just some classification examples of diabetes. All have a range of differences and similarities but the two most common forms are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As type 1 and type 2 diabetics [should] know, there are a few major differences between the two conditions which, all too often, get confused and misconstrued by the public. Yet, there are also a few similarities that get overlooked even among people in the diabetic community. Take a look at these two major forms of diabetes and make sure you can not only distinguish the differences but also share the similarities. Similarities Symptoms The symptoms for both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are identical in most ways. Both conditions involve three distinct symptoms prior to diagnosis: Polyuria – excessive urination often due to high blood sugar Polydipsia – excessive thirst Polyphagia – excessive hunger In type 2 diabetes, symptoms tend to be more gradual than type 1 but they both still share these symptoms along with the other usual byproducts of diabetes like high and low blood sugar, increased agitation, shaky/sweaty blood sugar reactions, as well as the more severe hypoglycemic events that can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Complications People often ask “so, do you have the bad kind of diabetes” and it kind of makes my ears bleed. There is no “good kind” of diabetes and anyone who thinks there is either doesn’t understand diabetes or is living in a warped world of “th Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes affects over 29 million people in the United States, and 1 in 4 of those affected are unaware that they have diabetes.[1] Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in younger people and occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the body cannot use the insulin it produces. This disease, frequently related to obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and genetics, is most often diagnosed in adults, but incidence rates are increasing among teens in America.[2][3] Comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes versus Type 2 Diabetes comparison chart Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Definition Beta cells in pancreas are being attacked by body's own cells and therefore can't produce insulin to take sugar out of the blood stream. Insulin is not produced. Diet related insulin release is so large and frequent that receptor cells have become less sensitive to the insulin. This insulin resistance results in less sugar being removed from the blood. Diagnosis Genetic, environmental and auto-immune factors, idiopathic Genetic, obesity (central adipose), physical inactivity, high/low birth weight, GDM, poor placental growth, metabolic syndrome Warning Signs Increased thirst & urination, constant hunger, weight loss, blurred vision and extreme tiredness, glycouria Feeling tired or ill, frequent urination (especially at night), unusual thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, frequent infections and slow wound healing, asymptomatic Commonly Afflicted Groups Children/teens Adults, elderly, certain ethnic groups Prone ethnic groups All more common in African American, Latino/Hispanic, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander Bodily Effects Beleived to be triggered autoimmune destruction of the beta cells; autoimmune attack may occur following a viral infection such as mumps, rubell Continue reading >>

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