Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors
There are several risk factors that increase your odds of getting type 1 diabetes. It's important to keep in mind that these risk factors often work in combination. Family history. You are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if one or both of your parents or any of your grandparents has or had the disease. Also, risk increases if both your parents carry the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes (human leukocyte antigen). In the United States, 40% of the population has one or more of these genes. Race. Caucasians have the highest rate of the disease. Environmental factors. In people who have a family history of type 1 diabetes, it's possible that viruses may trigger the disease. Diet. Type 1 diabetes is more common in those who were not fed breast milk or who started eating solid foods at an exceptionally early age. Basics Type 1 Basics Causes & Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Healthcare Team Treatment Diabetes Treatment Options Mastering Insulin, Making Real Change Tests to Monitor Your Care: Type 1 Features What's Your Diabetes IQ? Diabetes and Eating Disorders: The Dangers of Diabulimia What's Your Type? 6 Easy Ways to Make Your Life Better Questions for Your Doctor How to Ask Your Family for Support Insulin Syringe Safety for Diabetics Continue reading >>
Since When Has Diabetes Been A Problem For Humans? Did Our Oldest Ancestors Have Diabetes?
There are records of cases of diabetes very early in human history, notably in ancient Egypt, so yes, we’ve been dealing with that particular glitch for a long time. Egyptian doctors knew of it; so did the Greeks. The term “diabetes mellitus” comes from ancient Greece, where doctors noticed that patients suffered from frequent urination and that their urine tasted sweet, like honey. Like many “wear-and-tear” diseases found in middle aged to older adults, diabetes stuck around in the gene pool because it didn’t impact our fertility too badly. When a person dies from diabetes, they are generally old enough that their children are at least partially independent; the children survived, as did their genetic susceptibility to developing diabetes themselves, given the right environment. You might think we could detect that people had diabetes before writing, if we found ancient bodies and examined them; but it’s hard to tell whether any of the bodies we examined were of people who died of, or with, diabetes—we can’t very well test their blood sugar. However, we have found Egyptian mummies of upper-class individuals who lost toes, probably to complications of diabetes. This particular prosthetic was recovered from a mummy of a woman in late middle age, who lost her big toe and had a prosthesis crafted. From the wear-and-tear on the artifact, it seems that it was actually used in daily life, not just attached to the body so that she could be complete in the afterlife. Researchers think that, because of the age of the body and the locations of the lost toe, this woman probably had diabetes, and may have died from it. Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Risks: Potential Environmental Factors Shown In This Infographic
Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes, affects more than one million Americans, according to the American Diabetes Association. Unlike Type 2 diabetes, which can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented and usually is diagnosed in childhood. In Type 1 diabetes, the insulin production in your body does not function properly, leaving your cells without the insulin they need to absorb sugar (glucose) to produce energy. Read: Diabetes Symptoms 2016: Everything You Need To Know A series of two studies published in the UK medical journal, The Lancet, gives insight to genetic risk factors for Type 1 diabetes and potential, controversial, environmental risk factors. The findings are illustrated in the infographic below. The studies’ authors conclude, “Interplay between an individual’s genes and their exposure to different triggers at different stages might contribute to disease heterogeneity. Increased understandings of these mechanisms is urgently needed.” To date, Mayo Clinic cites the only known risk factors as: family history, genetics, geography, and age. Other risks factors that have been investigated, but not proven are: exposure to certain viruses, early exposure to cow’s milk, low vitamin D level, and being born with jaundice, among other factors. Although much less common than Type 2 diabetes, cases of Type 1 diabetes are increasing globally, research shows. Stem Cells Of Type 1 Diabetes Patients Transformed Into Insulin-Secreting Beta Cells; Research May Lead To New Therapy Continue reading >>
Risk Factors For Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational
This article is about risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Usually just called diabetes, this is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin in the way it should. Diabetes results in a person having too much of a type of sugar, called glucose, in their blood and not enough in their cells. At least 1 in 4 people with diabetes does not know that they have the disease. Knowing risk factors for diabetes is very important for preventing the damage it can cause. If a person knows what these factors are, they can see a doctor early to find out if they have, or are at risk of, diabetes. There are three main kinds of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Each of these is briefly described below, along with their important risk factors. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body makes no or very little insulin. It affects around 5 percent of those with diabetes. It is treated with either insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with diet. The main risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Family history. Having a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes increases the chances of a person having the same type. If both parents have type 1, the risk is even higher. Age. Type 1 diabetes usually affects younger people. Ages 4 to 7 and ages 10 to 14 are the most common. Type 1 diabetes may occur at other ages, although it does so less often. Genetics. Having certain genes may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes. Your doctor can check for these genes. Where a person lives. Studies have found more type 1 diabetes the further away from the equator a person lives. There may be other risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Researchers are currently investigating these. Type 2 diabetes The body can still make some insulin, but is not able to use it the way it Continue reading >>
What Is The Best Thing You Can Do At Age 30 To Benefit Your Life At Age 50 And Beyond?
You asked for one, but I'm going to give you five to cover various aspects of your life - physical, mental, emotional/spiritual, social, and financial. 1) Physical -- Find one or two exercises that you actually enjoy doing Anyone can tell you to run, lift, do yoga, bike, do Crossfit, etc, but if you truly don't enjoy it, you'll never develop a lifelong habit. I've tried just about every type of exercise over the past 30 years, until I discovered what works best for me and my body: yoga, swimming, and walking. I do all three just about everyday, because I enjoy them and they make my body feel good. 2) Mental -- Develop a love of reading Set aside at least 30 minutes every day to read something (and I'm not talking about a blog or social media post). I'm talking about an actual book -- it can be fiction or non-fiction, hard copy or electronic. The more you read, the more you learn, understand other viewpoints, and develop your curiosity and creativity. 3) Emotional / Spiritual -- Learn to meditate They say there are only two things in life that are certain - death and taxes. Well, I say there's a third - stress. No matter how privileged your life may be, you will find yourself under stress. There are too many things outside your control that cause stress -- the weather, politics, terrorism, asteroids, diseases, you name it. The best way to deal with all this stress is to know how to calm and center your mind, and the best way to do that is with a daily meditation practice. 4) Social -- Live in SF or NYC & Travel Two things I'd highly recommend that you do by age 30 are 1) live in a cosmopolitan city like New York City, San Francisco, Paris, Rome, etc, and 2) travel as much as you can. Both things will help you understand other cultures, types of food, belief systems, and Continue reading >>
Diabetes Risk Factors
When people talk about risk factors of diabetes, it’s usually in reference to forms of type 2 diabetes, including prediabetes and gestational diabetes. In the case of type 2 diabetes and other forms of diabetes linked to insulin resistance, the risk of developing these conditions can be reduced by ensuring you maintain a healthy balanced diet and maintaining an active lifestyle. Risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes The factors which increase risk of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes include: Having a close relative with type 2 diabetes or type 2 diabetes running in the family Being over 40 years old Having high blood pressure and cholesterol levels Being overweight or obese Having previously had gestational diabetes Being of South Asian, Middle Eastern or African Caribbean descent Having a number of these factors raises the risk of type 2 diabetes further. Whilst being over 40 years old is listed as a risk factor, development of type 2 diabetes before the age of 40 is becoming increasingly common, particularly in those that are overweight and have one or more other risk factors. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes The main risk factor for type 1 diabetes is having a close family member with type 1 diabetes and particularly if both parents have type 1 diabetes. You may also be at a higher risk of type 1 diabetes if other autoimmune diseases, such as coeliac disease or rheumatoid arthritis run in the family. Risk factors for gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes is closely related to type 2 diabetes and therefore shares the same risk factors. In addition, a further risk factor is having previously given birth to a baby weighing 10 lbs (4.5kg) or more. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream whic Continue reading >>
- Are You at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Learn Common—and Not So Common—Risk Factors
- Symptoms of EARLY diabetes: Five risk factors putting YOU on course for type 2 diabetes
- Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study
Ibm, Jdrf To Unravel Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors With Machine Learning
IBM and JDRF are partnering to develop and apply machine learning techniques to the analysis of Type 1 diabetes data. The pair aims to identify risk factors that cause the onset of the disease in children. IBM scientists still use machine learning algorithms to analyze at least three datasets, according to a statement. Specifically, they are looking to pinpoint patterns that could lead to new ways of preventing or delaying Type 1 diabetes in children. Using previously collected data from global research projects, they will create a “foundational set of features” that is common to all of the data sets. “The models that will be produced will quantify the risk for T1D from the combined data set using this foundational set of features,” IBM said in the statement. JDRF is a leading funder of Type 1 diabetes research. Teaming up with IBM could unlock trends in the data that were previously indiscernible. In 2016, IBM Watson partnered with the American Diabetes Association to apply cognitive computing to research and clinical data. “JDRF supports researchers all over the world, but never before have we been able to analyze their data comprehensively, in a way that can tell us why some children who are at risk get T1D and others do not,” said Derek Rapp, JDRF CEO, in the statement. “Nearly 40,000 new cases of type 1 diabetes will be diagnosed in the U.S. this year. And each new patient creates new records and new data points that, if leveraged, could provide additional understanding of the disease,” said Jianying Hu, senior manager and program director at the Center for Computational Health at IBM Research. “The deep expertise our team has in artificial intelligence applied to healthcare data makes us uniquely positioned to help JDRF unlock the insights hidden Continue reading >>
Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes
Executive Summary The considerable increase in incidence over the past few decades, as well as the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes, cannot be explained by genetic susceptibility alone. In this Lancet Series, two papers highlight new insights into genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes, as well as controversial findings regarding potential environmental factors that might trigger disease development. Interplay between an individual’s genes and their exposure to different triggers at different life stages might contribute to disease heterogeneity. Increased understanding of these mechanisms is urgently needed. Series Continue reading >>
If I Have Type 1 Diabetes, What Is The Risk My Child Will Develop It?
According to the American Diabetes Association, if you are a man with diabetes, your child has 1 in 17 odds of developing the type 1 diabetes. If you are a woman with diabetes, your child's risk of developing the disease is between 1 in 25 and 1 in 100. Other factors that increase your child's diabetes risk include: both parents having type 1 diabetes, one parent developing diabetes before age 11, and having a disorder called polyglandular autoimmune disorder. Certain blood tests for antibodies and genetic markers can test for and help evaluate risk for diabetes as well. The best way to determine your child's risk is to discuss your family's history and risk factors on an individualized basis with your doctor or a genetics specialist. A child born to a parent who has type 1 diabetes is at slightly greater risk of developing type 1 diabetes than children of parents without diabetes. The risk is slightly higher when the father has type 1 diabetes. Researchers have identified genes that could play a role in type 1 diabetes. However, there is no genetic test for predicting whether your baby will develop type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A baby has a 1% risk of developing diabetes if the baby is born to a mother who is age 25 or older and has type 1 diabetes. A baby has a 4% risk of developing diabetes if the mother is younger than age 25 when the child is born. A baby has a 6% risk of developing diabetes if the father has type 1 diabetes. Each of these risks is doubled if the parent with type 1 diabetes developed it before the age of 11. If both parents have type 1 diabetes, the risk is not known but is probably somewhat higher. A baby born to parents who do not have diabetes has a 0.3% risk of developing the disease. Ask your provider to refer you to a medical geneticist or genet Continue reading >>
Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?
A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors
Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics: -- The first section of this topic is shown below -- Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) develops due to an environmental trigger in persons who are genetically susceptible. Genetic risk factors (below) that determine susceptibility reflect genetic associations with disease. Environmental risk factors associated with susceptibility to T1DM are identified through epidemiologic study. -- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription -- Continue reading >>
What Are The Symptoms, Causes, And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes
With ongoing research, we know more about type 1 diabetes but we still need answers about the basic causes and newer sophisticated treatments. Dedicated research has revealed certain symptoms, causes, and risk factors of type 1 diabetes. Knowing them can help you learn more about yourself or a loved one who has this autoimmune disease. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes may appear suddenly. They may include extreme hunger, increased thirst, lethargy, sudden and unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, and blurry vision. Other symptoms of type 1 diabetes may include labored breathing, sweet breath, dry skin, loss of feeling in your feet, and stomach pain that could include nausea and vomiting. Long term complications may occur when type 1 diabetes is not properly controlled. Consult with your physician immediately if you notice any of these signs of type 1 diabetes. If type 1 diabetes remains undetected or untreated, long term complications may occur. Eye problems are a common complication for people with type 1 diabetes including blurry vision, retinopathy, dry eye, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Other complications include foot problems from poor circulation, hypertension, neuropathy, kidney disease, periodontal disease, heart disease, stroke, and pregnancy problems such as birth defects or low birth weight. People with type 1 diabetes typically work with a health care team that may include an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, dietitian, diabetes nurse educator, cardiologist, dentist, endocrinologist, and other medical professionals. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin because of the destruction of beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys these beta cells. The body needs insulin to get energy from the Continue reading >>
Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, And Mortality In Type 1 Diabetes Patients
Management of non-glycemic cardiovascular disease risk factors may have increasing benefits in an aging type 1 diabetes patient population with long-term hyperglycemia. The duration of diabetes and how well it is controlled are important factors for preventing type 1 diabetes complications and mortality. Evidence-based therapy and improvement in technology has led to a significantly higher life expectancy among T1D patients. As these patients live longer, risk for cardiovascular disease complications has increased. CVD is the major cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes and accounts for approximately half of all deaths while the other half is as a result of non-CVD and other causes. Risk factors that lead to insulin resistance, such as high triglyceride, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and albuminuria are strong indicators of CVD in type 1 diabetes patients. In the EURODIAB Prospective Cohort Study, 2,787 type 1 diabetes patients were studied over a 7-year period. Mortality causes were categorized as CVD, non-CVD and unknown. The analyses were adjusted for age and the length of time since diabetes was diagnosed and the most important risk factors were determined using a simultaneous and stepwise approach. Non-CVD causes had a higher annual mortality rate at 1.9 per 1,000 person-years [1.4–2.6], while mortality rate due to CVD causes was 1.4 per 1,000 person-years [1.01–2.08], and 1.7 [1.3–2.4] per 1,000 person-years for unknown causes. The results of the study showed that for younger diabetes age, non-CVD risk factors and other unknown factors contributed more to mortality rate compared to CVD risk factors. In the DCCT/EDIC study, 1441 participants were followed for a 27-year period and their HbA1c and other risk Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors
There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>
What Are The Main Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes?
ANSWER Type 1 diabetes usually starts in childhood. Your pancreas stops making insulin. You have type 1 diabetes for life. The main things that lead to it are: Family history. If you have relatives with diabetes, chances are strong you'll get it, too. Anyone who has a mother, father, sister, or brother with type 1 diabetes should get checked. A simple blood test can diagnose it. Diseases of the pancreas. They can slow its ability to make insulin. Infection or illness. Some infections and illnesses, mostly rare ones, can damage your pancreas. ANSWER If you have type 2 diabetes, your body can't use the insulin it makes. This is called insulin resistance. Type 2 usually affects adults, but it can begin at any time in your life. The main things that lead to it are: Obesity or being overweight. Research shows this is a top reason for type 2 diabetes. Because of the rise in obesity among U.S. children, this type is affecting more teenagers. Impaired glucose tolerance. Prediabetes is a milder form of this condition. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. If you have it, there's a strong chance you'll get type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes often starts with cells that are resistant to insulin. That means your pancreas has to work extra hard to make enough insulin to meet your body's needs. Ethnic background. Diabetes happens more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives. Gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you had gestational diabetes. This raises your chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life. Sedentary lifestyle. You exercise less than three times a week. Family history. You have a parent or sibling who has diabetes. Polycystic Continue reading >>