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Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

What Are The Symptoms, Causes, And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes

What Are The Symptoms, Causes, And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes

With ongoing research, we know more about type 1 diabetes but we still need answers about the basic causes and newer sophisticated treatments. Dedicated research has revealed certain symptoms, causes, and risk factors of type 1 diabetes. Knowing them can help you learn more about yourself or a loved one who has this autoimmune disease. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes may appear suddenly. They may include extreme hunger, increased thirst, lethargy, sudden and unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, and blurry vision. Other symptoms of type 1 diabetes may include labored breathing, sweet breath, dry skin, loss of feeling in your feet, and stomach pain that could include nausea and vomiting. Long term complications may occur when type 1 diabetes is not properly controlled. Consult with your physician immediately if you notice any of these signs of type 1 diabetes. If type 1 diabetes remains undetected or untreated, long term complications may occur. Eye problems are a common complication for people with type 1 diabetes including blurry vision, retinopathy, dry eye, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Other complications include foot problems from poor circulation, hypertension, neuropathy, kidney disease, periodontal disease, heart disease, stroke, and pregnancy problems such as birth defects or low birth weight. People with type 1 diabetes typically work with a health care team that may include an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, dietitian, diabetes nurse educator, cardiologist, dentist, endocrinologist, and other medical professionals. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin because of the destruction of beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys these beta cells. The body needs insulin to get energy from the Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

In the normal digestive process, your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a simple sugar that's stored in your body and used for energy. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in your blood by helping liver, muscle, and fat cells absorb the sugar. Diabetes is a disease that develops when your pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or your body doesn't use insulin properly — resulting in high blood glucose levels, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body produces little to no insulin. It’s considered an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system erroneously attacks and destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 1 — previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it often develops at a young age) — accounts for about 5 percent of all diabetes diagnoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes develops when liver, muscle, and fat cells don't respond properly to insulin and become "insulin resistant." Glucose doesn't enter the cells as efficiently as before, and instead builds up in the bloodstream. In type 2, the pancreas responds to these increased blood glucose levels by producing more insulin. Eventually, however, it can no longer make enough insulin to handle spikes in glucose levels — such as what happens after meals. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence In 2012, an estimated 29.1 million people in the United States — 9.3 percent of the population — had diabetes, according to Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Diabetes affects 26 million people (nearly 9% of the population) in the United States. But not all cases of diabetes are the same. The focus of this lesson is type 1 diabetes. We'll learn what it is, why it occurs, and how it affects the body in both the short- and long-term. Definition and Risk Factors You hear a lot about diabetes in the news, especially how it's linked to factors like unhealthy lifestyle decisions and obesity. But that is not true of every case of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus type 1, more commonly known as type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas that results in a lack of insulin. Let's break that down. An autoimmune disease is caused by the response of an overactive immune system. Just like an overactive imagination can see a shadow and think it's the boogeyman, an overactive immune system can mistake a part of its own body for a pathogen and attack it. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks beta cells, which are cells in the pancreas located in the islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are important because they produce insulin, the protein hormone required to get glucose, or sugar, into your body's cells. A reduced number of beta cells equals a reduced amount of insulin. When your body is insulin-deficient, you begin to experience the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Scientists have isolated several possibilities as to why this autoimmune response takes place, including: Genetics - activation of several genes is one possibility as to why someone gets type 1 diabetes Environmental factors, such as where you live (for some reason, people living further from the equator tend to be more afflicted) Dietary factors, such as low vitamin D intake And even viral attack ...but there are no definite answers. Symptoms Loss of one of Continue reading >>

What Are The Main Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes?

What Are The Main Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes?

ANSWER Type 1 diabetes usually starts in childhood. Your pancreas stops making insulin. You have type 1 diabetes for life. The main things that lead to it are: Family history. If you have relatives with diabetes, chances are strong you'll get it, too. Anyone who has a mother, father, sister, or brother with type 1 diabetes should get checked. A simple blood test can diagnose it. Diseases of the pancreas. They can slow its ability to make insulin. Infection or illness. Some infections and illnesses, mostly rare ones, can damage your pancreas. ANSWER If you have type 2 diabetes, your body can't use the insulin it makes. This is called insulin resistance. Type 2 usually affects adults, but it can begin at any time in your life. The main things that lead to it are: Obesity or being overweight. Research shows this is a top reason for type 2 diabetes. Because of the rise in obesity among U.S. children, this type is affecting more teenagers. Impaired glucose tolerance. Prediabetes is a milder form of this condition. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. If you have it, there's a strong chance you'll get type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes often starts with cells that are resistant to insulin. That means your pancreas has to work extra hard to make enough insulin to meet your body's needs. Ethnic background. Diabetes happens more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives. Gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you had gestational diabetes. This raises your chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life. Sedentary lifestyle. You exercise less than three times a week. Family history. You have a parent or sibling who has diabetes. Polycystic Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that increase your odds of getting type 1 diabetes. It's important to keep in mind that these risk factors often work in combination. Family history. You are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if one or both of your parents or any of your grandparents has or had the disease. Also, risk increases if both your parents carry the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes (human leukocyte antigen). In the United States, 40% of the population has one or more of these genes. Race. Caucasians have the highest rate of the disease. Environmental factors. In people who have a family history of type 1 diabetes, it's possible that viruses may trigger the disease. Diet. Type 1 diabetes is more common in those who were not fed breast milk or who started eating solid foods at an exceptionally early age. Basics Type 1 Basics Causes & Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Healthcare Team Treatment Diabetes Treatment Options Mastering Insulin, Making Real Change Tests to Monitor Your Care: Type 1 Features What's Your Diabetes IQ? Diabetes and Eating Disorders: The Dangers of Diabulimia What's Your Type? 6 Easy Ways to Make Your Life Better Questions for Your Doctor How to Ask Your Family for Support Insulin Syringe Safety for Diabetics Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - What Increases Your Risk

Type 1 Diabetes - What Increases Your Risk

Risk factors are things that increase your chances of getting sick or having a problem. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: A family history of type 1 diabetes. Having a family history of the disease increases the chance that a person will have islet cell antibodies. But it doesn't predict that a person will have the disease. Race. White people have a greater risk for type 1 diabetes than black, Asian, or Hispanic people. Presence of islet cell antibodies in the blood. People who have both a family history of type 1 diabetes and islet cell antibodies in their blood are likely to get diabetes. Family members of people with type 1 diabetes can be tested to see if they have islet cell antibodies. People who are found to have islet cell antibodies may be able to take part in studies about preventing type 1 diabetes. This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.© 1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

By the dLife Editors Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas are gradually destroyed and eventually fail to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy. Blood glucose (or blood sugar) is manufactured from the food we eat (primarily carbohydrates) and by the liver. If glucose can’t be absorbed by the cells, it builds up in the bloodstream instead. Untreated, the high blood sugar levels that result can be toxic to every system of the body, causing serious complications. Type 1 accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed diabetes in the United States. Although type 1 diabetes develops most often in children and young adults, the disease can be diagnosed at any age. Of the 1.25 million Americans living with type 1 diabetes, about 200,000 are younger than twenty years old. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes is more common in Caucasians than in those of Latino, African American, or other non-Caucasian backgrounds. The rate of type 1 diabetes has been increasing by roughly 2 to 5 percent each year, globally. Type 1 Diabetes Causes Researchers have identified several genes associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. While the causes are complex and not completely understood, the prevailing belief about the etiology, or cause, of type 1 diabetes is that while someone may have a genetic predisposition for developing the disease, it takes an environmental trigger or series of triggers (e.g., virus, toxin, drug) to set off the autoimmune process that destroys insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes may include: Family history A child with an immediate relative with type 1 diabetes has a risk of developin Continue reading >>

Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, And Mortality In Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Relationship Between Risk Factors, Age, And Mortality In Type 1 Diabetes Patients

Management of non-glycemic cardiovascular disease risk factors may have increasing benefits in an aging type 1 diabetes patient population with long-term hyperglycemia. The duration of diabetes and how well it is controlled are important factors for preventing type 1 diabetes complications and mortality. Evidence-based therapy and improvement in technology has led to a significantly higher life expectancy among T1D patients. As these patients live longer, risk for cardiovascular disease complications has increased. CVD is the major cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes and accounts for approximately half of all deaths while the other half is as a result of non-CVD and other causes. Risk factors that lead to insulin resistance, such as high triglyceride, high LDL-cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and albuminuria are strong indicators of CVD in type 1 diabetes patients. In the EURODIAB Prospective Cohort Study, 2,787 type 1 diabetes patients were studied over a 7-year period. Mortality causes were categorized as CVD, non-CVD and unknown. The analyses were adjusted for age and the length of time since diabetes was diagnosed and the most important risk factors were determined using a simultaneous and stepwise approach. Non-CVD causes had a higher annual mortality rate at 1.9 per 1,000 person-years [1.4–2.6], while mortality rate due to CVD causes was 1.4 per 1,000 person-years [1.01–2.08], and 1.7 [1.3–2.4] per 1,000 person-years for unknown causes. The results of the study showed that for younger diabetes age, non-CVD risk factors and other unknown factors contributed more to mortality rate compared to CVD risk factors. In the DCCT/EDIC study, 1441 participants were followed for a 27-year period and their HbA1c and other risk Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Summary Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. Continue reading >>

Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?

Genetics & Diabetes : What's Your Risk?

A school nurse anxiously wants to know if there is a reason why several children from her small grade school have been diagnosed with type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes. Is it an epidemic? Will there be more cases? Is a recent chicken pox outbreak to blame? A man in his 50s develops type 2 diabetes. His mother developed diabetes in her 60s. Should this man's brother and sister be concerned, too? What about his children's chances of developing diabetes? A married couple wants to have children, but they are concerned because the husband has type 1 diabetes. They wonder what the risk is that their child would have diabetes. A couple has three young children. One of the children develops type 1 diabetes. There's no history of diabetes anywhere in either parent's families. Is this just a fluke? What are the chances the other children will develop diabetes? Chances are if you or a loved one have diabetes, you may wonder if you inherited it from a family member or you may be concerned that you will pass the disease on to your children. Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center report that, while much has been learned about what genetic factors make one more susceptible to developing diabetes than another, many questions remain to be answered. While some people are more likely to get diabetes than others, and in some ways type 2 (adult onset diabetes) is simpler to track than type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes, the pattern is not always clear. For more than 20 years researchers in the Epidemiology and Genetics Section at Joslin in Boston (Section Head Andrzej S. Krolewski, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator James H. Warram, M.D., Sc.D., and colleagues) have been studying diabetes incidence and hereditary factors. They are continuing a scientific journey begun by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Continue reading >>

Jdrf And Ibm Collaborate To Research Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes In Children

Jdrf And Ibm Collaborate To Research Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes In Children

NEW YORK, Aug. 18, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) and JDRF, the leading global organization funding type 1 diabetes (T1D) research, today announced a new collaboration to develop and apply machine learning methods to analyze years of global T1D research data and identify factors leading to the onset of T1D in children. T1D affects approximately 1.25 million Americans, and it currently does not have a cure. This research collaboration is expected to create an entry point for T1D in the field of precision medicine, by combining JDRF's connections to research teams around the globe and its subject matter expertise in T1D research with the technical capability and computing power of IBM. "At JDRF, we are absolutely committed to seeing a world without type 1 diabetes, and with this partnership, we're adding some of the most advanced computing power in the world to our mission," said Derek Rapp, JDRF President and CEO. "JDRF supports researchers all over the world, but never before have we been able to analyze their data comprehensively, in a way that can tell us why some children who are at risk get T1D and others do not. IBM's analysis of the existing data could open the door to understanding the risk factors of T1D in a whole new way, and to one day finding a way to prevent T1D altogether." IBM scientists will look across at least three different data sets and apply machine learning algorithms to help find patterns and factors at play, with the goal of identifying ways that could delay or prevent T1D in children. In order to match variables and data formats and compare the differing data sets, the scientists plan to leverage previously collected data from global research projects. Data analysis will explore the inclusion of genetic, familial, autoantibody and other v Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

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