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Type 1 Diabetes New Treatment

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

New Developments In The Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107 Suppl 3:S108-13. New developments in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. (1)Medical Department I, Center of Internal Medicine, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. [email protected] Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus has made tremendous advances within thelast decades. With concern to insulin delivery there are two promising newapproaches. One is the intrapulmonary insulin delivery which has become feasible by the development of new inhalation devices which provide a sufficient degree ofintrapulmonary drug retention. Also oral insulin delivery seems feasible whensurface active substances are used to cross the mucosal membrane in the gut.Clinical research has also focussed on coatings for the insulin molecules tosolve the problem raised by the proteolytic activity of the digestive system. Avery new agent produced by a fungus called Pseudomassaria has been demonstratedto reverse the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus in mice. The compound diffusesthrough the cell membrane, binds to the inner part of the insulin receptor andactivates the insulin typical biological effects. Nowadays a variety of insulinanalogs are designed and tested for their clinical use. By shifting theisoelectric point towards to a slightly acidic pH, HOE 901 precipitates atphysiologic pH resulting in a constant and peakless insulin delivery. NN 304 is a14-carbon aliphatic fatty acid acylated analog that binds to serum albuminresulting in a flatter time-action profile than NPH insulin. Also rapid actinginsulin analogs are or will be launched in the near future aiming to ensure animproved postprandial glucose regulation. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)improves metabolic control by a variety of effects, e.g. the enhanc Continue reading >>

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

Dr Bart Roep: The Man Who Wants To Cure Type 1 Diabetes Within Six Years

'The C-word is controversial within diabetes circles, yet the City of Hope had no reticence about making the claim.' - Jack Woodfield. Dr Bart Roep is the director of the diabetes research facilityat the City of Hope's Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute. Born in the Netherlands, he leads a team whose mission is to cure type 1 diabetes, and while their ambitions are lofty, so is their early success. In March, Dr Roep's team published the results of a 14-year-boy with type 1 diabetes who underwent stem cell transplantation. The boy has since been free from insulin without any side effects for eight years. This, Dr Roep said, was the first definitive proof that type 1 diabetes can be cured. But there are still several critical questions to be answered. Dr Roep acknowledges that cure is "a dangerous word to use" in regard to type 1 diabetes research. "What we are trying to do is understand why people get type 1 diabetes and to translate this to find a cure," Roep said. "That is, of course, a dangerous word to use. But we think that we are onto a couple of leads." One of these leads is islet cell transplantation, a procedure that involves transplanting islet (insulin-producing) cells into patients from donor pancreases. In some cases, the transplants can help a patient come off insulin, but other times the cells are rejected or attacked by the immune system unless immunosuppressant drugs are also given, which can cause side effects. Dr Roep's team made a significant discovery along the way: by reading the immune signatures of patients they were able to predict how successful transplantation would be. Dr Roep says this is the first step towards personalising medicine in type 1 diabetes. "It turns out we can predict before surgery who has a fantastic chance of lasting Continue reading >>

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs In Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope

8 Amazing Breakthroughs in Diabetes Research That Are Giving Us Hope According to recent research , we're not entirely sure how many diseases the label 'diabetes' covers. But no matter what causes our bodies to struggle with their blood sugar levels, it's a serious condition that requires daily care. Scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Insulin producing implants made from stem cells Clinical trials began last year for testing for ViaCyte's PEC-Direct device ; a credit-card sized implant containing insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells. Previous research had shown the implants could mature and function inside patients. Together with a cohort of volunteers who started testing in January, the new research should tell us soon whether the technology can help people with type-1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. A drug on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs could have another purpose ; blocking a molecule implemented in the autoimmune response that can give rise to type-1 diabetes. Called methyldopa, the compound already has an important job treating high blood pressure in pregnant women and children. It's left to be seen if it could help reduce the incidence of diabetes in some way, but the fact it's already being used - rather than being stuck in the lab Continue reading >>

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

New Treatment On The Horizon For Type 1 Diabetes Sufferers

Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes may soon have access to improved approaches to treat the disease, courtesy of new research out of Sydney's Westmead Institute for Medical Research. The team of researchers, led by Professor Jenny Gunton, discovered that pancreatic islets transplants delivered into the quadriceps muscle work just as successfully as the current clinical practice of transplanting islets into a patient's liver via the portal vein. Lead researcher Ms Rebecca Stokes said that transplants into the liver can present certain risks for the patient, so their research investigated safer and more beneficial treatment options for transplant recipients. "Islets are cells in the pancreas that produce insulin," Ms Stokes explained. "Pancreatic islet transplantation is used as a cure for type 1 diabetes as it allows the recipient to produce and regulate insulin after their own islet cells have been destroyed by the disease. "Currently, islet transplants are infused into a patient's liver via the portal vein. This site is used for islet transplants due to its exposure to both nutrients and insulin in the body. "However, islet infusion into the liver also presents certain risks for the patient, including potential complications from bleeding, blood clots and portal hypertension. "This suggests that there may be better treatment options for patients receiving islet transplants. "We investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and mouse islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. "Colleagues in Professor Wayne Hawthorne's group also tested similar sites for pig islet transplants in their companion paper. "Professor Hawthorne's research examining xenotransplantation - the process of transp Continue reading >>

Looking To Cure Type 1 Diabetes, Investors Front $114m To Launch A Pioneering Human Study At Semma

Looking To Cure Type 1 Diabetes, Investors Front $114m To Launch A Pioneering Human Study At Semma

Three years ago, Harvard’s Doug Melton published a landmark study outlining how he had successfully used stem cells to create insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells that were inserted in bulk into mice and successfully protected from an immune response — a breakthrough in regenerative medicine that bore real promise to provide a curative approach for Type 1 diabetes that could conceivably end a lifetime of insulin shots. It was the culmination of 23 years of lab work, launched when his son was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. And that achievement marked the beginning of something new in biotech. That same year Semma Therapeutics would be launched — with a $44 million A round landing in 2015 — in pursuit of a mission to complete one of the most ambitious preclinical programs in the regenerative med field. And after working on all the nitty gritty research needed to see if this tech could be scaled up to human size, an expanded syndicate of venture investors have put together a whopping $114 million round with plans to take this into humans for a first-of-its-kind proof-of-concept study. One of the big challenges Semma faced in scaling up, Melton tells me, was to create a membrane specifically designed with pores that were large enough for molecules to pass through but too small for immune cells to penetrate. Using some calculations from the lab, Melton and his colleagues estimated that they would need some 150 million cells — possibly ranging up to three times that amount — in order to provide the natural insulin needed to eliminate the shots. Melton compares the membrane to a tea bag, but one that couldn’t be overloaded. The replacement cells, he said, “will only secrete the right amount depending on the level of sugar in the blood.” The big round mark Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Type 1 Diabetes: Could Modified Blood Stem Cells Lead To A Cure?

Increasing levels of a certain protein in blood stem cells so that the immune system stops attacking insulin cells in the pancreas could be a way to halt type 1 diabetes, according to a new study reported in Science Translational Medicine. Researchers led by those at Harvard Medical School's Boston Children's Hospital in Massachusetts found that they could reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by modifying their defective blood stem cells to increase production of a protein called PD-L1. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Without sufficient insulin, the body cannot convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy for cells, with the result that it builds up in the bloodstream. Over time, high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, leads to serious complications such as vision problems and damage to blood vessels, nerves, and kidneys. Immune system attacks beta cells Around 5 percent of the 23.1 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 1 diabetes. The body produces insulin in the pancreas, which is an organ that sits just behind the stomach. It contains insulin-producing beta cells that normally sense glucose levels in the blood and release just the right amount of insulin to keep sugar levels normal. In type 1 diabetes, a fault in the immune system makes inflammatory T cells — which usually react to "foreign" material — attack beta cells in the pancreas. Nobody knows exactly how this comes about, but scientists suspect that a virus, or some other trigger in the environment, sets it off in people with certain inherited genes. The "holy grail" of scientists seeking a cure for type 1 diabetes is to find a way to prevent or stop the immune attack on the beta cells. Several approaches have been tried, including "cytostatic Continue reading >>

U Tests New Transplant Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

U Tests New Transplant Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes

Researchers at the University of Minnesota have studied everything from human organ donors to specially grown pigs as sources of insulin-producing islet cells for people with type 1 diabetes who lack them. Now they are testing the transplant of islets from a new source — embryonic stem cells. The university earlier this fall became the third U.S. academic institution to transplant an islet cell product made by California-based ViaCyte in patients with severe and poorly controlled diabetes. A stem cell solution to producing islets could be a significant step in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, said Dr. Melena Bellin, the university researcher leading the local arm of the ViaCyte study. While islets can be transplanted from deceased organ donors, that supply is limited and unpredictable. “Really, to overcome that barrier, you have to find some sort of renewable source of islets,” she said. Insulin is a hormone in the pancreas that regulates the body’s storage and use of sugar. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when people lack the islets to produce insulin. Gregory Romero was the second to sign up for the trial. The 43-year-old web developer has resented his type 1 diabetes but managed it through insulin injections. In recent years he has become less sensitive to fluctuations in his blood sugar, which has resulted in blackouts. Once, he awoke after falling down stairs. Another time, he couldn’t walk and had to crawl out of his house to meet paramedics. Having a chance at a treatment that could stabilize his blood sugar felt like “winning the lottery,” said Romero, whose father suffered a diabetic coma that left him mentally handicapped. “It’s not just for my sake, but for everybody out there suffering from this disease,” Romero said. “If this thing is su Continue reading >>

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

New Type 1 Diabetes Treatment And Prevention Options On The Horizon

There’s new hope on the horizon for those with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Biopharmaceutical company TetraGenetics is working on an innovative drug therapy that can stop or prevent the body’s immune system from attacking its own pancreas. How T1D Develops Most people who develop T1D do so as a result of a particular virus that triggers an exaggerated autoimmune response. In the pancreas, the cells that produce insulin are called beta cells. In people that have a particular type of gene associated with T1D, the beta cells have a quality (an antigen) that closely resembles the antigens found in the virus. When you are exposed to the virus, your immune system activates its T cells to start combating the infection by creating antibodies. However, these antibodies can’t distinguish between the beta cells and the virus cells. They look too similar, so the antibodies destroy them all in an attempt to protect against the viral infection. Unfortunately, by killing off your beta cells, your immune system has also eliminated your body’s ability to produce insulin. You are now diabetic. Both Genes and Virus Necessary for T1D to Develop There are four viruses that can cause the autoimmune cascade that results in T1D: German measles, mumps, rotavirus, and the B4 strain of the coxsackie B virus. These viruses all possess antigens that are similar to the antigens in the beta cells of the pancreas. It’s important to note that not everyone who is exposed to these viruses will develop T1D. You have to already possess the genetic makeup associated with T1D. If you do carry the T1D genes but don’t get any of these viruses, you may never actually develop the disease. You have to have both. In other words, if you do have these genes and you contract one of the viruses, then you will li Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

Type 1 Diabetes Treatments

People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can live long, happy lives with proper care and disease management. Advancements in medication types and delivery methods give people the freedom to choose which treatment options work best with their particular circumstance. T1D prognoses can be greatly improved with a combination of treatments and lifestyle choices. Insulin and other medications Insulin Type 1 diabetes is managed through use of a variety of insulins. People with T1D must work closely with their medical team to find the right insulin treatment for their condition. Further information about the types of insulin and their effects are available on our insulin page. Insulin can be delivered via syringes or pens, pumps or new artificial pancreas systems. Though the administration method, frequency and type of insulin dosage vary on a case-by-case basis, injections may be needed multiple times per day. Metformin and other medications Metformin: Combined with insulin, diet and exercise, type 2 diabetes (T2D) drug metformin is sometimes prescribed to people with T1D to help treat their diabetes. Metformin helps control the body’s blood-sugar levels and how the liver processes sugar. Pramlintide (Symlin): Used in conjunction with insulin, pramlintide is often prescribed after other medications prove not as effective as needed. It acts as a hormone to help the body better control blood sugar. Blood pressure drugs, cholesterol medications and aspirin: Medications for high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well as aspirin can be prescribed with insulin to help the overall health and treatment of diabetes. Since people with diabetes have an increased chance of cardiovascular disease, these drugs are used in combination with other diabetes medications. Side effects of medicat Continue reading >>

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Researchers May Have Found A Way To Reverse Type 1 Diabetes

Image Point Fr/Shutterstock A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means a lifetime of constant diligence. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 usually develops early in life. Those diagnosed have to check blood sugar several times a day and take insulin as needed; the process is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. That helps explain the excitement about a potential cure for type 1 diabetes using an already approved treatment. Doctors diagnose more than 18,000 children and teens with type 1 diabetes every year, according to the CDC. These kids lack the ability to make enough insulin, the hormone that processes blood sugar. Using insulin injections to control blood sugar with insulin is tricky because diet, exercise, and stress can quickly alter levels. Without enough insulin, kidney, heart, and nerve damage can be the result. Get too much, and blood sugar levels will plummet dangerously low. (This is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.) Researchers in Israel have tried treating type 1 diabetics with an immune system protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha-1)—it helps target germs. Normally, insulin gets lower and lower over time in diabetics, but extra alpha-1 seems to help the body produce more. Researchers gave 12 recently diagnosed type 1 diabetics an alpha-1 drip once a week for eight weeks in a study in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. For a year and counting following treatment, two of the participants have been making more of their own insulin. Another three saw only minor decreases—which is a good sign. “Compared to the natural course of the disease, which is downhill, even a flat line is considered success,” says study co-author Eli C. Lewis, PhD, biochemical and pharmacology professor at Ben-Gurion University of the N Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

New Diabetes Treatment Teaches Rogue Immune Cells To Behave

(Getty Images) A treatment targeting wayward immune cells in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes may help even years later, a new study finds. For the treatment, researchers take blood from a person with diabetes and separate out the immune system cells (lymphocytes). They briefly expose those cells to stem cells from umbilical cord blood from an unrelated infant. Then they return the lymphocytes to the patient's body. The researchers have dubbed this treatment "stem cell educator therapy," because when exposed to the stem cells, the errant lymphocytes seem to re-learn how they should behave. "Stem cell educator therapy is a safe approach" with long-term effectiveness, said the study's lead author, Dr. Yong Zhao, an associate scientist at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey. Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease, occurs when the body's immune system cells mistakenly attack the insulin-producing (beta) cells in the pancreas. This leaves people with Type 1 diabetes with little to no insulin. They need insulin injections to survive. Researchers have long thought that any cure for Type 1 diabetes would have to stop the autoimmune attack, while regenerating or transplanting beta cells. But Zhao and his team developed a new approach to the problem — educating the immune cells that had been destroying beta cells so they stop attacking. In Type 2 diabetes, Zhao said immune cell dysfunction is responsible for chronic inflammation that causes insulin resistance. When someone is insulin-resistant, their body's cells can't properly use insulin to usher sugar from foods into cells for use as energy. Instead, the sugar builds up in the blood. The researchers hoped the stem cell educator would help decrease insulin resistance for people with Type 2 diabetes. In ear Continue reading >>

New Compound Approach Offers New Treatment Promise In Type 1 Diabetes

New Compound Approach Offers New Treatment Promise In Type 1 Diabetes

New compound approach offers new treatment promise in type 1 diabetes New compound approach offers new treatment promise in type 1 diabetes Journalist praised for recovering from hypo live on air 04 December 2017 Russian scientists have modelled type 1 diabetes in an experiment to understand recovery processes in the pancreas, in a bid to develop new treatment approaches. Researchers tested a number of compounds on rat models of type 1 diabetes to examine whether they could activate regeneration processes in cells damaged by diabetes. The rats were given alloxan which destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas . Using derivatives of a compound known as 1,3,4-thiadiazine, researchers were able to lower glucose levels and HbA1c of the rats, and insulin levels increased, indicating heightened beta cell activity. "The compounds that block the aforementioned pathogenetic mechanism may potentially be turned into medicinal drugs for the treatment of this socially significant disease," said lead author Irina Danilova, head of the morphology and biochemistry lab at the Ural Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Danilova and colleagues investigated this new approach to help eliminate metabolic stress and inflammation associated with diabetes. Because high blood sugar levels can activate oxidative stress , which damages protein and fat cells and DNA molecules, preventing this process could reduce diabetes-associated damage. "We decided to create new approaches to prevention and treatment of diabetes by using synthesized anti-diabetic chemical compounds. It was important for us to understand the mode of their action on cell, tissue, organ, and body levels," added Danilova. The derivative substances of the 1,3,4-thiadiazine compound all had anti-oxidising an Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Atom RSS Feed Type 1 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. Patients are usually treated by insulin-replacement therapy. Continue reading >>

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists May Have Found A Functional Cure For Type-1 Diabetes

Type-1 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects an estimated 42 million people worldwide, and occurs when the pancreas produces little to no insulin. Those with the condition must take supplemental insulin so their bodies can process sugars. But now, researchers at ViaCyte, a regenerative medicine company, have some good news: They're working on a therapy based on stem cells that can automatically release insulin into the body when it's needed. The treatment is specifically aimed at patients with high-risk type-1 diabetes. ViaCyte estimates that around 140,000 people in the US and Canada suffer from the condition, which can cause life-threatening events. The use of stem cells to replace pancreatic insulin cells has been tried before, but without much success. ViaCyte's approach shows promise because the stem cells can mature within the body itself through an implant the company calls PEC-Direct. There has already been a round of clinical trials to test whether the stem cells could fully grow into the type of cells necessary to produce insulin -- called islet cells. That was a success. But the number of cells within the implants wasn't enough to actually treat the patients; it was solely to test whether the cells could, in fact, be grown. Now, in coordination with JDRF, an organization that funds type-1 diabetes research, ViaCyte has implanted PEC-Directs into two patients as a trial. It's important to note that this isn't a full cure. It's what ViaCyte President and CEO Paul Laikind calls "a functional cure." It doesn't address and treat the specific causes of the condition. Additionally, patients using this treatment would be required to take immunosuppressive drugs to protect the created cells from the body's immune system, according to New Scientist. Regardless, Continue reading >>

New Treatments And Treatment Philosophy For Type 1 Diabetes

New Treatments And Treatment Philosophy For Type 1 Diabetes

Advances in insulin types and regimens can help patients fit insulin therapy to their lifestyles. Treatment of type 1 diabetes has changed over the past several decades. Recent advances include the development of insulin analogs, such as the long-acting insulin glargine and the ultra-short-acting insulins aspart and lispro, and various new treatment regimens and devices, such as multiple daily injection and insulin pump therapy. These advances have increased the flexibility of insulin therapy and improved glycemic control, thus preventing and reducing diabetes-related complications. Advances in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the past decade have occurred in the areas of treatments and treatment philosophy. The push for new insulin analogs such as glargine, aspart, and lispro came in part from the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which highlighted the importance of more physiological insulin profiles. Prevention of complications in type 1 diabetes The importance of glycemic control in preventing microvascular complications of T1D was clearly demonstrated by the results of the DCCT in 1993.[1] The DCCT was a 9-year study examining the effect of conventional insulin therapy compared with the effect of intensive insulin therapy on complications related to diabetes. Intensive insulin therapy consisted of either multiple daily injection (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. The DCCT saw a lower mean glycosylated hemoglobin value achieved in the intensive group compared with the conventional therapy group (7.2% vs 9.1%, P<.001). The two target populations in the study included a primary prevention group consisting of patients with no retinopathy or nephropathy, and a secondary prevention group of patients wi Continue reading >>

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