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Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnoses Can Happen Well Into Adulthood.

Type 1 Diabetes Diagnoses Can Happen Well Into Adulthood.

A patient receives a test for diabetes during a Care Harbor L.A. free medical clinic in Los Angeles on Sept. 11, 2014. Jocelyns bathroom breaks were becoming a cause for concern. The first-year teacher found she was increasingly asking colleagues to cover for her as she nipped out to the restroom. Suspecting that something was up, the 22-year-old asked her mother, a nurse, to check her blood sugar. She thought I was crazy, said Jocelyn, until the blood-glucose meter bleeped its reply: Her blood sugar levels were too high for the machine to even read them. (Editors note: We are withholding Jocelyns last name due to the sensitive medical information given in this article.) There must have been a mistake. There was no history of diabetes in the family, and 22-year-old Jocelyn was lean, a former competitive gymnast. Maybe the meter was broken, or perhaps she still had traces of sugar on her fingers from something shes eaten earlier. Jocelyns mom sent her home with the glucometer and told her to check again in the morning. Each year, somewhere between tens and hundreds of thousands of patients are likely misdiagnosed with Type 2 diabetes when they in fact have Type1. Before breakfast the next day, Jocelyns blood sugar levels were four times what they should have been for a healthy adult. I wouldnt let myself eat because I was so paranoid, she said. Later that day in the hospital, she was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, a condition associated with adults who are older and overweight. While the nurses at the hospital seemed unsurprised by the diagnosis, Jocelyn was upset, wondering how this could have happened, as she put it. After a week of rumination, Jocelyn went to see an endocrinologist who ran additional blood tests, and eventually diagnosed her with latent autoimmune d Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults. PubMed Health Glossary (Source: NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) About Type 1 Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects many different parts of the body. Depending on the type of diabetes, the body either cannot produce insulin itself (Type 1) or is unable to use the insulin it produces properly (Type 2). Insulin is a hormone, a chemical messenger that is transported in the blood and regulates important body functions. Without insulin your body cannot get the energy it needs from the food you have eaten. This vital hormone is usually produced in the pancreas and released into the bloodstream. Here it enables the sugar (glucose) in our food and drink to be transported into our cells and converted into energy for our bodies. Without insulin our bodies cannot use the sugar in our blood, so the sugar builds up there. Very high blood sugar concentrations cause a number of symptoms. In people who have type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce any insulin, or only produces very little insulin. This means they have to inject insulin every day to get the insulin they are lacking. Insulin therapy prevents dangerous fluctuations in blood sugar levels and protects people with diabetes from the effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. And good treatment can help to prevent the development of complications that can arise if your blood sugar levels are too high... Read more about Type 1 Diabetes There are increasing numbers of people living with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The main aim of treatme Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes Type 1 In Adults

Symptoms Of Diabetes Type 1 In Adults

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes in adults may occur suddenly It’s important to realize that early signs of type 1 diabetes in adults often develop quickly and may sometimes be brushed off—or mistaken for illness. Here’s what you should look out for: Frequent Urination: If you’re constantly running to the bathroom, your kidneys may be trying to rid your blood of excess sugar, resulting in an increased need to urinate. Extreme thirst: Increased urination can then result in dehydration, which will leave you feeling more thirsty than normal. Increased appetite: If you’re suddenly hungry all the time it may be because your body isn’t able to get proper energy from the food you eat. Unexpected weight loss: Along the same lines, if your body is losing sugar in your urine instead of absorbing it, you may lose weight without trying. Other symptoms of type 1 diabetes in adults Other diabetic symptoms in adults include feeling drowsy or lethargic; sudden vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath; heavy or labored breathing; and stupor or unconsciousness. If you do have high blood sugar and it goes untreated, it could develop into diabetic ketoacidosis—a life-threatening condition. So please see your doctor immediately if you are exhibiting these warning signs. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… The reality is that signs of type 1 diabetes usually develop suddenly. And, that’s why it can be… Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

For years, distinguishing between the various types of diabetes was pretty straightforward: “Juvenile diabetes,” an autoimmune disease, was diagnosed primarily in children and teenagers when their own body’s immune system destroyed the insulin-producing (beta) cells in their pancreas. “Adult-onset diabetes” occurred in adults and was generally associated with insulin resistance and often with overweight. And “gestational diabetes” occurred in pregnant women and disappeared once the pregnancy was over. In the past 25 years, however, determining what type of diabetes a person has has become more of a challenge. In large part, that’s because more and more children and teenagers are now being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes — the type that occurred predominantly in adults in generations past. Most of these children and teens are overweight. At the same time, it’s becoming clearer that Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age and sometimes occurs in people who are overweight. In addition, another type of diabetes, called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, that shares some characteristics with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, has been recognized. Muddying the water further is the realization that diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute, life-threatening complication of diabetes that is caused by a lack of insulin, can occur in people with Type 2 diabetes — not just in people with Type 1, as was previously thought. And while gestational diabetes is still diagnosed only in pregnant women, it is sometimes discovered that what is thought to be gestational diabetes is really Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes that happens to start during pregnancy. The incidence of diabetes has increased so greatly around the world in the past 25 years that health organizations and med Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.[4] This results in high blood sugar levels in the body.[1] The classical symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss.[4] Additional symptoms may include blurry vision, feeling tired, and poor healing.[2] Symptoms typically develop over a short period of time.[1] The cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown.[4] However, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[1] Risk factors include having a family member with the condition.[5] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.[2] Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of sugar or A1C in the blood.[5][7] Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies.[5] There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes.[4] Treatment with insulin is required for survival.[1] Insulin therapy is usually given by injection just under the skin but can also be delivered by an insulin pump.[9] A diabetic diet and exercise are an important part of management.[2] Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[4] Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[5] Long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.[4] Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin.[5] Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases.[8] The number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year.[5] With Continue reading >>

Clarifying Lada (type 1 Diabetes In Adults)

Clarifying Lada (type 1 Diabetes In Adults)

When I met fellow D-writer Catherine Price for coffee recently, I immediately gushed about everything we had in common: two brunette journalist-types living in the SF Bay Area, both diagnosed a few years ago with LADA (or so I thought). Catherine gave me a sideways look, and then began grilling me about the formal definition of LADA. I had to admit, it's pretty fuzzy. Today, I gratefully present you with the results of her investigation into this mysterious acronym: A Guest Post by Catherine Price, of ASweetLife Having had Type 1 diabetes for nearly ten years now, I can handle most diabetic terms and acronyms thrown my way. Hemoglobin A1c? Got it. Carb ratios? Insulin sensitivity? No problem. But one term has continued to confuse me: LADA. Short for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults, it's also known as Slow-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Type 1.5 Diabetes or, occasionally, Late-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood. Four names for the same thing? That's never a good sign. Until recently, the most common definition I'd heard for LADA was that it was a Type 1-like form of diabetes diagnosed in adulthood. But I didn't understand the details. Does being diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes as an adult automatically mean you have LADA? Is there a difference between LADA and the classical definition of Type 1? To answer these questions, I spoke with Marie Nierras, the program officer of the genetics programs at Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. She cut right to the chase. "There is a lot of confusion about LADA," she told me, "but Type 1 diabetes and LADA are not the same thing." Here, to get us started, is how JDRF's Adults With Type 1 toolkit defines LADA: "Type 1 diabetes diagnosed in adults over 30 may be Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), sometimes known as Type 1.5 Continue reading >>

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

David Lazarus had just moved to Los Angeles to start a new job as a business and consumer columnist for the Los Angeles Times when he suddenly developed some of the classic signs of diabetes: extreme thirst, fatigue and weight loss. He dropped close to 15 pounds in two weeks. Lazarus was in his early 40s. "The weight loss was the first big red flag. It happened really fast," he says. He consulted a physician, who diagnosed him with Type 2 diabetes and recommended a "monastic" low-carb, macrobiotic diet. When he continued to feel lousy a few days later, Lazarus spoke with another physician. That doctor suggested that Lazarus might have Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune condition in which the insulin-making cells in the pancreas are attacked and destroyed. But that physician didn't take insurance. Finally Lazarus made his way to the diabetes center at the University of California, Los Angeles. There, an endocrinologist diagnosed him with Type 1 diabetes and immediately put him on the correct treatment, insulin. Without insulin injections or infusion via a pump, people with Type 1 diabetes typically fall into a coma and die within days to weeks, although sometimes adults may have a small amount of reserve insulin that keeps them going longer. Still, eventually all people with Type 1 diabetes must receive insulin. Lazarus' story is not uncommon. It has long been thought that Type 1 diabetes arises primarily in childhood or adolescence and only rarely in adulthood. In fact, Type 1 diabetes was formerly called "juvenile" diabetes, and that term is still widely used, even though the terminology was officially changed in 1997. Across the ages Now, it looks as if not only can Type 1 diabetes occur in adults, it's just as likely to appear in adulthood as in childhood or adolescence. Continue reading >>

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Understanding Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes

When then 34-year-old Rebecca Gill was pregnant with her second child in 2004, high blood sugar levels led to a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, an often-temporary form of diabetes that can occur in pregnant women. After Gill’s son was born, her blood sugar levels returned to normal, and her doctors assumed that the diabetes was gone. But another blood test given several weeks after she gave birth showed that her diabetes problems had returned. She was referred to an endocrinologist who ran tests and eventually diagnosed her with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA. “Thankfully, I was one of the lucky ones whose endocrinologist had experience with LADA,” says Gill, an internet marketing consultant in Commerce, Mich. LADA, also known as type 1.5 diabetes or double diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which an adult’s immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas, cells that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that converts the body’s blood sugar to energy. Without enough insulin, blood sugar levels can become too high, resulting in nerve damage, blindness, and other problems if untreated. LADA is similar to type 1 diabetes in that both forms are caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking beta cells. However, most diabetics with LADA are diagnosed after age 30, while the most common form of type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or adolescents. LADA: A Different Diabetes Because LADA appears in adulthood, it may be initially mistaken for type 2 diabetes, but it is different. People who have LADA are often initially misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes, says Priscilla Hollander, MD, PhD, an endocrinologist at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. “Many people with LADA present symptoms a little like type 2s,” Dr. Hollander expla Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Author: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP; Chief Editor: George T Griffing, MD more... Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Although onset frequently occurs in childhood, the disease can also develop in adults. [ 1 ] See Clinical Findings in Diabetes Mellitus , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify various cutaneous, ophthalmologic, vascular, and neurologic manifestations of DM. The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are as follows: Other symptoms may include fatigue, nausea, and blurred vision. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 diabetes to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [ 2 ] : A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L), or A 2-hour plasma glucose level 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or A random plasma glucose 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) in a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis A fingerstick glucose test is appropriate for virtually all patients with diabetes. All fingerstick capillary glucose levels must be confirmed in serum or plasma to make the diagnosis. All other laboratory studies should be selected or omitted on the basis of the individual clinical situation. An international expert committee appointed by the ADA, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and the International Diabetes Association recommended the HbA1c assay for diagnosing type 1 diabetes only when the condition is suspected but the classic symptoms are absent. [ 3 ] Screen Continue reading >>

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults but can appear at any age. Symptoms may include Being very thirsty Urinating often Feeling very hungry or tired Losing weight without trying Having sores that heal slowly Having dry, itchy skin Losing the feeling in your feet or having tingling in your feet Having blurry eyesight A blood test can show if you have diabetes. If you do, you will need to take insulin for the rest of your life. A blood test called the A1C can check to see how well you are managing your diabetes. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Continue reading >>

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Adults Can Get Type 1 Diabetes, Too

Type 1 diabetes used to be called "juvenile diabetes," because it's usually diagnosed in children and teens. But don't let that old-school name fool you. It can start when you're a grownup, too. Many of the symptoms are similar to type 2 diabetes, so it's sometimes tricky to know which kind you've got. But it's important to learn the differences and figure out what's going on so you can get the treatment that's right for you. Causes Doctors aren't sure exactly what causes type 1 diabetes. They believe your genes may play a role. Researchers are also checking to see if there are things that trigger the disease, like your diet or a virus that you caught. What experts do know is that when you have type 1 diabetes, something goes wrong with your immune system -- the body's defense against germs. It destroys beta cells in your pancreas that are responsible for making a hormone called insulin. Insulin allows glucose -- or sugar -- to get into your cells, where it's turned into energy. But if you have type 1 diabetes, your body doesn't make insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream and, over time, can cause serious health problems. Symptoms If you have type 1 diabetes, you may get similar symptoms as your friends who have type 2. You may notice that you: Get extremely thirsty or hungry Need to pee often Feel unusually tired or weak Lose weight suddenly Get blurred vision or other changes in the way you see Get vaginal yeast infections Have breath that smells fruity Can't breathe well Sometimes, type 1 diabetes could even make you lose consciousness. Who's Most Likely to Get It as an Adult? People of all races and ethnic groups can get type 1 diabetes, but it's most common among those of northern European descent. *CGM-based treatment requires fingersticks for calibration, Continue reading >>

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Abstract In Brief Older adults with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for severe hypoglycemia and may have serious comorbid conditions. Problems with cognition, mobility, dexterity, vision, hearing, depression, and chronic pain interfere with the ability to follow complex insulin regimens. With the development of geriatric syndromes, unpredictable eating, and frailty, treatment regimens must be modified with the goal of minimizing hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia and maximizing quality of life. Challenges in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Older Adults There is a paucity of data related to glycemic management and control of type 1 diabetes later in life. The Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Exchange clinic registry reported characteristics of older adults with type 1 diabetes who are followed in diabetes centers across the United States.17 Of those ages 50 to < 65 years (n = 2,066), mean A1C was 7.7% (27% had an A1C < 7.0%, 46% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 11% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%), and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.5 times daily. Of those ≥ 65 years of age (n = 683), mean A1C was 7.4% (34% had an A1C < 7.0%, 52% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 8% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%) and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.6 times daily. Greater frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was associated with lower A1C levels in both those who used an insulin pump and those who administered insulin via injections.18 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was lower with increasing age and was not associated with duration of diabetes.19 DKA was more likely in those with higher A1C levels and lower socioeconomic status. No relationship was found between DKA and pump versus injection use. Longstanding diabetes in older adults has been associated with increased risks of severe hypo Continue reading >>

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