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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Is Also Called Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than others.[6] Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes.[1] In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[12][13] Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C).[3] Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatri Continue reading >>

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in your body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in your bloodstream in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both. Since the cells can't take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That's why diabetes -- especially if left untreated -- can eventually cause heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It's caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn't make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition. It could also be the result of faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. A number of medical risks are associated with type 1 diabetes. Many of them stem from damage to the tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious is the increased risk of hea Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.[4] This results in high blood sugar levels in the body.[1] The classical symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss.[4] Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, feeling tired, and poor healing.[2] Symptoms typically develop over a short period of time.[1] The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown.[4] However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[1] Risk factors include having a family member with the condition.[5] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[2] Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood.[5][7] Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.[5] There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.[4] Treatment with insulin is required for survival.[1] Insulin therapy is usually given by injection just under the skin but can also be delivered by an insulin pump.[9] A diabetic diet and exercise are an important part of management.[2] Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[4] Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[5] Long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.[4] Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin.[5] Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases.[8] The number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year.[5] With Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Sort Complications: Patients with DM have Ophthalmologic disease unrelated to diabetic retinopathy (e.g., cataracts, glaucoma, corneal abrasions, optic neuropathy); hepatobiliary diseases(e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [steatosis and steatohepatitis], cirrhosis, gallstones); and dermatologic disease (e.g., tinea infections, lower extremity ulcers, diabetic dermopathy, diabeticscleroderma, vitiligo, granuloma annulare, Insulin secretion Insulin secretion in beta cells is triggered by rising blood glucose levels. Starting with the uptake of glucose by the GLUT2 transporter, the glycolytic phosphorylation of glucose causes a rise in the ATP:ADP ratio. This rise inactivates the potassium channel that depolarizes the membrane, causing the calcium channel to open up allowing calcium ions to flow inward. The ensuing rise in levels of calcium leads to the exocytotic release of insulin from their storage granule. Insulin: Polypeptide hormone; cannot be swallowed • Injected S.C. (Or IV if needed: regular only) • Secretion triggered by blood glucose • Source: E. coli or Baker's Yeast • Insulin preparations vary by onset of action and duration of activity. • Inactivated by liver and kidney • ADRs: hypoglycemia, weight gain, allergy • Types: Rapid, short, intermediate, long-acting • Standard treatment: BID • Intensive treatment: 3 or more times a day • Insulin combinations Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (type I)

Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (type I)

Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type I) Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type I) Diabetes: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type I) Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), also known as type 1 diabetes, usually starts before 15 years of age, but can occur in adults also. Diabetes involves the pancreas gland, which is located behind the stomach (Picture 1). The special cells (beta cells) of the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin. The body is made up of millions of cells. All cells need glucose (sugar) from the food we eat for energy. Just as a car cant run without gasoline, the body cant work without glucose. Insulin is the key that allows glucose to enter the cells. Without this key, glucose stays in the bloodstream and the cells cant use it for energy. Instead, the glucose builds up in the blood and spills over into the urine. When a person develops type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. To help the bodys cells use the glucose, a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) must receive insulin by injection (shot). The cause of diabetes is not known. Some experts believe diabetes is inherited (runs in families), but the genetics are not clearly understood. Diabetes does not always run in families. The body mistakes the cells that produce insulin for foreign cells. The body then destroys these cells. This is called an auto-immune process. Although something in the environment may trigger the disease, there are no known ways to prevent type 1 diabetes in children. People do not outgrow type 1 diabetes, but they can learn to control it by insulin shots, blood glucose testing, diet and exercise. About 14.6 million Americans have diabetes. About 1 out of 10 people with diabetes have type 1 DM. Another type of diabetes is Continue reading >>

A&p-endocrine Flashcards | Quizlet

A&p-endocrine Flashcards | Quizlet

acromegaly Disease characterized by large, coarse features, particularly of the face and hands. This results from overproduction of the growth hormone. 2. Addison's disease A chronic type of adrenocortical insufficiency, characterized by hypotension, weight loss, anorexia, weakness, and a bronze-like hyperpigmentation of the skin. 3. cachexia A profound and marked state of constitutional disorder; general ill health and malnutrition. 4. Cushing syndrome A condition resulting from an excess of the adrenocorticotropin hormone. 5. cystic fibrosis Widespread dysfunction of the exocrine glands occurring in infants, children, and young adults. 6. de Quervain disease A condition characterized by fever and painful enlargement of the thyroid gland, often following a viral infection. 7. diabetes insipidus A temporary or chronic disorder of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland involving a deficiency of the vasopressin hormone. 8. diabetes mellitus A syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion or effectiveness. It is classified into two main categories, noninsulin dependent and insulin dependent. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also referred to as juvenile diabetes. It is characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms, usually in early adolescence, in persons who suffer from an insufficient amount of insulin being produced by the pancreas. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 may be either non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This is also referred to as adult-onset diabetes, because it is usually found in adults over 45 who have a family history of diabetes, are overweight, do not exercise, and/or have high cholester Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

(redirected from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM) type 2 diabetes mellitus a type of diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin resistance in appropriate hepatic glucose production and impaired insulin secretion. Onset is usually after 40 years of age but can occur at any age, including during childhood and adolescence. Familial aggregation implies that genetic factors and environmental factors, such as obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, superimposed on genetic susceptibility are involved in the onset. The majority of persons with type 2 diabetes are obese; glucose tolerance is often improved by modest weight loss and increased activity. Persons with type 2 diabetes can manage their disorder with a meal plan, increased activity, oral antidiabetes agents such as insulin secretagogues, biguanides, alpha glucosidase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, and insulin. Maturity onset diabetes of young is a rare type 2 diabetes, and an autosomal-dominant inheritance is clearly established. Previously called adult-onset diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, stabile diabetes. Also called type II diabetes mellitus. See also diabetes mellitus. type 2 diabetes mellitus Adult-onset diabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Endocrinology A mild form of DM with an onset > age 40, ↓ incidence of DKA, accompanied by microvascular complications, which comprises 90% of DM; 80% of type 2 DM Pts are obese–an association known as 'diabesity', insulin-deficient, insulin-resistant Diagnosis 1. Fasting glucose is 7.8 mmol/L–US > 140 mg/dL on ≥ 2 occasions or. 2. When in a 75g GTT, the 2-hr and one other value–drawn at the 30, 60, or 90 min intervals are > 11.2 mmol/L Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

The pancreas lies at the back of the abdomen behind the stomach and has two main functions: to produce juices that flow into the digestive system to help us digest food to produce the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the key hormone that controls the flow of glucose (sugar) in and out of the cells of the body. Type 2 diabetes is caused by: insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas a resistance to the action of insulin in the body's cells – especially in muscle, fat and liver cells. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with being overweight, but it's less clear what causes it, compared to the Type 1 disease. Term watch Type 2 diabetes used to be called 'non-insulin dependent diabetes'. This is because insulin injections were not part of its treatment. As some people with Type 2 also now require insulin, the term Type 2 is preferred. In the first few years after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes high levels of insulin circulate in the blood because the pancreas can still produce the hormone. Eventually insulin production dwindles. For reasons we don't understand, the effect of insulin is also impaired. This means it doesn't have its normal effect on the cells of the body. This is called insulin resistance. What is insulin resistance? Insulin resistance has a number of knock-on effects: it causes high blood glucose it disturbs the fat levels in the blood, making the arteries of the heart more likely to clog (coronary heart disease) The insulin-producing cells of the pancreas in people with Type 2 diabetes don't seem to come under attack from the immune system as they do in Type 1. But they are still unable to cope with the need to produce a surge of insulin after a meal. Normally, this insulin surge causes the body to store excess glucose coming in and so keeps Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Tweet Diabetes Mellitus is the Latin name for diabetes. Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs when the cannot produce insulin which is needed to control blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is much more common, occurs when the body can not produce enough insulin or the insulin is not working effeciently enough. Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs when pregnant women have high blood glucose levels due to hormones produced in pregnancy. A diagnosis of gestational diabetes means a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Rare types of diabetes mellitus There are also other, more rare types of diabetes mellitus such as MODY, LADA and secondary diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic disease, drug side effects or endocrine disorders. Sub-types of type 1 diabetes There is also a sub-type of type 1 diabetes called Brittle Diabetes. In the past, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes were called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, because some people with NIDDM require insulin to manage their condition, these labels are no longer accurate. Type 2 diabetes mellitus also used to be called adult-onset diabetes. However, more and more young people and children are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, making this label inaccurate. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 diabetes mellitus is much rarer that type 2. Approximately 15% of people with diabetes mellitus have type 1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus usually develops at a young age, but can occur at any time. People with type 1 diabetes mellitus have to have daily insulin injections to manage their condition. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects around 85% (some studies put the figure closer to 90%) of people with dia Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Alternative names for diabetes mellitus Diabetes; type 2 diabetes; type 1 diabetes; sugar diabetes; T2DM, T1DM; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; IDDM; juvenile-onset diabetes What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone insulin, resulting in high levels of sugar in the bloodstream. There are many different types of diabetes; the most common are type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which are covered in this article. Gestational diabetes occurs during the second half of pregnancy and is covered in a separate article. Diabetes mellitus is linked with an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, poor blood circulation to the legs and damage to the eyes, feet and kidneys. Early diagnosis and strict control of blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels can help to prevent or delay these complications associated with diabetes. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (regular exercise, not smoking and eating healthily) is important in reducing the risk of developing diabetes. What causes diabetes mellitus? Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells within the pancreas in response to the intake of food. The role of insulin is to lower blood sugar (glucose) levels by allowing cells in the muscle, liver and fat to take up sugar from the bloodstream that has been absorbed from food, and store it away as energy. In type 1 diabetes (or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), the insulin-producing cells are destroyed and the body is not able to produce insulin naturally. This means that sugar is not stored away but is constantly released from energy stores giving rise to high sugar levels in the blood. This in turn causes dehydration and thirst (because the high glucose ‘spills over’ into the urine and pulls wat Continue reading >>

Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Alternative Titles: NIDDM, adult-onset diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, type II diabetes, type II diabetes mellitus Learn about this topic in these articles: Assorted References antidiabetic agents causation, symptoms, and treatment soft drinks In tolbutamide …treatment of type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Tolbutamide stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby reducing the concentration of glucose in the blood. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

"Diabetes" redirects here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[7] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.[2] If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[2] Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death.[3] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[2] Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[8] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:[2] Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin.[2] This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes".[2] The cause is unknown.[2] Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[9] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2] Gestational diabetes is the third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.[2] Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with t Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Alicia Thomas Diaz, M.D. What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes and juvenile diabetes, can develop at any age but most often occurs in children, teens, and young adults. In type 1 diabetes, a person’s pancreas produces little or no insulin, so insulin treatment is needed for a lifetime. The causes of type 1 diabetes are not fully known. In most cases, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the part of the pancreas that produces insulin. This occurs over a period of time. so early on in type 1 diabetes, people may not have any symptoms. It is only when enough of the insulin producing cells are affected and insulin producing cells are affected and insulin levels are low that blood sugar rises and symptoms of diabetes start to occur. Because type 1 is an autoimmune disease, people with other autoimmune, conditions, such as Hashimoto disease or primary adrenal insufficiency (also known as Addison's Disease), are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Overall, cases of type 1 diabetes seem to be increasing. What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes? The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can look like other conditions or medical problems. If you (or your child) have these symptoms, talk with your doctor as soon as possible. Increased thirst Increased urination Constant hunger Weight loss Blurred vision Constantly feeling tired How is type 1 diabetes diagnosed and treated? Your doctor will use blood tests to diagnose diabetes. A blood glucose level above 125 mg/dL after fasting overnight or above 200 mg/dL after eating may indicate diabetes. Your doctor may also take a medical history and order further blood tests to rule out type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to keep a normal l Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus Definition Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin. Description Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal (kidney) failure, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Approximately 17 million Americans have diabetes. Unfortunately, as many as one-half are unaware they have it. Every cell in the human body needs energy in order to function. The body's primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches). Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells. The body will attempt to dilute the high level of glucose in the blood, a condition called hyperglycemia, by drawing water out of the cells and into the bloodstream in an effort to dilute the sugar and excrete it in the urine. It is not unusual for p Continue reading >>

Difference Between Niddm And Iddm

Difference Between Niddm And Iddm

NIDDM vs. IDDM Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the pancreas produces inadequate amounts of insulin, or in which the body’s cells fail to act appropriately to insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body’s cells absorb glucose (sugar) so that it can be used as a source of energy. Insulin helps lower blood glucose levels. When the blood glucose increases, insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. In patients with diabetes, the absence or inadequate production of insulin gives rise to hyperglycemia. Diabetes is considered to be a chronic medical condition; it simply means that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime. Diabetes mellitus may cause life-threatening complications if left untreated. Type 1 diabetes can result in diabetic coma, a state of unconsciousness caused by extremely high levels of glucose in the blood, or even death. In both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, complications may include blindness, kidney failure, and heart disease. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two different types. In Type 1 diabetes, previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM for short) and juvenile-onset diabetes, the body may either produce insulin in very small amounts or it may not produce insulin at all. While in Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM for short) and adult-onset diabetes, the body’s weak balance between insulin production and the ability of cells to use insulin goes awry. This may result from insulin resistance in which cells fail to use insulin properly often times combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. Classic symptoms commonly appear suddenly in Type 1 usually in individuals below 20 years of age. These include polyuri Continue reading >>

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