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Type 1 Diabetes Management

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Diagnostic tests include: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as pregnancy or an uncommon form of hemoglobin (hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use these tests: Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time and may be confirmed by repeat testing. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially when coupled with any of the signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. If you're diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also run blood tests to check for autoantibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes. These tests help your doctor distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes when the diagnosis is uncertain. The presence of ketones — byproducts from the breakdown of fat — in your urine also suggests type 1 diab Continue reading >>

Managing Life With Type 1 Diabetes

Managing Life With Type 1 Diabetes

My name is Chris and I am a lot of things. I am a father. I am a husband. I am an Entrepreneur, CEO. I am a person living with diabetes. I am a MiniMed Ambassador. I am also a lot of other things including, Philadelphia Eagles fan, Uncle, Brother, Son, Friend. And like everyone else I only have 24 hours in a day. So, the question arises…..how do I manage everything? Unfortunately, these aspects of my life are all intermingled and a lot of the time, one will affect the other. For example, a late night working on a client proposal may affect my blood sugar levels the next day, which then affect how my body feels which could then affect my conversations with my wife or clients. One thing ties into the next. Managing all aspects of my life must be done together. So, here are a few ways that I balance my health, life and work. Healthy Start One of the first things that I need to do in order to balance everything is start my day with a healthy, fresh start. That begins with getting a good night’s sleep and then eating breakfast every morning. I try to eat breakfast with my wife and daughter to get family time in before heading off to work. This also provides my brain the food and energy it needs to properly work throughout the day. And, when I eat breakfast (usually 3 eggs with cheese) it helps to level out my blood glucose levels until lunch time. Turn the Phone Off Smart phones have completely changed our lives. Access to the internet, emails and social media has become so simple that we are all within an arm’s reach of a phone at all times. I use a phone, tablet, and desktop throughout the day while I am working, so when it is dinner time, all the technology gets turned off for at least an hour so that we can have family time. This helps relieve any stress that may h Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitustreatment & Management

Type 1 Diabetes MellitusTreatment & Management Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) require lifelong insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term management requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes physicians, nurses, dietitians, and selected specialists. In some patients, the onset of type 1 DM is marked by an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but is followed by a symptom-free honeymoon period in which the symptoms remit and the patient requires little or no insulin. This remission is caused by a partial return of endogenous insulin secretion, and it may last for several weeks or months (sometimes for as long as 1-2 years). Ultimately, however, the disease recurs, and patients require insulin therapy. Often, the patient with new-onset type 1 DM who presents with mild manifestations and who is judged to be compliant can begin insulin therapy as an outpatient. However, this approach requires close follow-up and the ability to provide immediate and thorough education about the use of insulin; the signs, symptoms, and treatment of hypoglycemia; and the need to self-monitor blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals , with targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. [ 5 ] In 2014, the ADA released a position statement on the diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes in all age groups. The statement includes a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c of less than 7.5% across all pediatric age groups, replacing e Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

requires treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. Treatment includes: Taking several insulin injections every day or using an insulin pump. Monitoring blood sugar levels several times a day. Eating a healthy diet that spreads carbohydrate throughout the day. Regular physical activity or exercise. Exercise helps the body to use insulin more efficiently. It may also lower your risk for heart and blood vessel disease. Regular medical checkups. You will get routine screening tests and exams to watch for signs of complications, such as eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve diseases. Not smoking. Not drinking alcohol if you are at risk for periods of low blood sugar. Blood sugars are easier to predict and control when mealtimes, amounts of food, and exercise are similar every day. So getting into a daily routine helps a lot. Diabetic ketoacidosis Some people find out that they have type 1 diabetes when they are admitted to a hospital for diabetic ketoacidosis. If their symptoms are severe, they may need to be treated in an intensive care unit. Treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis includes fluids given through a vein (intravenous, or IV) to treat dehydration and to balance electrolytes, and insulin to lower the blood sugar level and stop the body from producing ketones. The honeymoon period If your blood sugar levels return to the normal range soon after diagnosis, you are in what is called the "honeymoon period." This is a time when the remaining insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are working harder to supply enough insulin for your body. Treatment during this time may include: Keeping in close touch with your doctor. Testing your blood sugar level often, to see if it is rising. Taking very small amounts of insulin or no insulin. Even though you Continue reading >>

The Management Of Type 1 Diabetes

The Management Of Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: ABSTRACT Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive pancreatic beta-cell loss resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. Exogenous insulin therapy is essential to prevent fatal complications from hyperglycemia. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and its long-term follow up, the Epidemiology of Diabetes and its Complications study, demonstrated that stringent glycemic control with intensive insulin therapy can prevent or postpone progression of microvascular disease and reduce risk for macrovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In addition, data obtained from the T1D Exchange, a registry of T1D patients founded in 2010, has become an invaluable resource for scientists worldwide, facilitating collaboration and accelerating understanding of prevailing diabetes practices. Insulin therapy using rapid- and long-acting insulin analogues is the mainstay of management of T1D. Insulin delivery is achieved subcutaneously using multiple daily injections or subcutaneous insulin infusion using insulin pumps. Effective management also involves use of self-monitoring of blood glucose using improved blood glucose meters, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices, and newer insulin pumps with integrated sensor-augmented systems. Addressing psychosocial aspects of T1D plays a crucial role in effective disease management. Strategies to manage T1D are rapidly evolving. In addition to newer insulins, adjunctive non-insulin therapies such as use of incretin agents and SGLT-2 and combination SGLT-1/2 inhibitors are being actively pursued. CGM technology combined with glucose prediction algorithms has allowed for the development of artificial pancreas delivery systems which are actively being tested in clinical trials. Cellular rep Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Goals The treatment goals for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are the same as those for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), as outlined in Table 1 (1). Table 1. Glucose goals for patients with diabetes (1). A1C Individualize on the basis of age, comorbidities, duration of disease* In general, ≤6.5% for most Closer to normal for healthy Less stringent for “less healthy” FPG <100 mg/dL 2-h PPG <140 mg/dL Abbreviations: FPG = fasting plasma glucose; PPG = postprandial glucose. *Considerations include residual life expectancy; duration of diabetes; presence or absence of microvascular and macrovascular complications; CVD risk factors; comorbid conditions; risk for severe hypoglycemia; and psychological, social, and economic status. Pharmacologic Therapy Insulin therapy is necessary for survival in all patients with T1D. Physiologic insulin regimens, which provide both basal and prandial insulin, should be used for most patients with T1D. These regimens may comprise either of the following: Multiple daily injections (MDI), which usually involve 1-2 subcutaneous injections per day of basal insulin to control glycemia between meals and overnight, and subcutaneous injections of prandial insulin or inhaled insulin before each meal to control meal-related glycemia Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) to provide a more physiologic way to deliver insulin, which may improve glucose control while reducing risks of hypoglycemia Insulin analogs are preferred over NPH and regular human insulin for MDI regimens. Although glycemic control as measured with A1C are similar between these regimens, the use of analogs is associated with a consistent reduction of moderate and severe hypoglycemia (2). Comparisons of MDI and CSII for T1D have shown small but consistent impro Continue reading >>

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

Treating Type 1 Diabetes

en espaolEl tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 If your child or teen has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes , the next step is to create a diabetes management plan to help him or her manage the condition and stay healthy and active. Treatment plans for type 1 diabetes are based on each child's needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team . Treatment approaches differ in, among other things, the types of insulin given and the schedules for giving insulin given each day. The advantages and disadvantages of a plan should be considered for each child. The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. The hormone insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body can no longer make insulin, so the glucose can't get into the body's cells. This makes the blood glucose level rise. Treatment goals for kids with diabetes are to control the condition in a way that minimizes symptoms; prevents short- and long-term health problems; and helps them to have normal physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development. To do this, parents and kids should aim for the goal of keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. In general, kids with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet, paying special attention to the amount of carbohydrates in each meal and the diabetes meal plan check blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan helps kids stay healthy, but treating diabetes isn't the same as curing it. Right now, there's no cure for diabetes, so kids with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. But with proper care, they should look and feel h Continue reading >>

Diabetes Management

Diabetes Management

Diabetes management is about how lifestyle, daily routine and technology can affect blood glucose levels of someone with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Keeping blood glucose levels in range greatly improves the health of someone with diabetes and prevents long-term complications or short-term risks that come with blood sugars out of range. Diabetes can affect every part of the body and blood sugar control is dependent on many varying factors such as environment, stress and hormones. There is no one formula that works for everyone and so through trial and error, along with the application of new technology, those with Type 1 can have improved diabetes management. Learn the many devices and tools available today for people with diabetes. Become well-versed in the basics of diabetes care that includes how to administer insulin and what is an A1C test. Discover what affects your blood sugar control on a daily basis, how to better manage and teach others about what having Type 1 is really like. When it comes to diabetes management theres a lot to consider in terms of equipment. Its easy to getoverwhelmed by all the varying gadgets and manufacturers; its time consuming to keep up with the newest technology and medical advancements. Beyond Type 1 is searching out what tools are available and asking what people think of them we have guides and feedback from other Type 1s that will help you make moreinformed decisions in your care. Were also talking to the leading developers of cutting-edgeequipment and platforms that make the day-to-day management of this disease easier and more efficient. Were looking forward to the ground-breaking innovators in science to learn about the possibilities of a cure. Heres the pulse on the biotech world and what it means for Type 1. Omnipod Now Avail Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated?

KidsHealth / For Teens / Type 1 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? en espaolDiabetes tipo 1: Cul es el tratamiento? Your teachers follow a lesson plan that outlines what you'll study each day. Your parents may have a plan to help you pay for college. And your weekend social plans determine whether you're seeing a movie, heading to a concert, or playing basketball at the gym. People with type 1 diabetes need to follow a different type of plan. A treatment plan, also called a diabetes management plan, helps people to manage their diabetes and stay healthy and active. Everyone's plan is different, based on a person's health needs and the suggestions of the diabetes health care team. The first thing to understand when it comes to treating diabetes is your blood glucose level, which is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose isa sugar that comes from the foods we eat and also is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of the body, and is carried to each cell through the blood. Glucose gets into the cells with the help of the hormone insulin . So how do blood glucose levels relate to type 1 diabetes? People with type 1 diabetes can no longer produce insulin. This means that glucose stays in the bloodstream and doesn't get into the cells, causing blood glucose levels to go too high. High blood sugar levels can make people with type 1 diabetes feel sick, so their treatment plan involves keeping their blood sugar levels within a healthy range, while making sure they grow and develop normally. To do that, people with type 1 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and stick to a diabetes meal plan check their blood sugar levels several times a day Following the treatment plan can help a person stay healthy, but it's not a cure for diab Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body's own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (called beta cells). Normally, the body's immune system fights off foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. But for unknown reasons, in people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks various cells in the body. This results in a complete deficiency of the insulin hormone. Some people develop a type of diabetes - called secondary diabetes -- which is similar to type 1 diabetes, but the beta cells are not destroyed by the immune system but by some other factor, such as cystic fibrosis or pancreatic surgery. Understanding Insulin Normally, the hormone insulin is always secreted by the pancreas in low amounts. When you eat a meal, food stimulates an increase in the amounts of insulin released from the pancreas. The amount that is released is proportional to the amount that is required by the size of that particular meal. So what does insulin do? Insulin's main role in the body is to help move certain nutrients -- especially a sugar called glucose -- into the cells of the body's tissues. Cells use sugars and other nutrients from meals as a source of energy to run a variety of important processes for the body. When glucose is moved into cells, the amount of sugar in the blood decreases. Normally that signals the beta cells in the pancreas to stop secreting insulin so that you don't develop low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia). But the destruction of the beta cells that occurs with type 1 diabetes throws the entire process into disarray. In people with type 1 diabetes, glucose isn't moved into the cells because insulin is not available. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, the body's cells starve for nutrients and othe Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Through The Life Span: A Position Statement Of The American Diabetes Association

Type 1 Diabetes Through The Life Span: A Position Statement Of The American Diabetes Association

Incidence and Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes The exact number of individuals with type 1 diabetes around the world is not known, but in the U.S., there are estimated to be up to 3 million (1). Although it has long been called “juvenile diabetes” due to the more frequent and relatively straightforward diagnosis in children, the majority of individuals with type 1 diabetes are adults. Most children are referred and treated in tertiary centers, where clinical data are more readily captured. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study estimated that, in 2009, 18,436 U.S. youth were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (12,945 non-Hispanic white, 3,098 Hispanic, 2,070 non-Hispanic black, 276 Asian-Pacific Islander, and 47 American Indian) (2). Worldwide, ∼78,000 youth are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes annually. Incidence varies tremendously among countries: East Asians and American Indians have the lowest incidence rates (0.1–8 per 100,000/year) as compared with the Finnish who have the highest rates (>64.2 per 100,000/year) (3). In the U.S., the number of youth with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be 166,984 (4). The precise incidence of new-onset type 1 diabetes in those over 20 years of age is unknown. This may be due to the prolonged phase of onset and the subtleties in distinguishing the different types of diabetes. In one European study of adults aged 30–70 years, ∼9% tested positive for GAD antibodies (GADA) within 5 years of a diabetes diagnosis, consistent with other studies (5). Adults with type 1 diabetes often receive care in primary care settings rather than with an endocrinologist. Unlike the consolidated care seen in pediatric diabetes management, the lack of consolidated care in adults makes incidence and prevalence rates difficult to characterize, an Continue reading >>

Making Sense Of Type 1 Diabetes

Making Sense Of Type 1 Diabetes

Managing type 1 diabetes and living healthfully can present a formidable challenge to both those who have it and the people who care for them. Since diabetes requires constant monitoring of food-intake and regular glucose readings, the psychological burden of dealing with the disease can be significant. Here are some guidelines if you or someone you love has type 1 diabetes. Familiarize yourself with the facts. In type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent), the pancreas completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose (sugar) found in foods for energy. Instead of the body converting glucose into energy, it backs up in the blood stream and causes a variety of symptoms, including fatigue. Type 1 diabetes primarily impacts children and teenagers, although it can occur at any age when the pancreas stops producing insulin. Type 1 diabetes is different from type 2 diabetes because it is treatable only with insulin, delivered either via multiple syringe injections subcutaneously (under the skin) or through an insulin pump. Leave behind the blame game. It is important for people with type 1 diabetes to know that they did not cause the onset of the disease, and that they are not to blame for being diagnosed with diabetes; this is especially true for children who have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It is crucial that you periodically check-in with your son or daughter to gauge where they are at in terms of understanding diabetes, and what they need to do to stay healthy. Remember that everyone deals with serious issues at a different pace, so if your child doesn’t want to talk about how they feel right away, don’t pressure him or her. Learn the symptoms of highs and lows. If your child has just been diagno Continue reading >>

Treating & Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Treating & Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding type 1 diabetes is the first step to managing it. Get information on type 1 diabetes causes, risk factors, warning signs, and prevention tips. Type 1 diabetes requires lifelong treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a target range. For those with diabetes, an insulin shot delivers medicine into the tissue between your skin and muscle. Follow these steps when injecting insulin. If you have diabetes, a fear of needles or an impression that injections equate to failure can keep you from gaining the benefits of injectable medicines. Learn how overcoming the fear of injections can lower your risk for diabetes complications. It's important to eat a healthy diet when you have type 1 diabetes. Learn what to eat and why it matters. Diabetes doesn't have to limit your child. Learn how to help manage your child's disease, at and away from home. Well-controlled blood sugars help children with diabetes grow and develop normally. See guidelines for your child's blood sugar level. Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes: Synopsis Of The 2017 American Diabetes Association Standards Of Medical Care In Diabetes Free

Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes: Synopsis Of The 2017 American Diabetes Association Standards Of Medical Care In Diabetes Free

Abstract Description: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) annually updates Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. Methods: For the 2017 Standards of Care, the ADA Professional Practice Committee did MEDLINE searches from 1 January 2016 to November 2016 to add, clarify, or revise recommendations on the basis of new evidence. The committee rated the recommendations as A, B, or C, depending on the quality of evidence, or E for expert consensus or clinical experience. The Standards of Care were reviewed and approved by the Executive Committee of the ADA Board of Directors, which includes health care professionals, scientists, and laypersons. Feedback from the larger clinical community informed revisions. Recommendation: This synopsis focuses on recommendations from the 2017 Standards of Care about monitoring and pharmacologic approaches to glycemic management for type 1 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) first released its practice guidelines for health professionals in 1989. The Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes have since provided an extensive set of evidence-based recommendations that are updated annually for the diagnosis and management of patients with diabetes. The 2017 Standards of Care cover all aspects of patient care (1); this guideline synopsis focuses on monitoring and pharmacologic approaches for patients with type 1 diabetes. Guideline Development and Evidence Grading Monitoring Glycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Glycemic Goals: Recommendations Pharmacologic Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations Continue reading >>

A Day-to-day Guide For Managing Type 1 Diabetes

A Day-to-day Guide For Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Intro It’s normal to feel overwhelmed about managing type 1 diabetes, especially when life gets busy. After all, dealing with diabetes isn’t always convenient. While each day is different, adding some simple strategies into your daily routine can help you to stay on track and live well with type 1 diabetes. Morning Rise, shine, and check your blood sugar Check your blood sugar as soon as possible after you wake up. This will give you an idea of what your blood sugar was like overnight. You can correct it right away with food or insulin if you find that it’s too high or too low. You may also consider recording your blood sugar levels and other important information in a diabetes journal. This can help you can keep of track of how well your diabetes is controlled from day to day. Start your day with a healthy breakfast Eating well is an important part of managing type 1 diabetes. Start your day off right with a nutritious breakfast that follows your healthy eating plan. A healthy plan for type 1 diabetes typically includes foods from each food group, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats. Since you’re taking insulin, you should also include a moderate amount of healthy carbohydrates at each meal. This will prevent your blood sugar from dropping too low. Make sure to keep track of your carbs and match your intake with your insulin dosage, if needed. You can record this information in your diabetes journal. Some quick and easy breakfast ideas for people with type 1 diabetes include scrambled eggs, oatmeal with low-fat milk, or a fruit and yogurt parfait. Don’t forget to test your blood sugar before and after each meal, including breakfast. Take your medications Remember to take your insulin and any other medications. For busy Continue reading >>

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