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Type 1 Diabetes Deficiencies

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before age 40, although there have been people diagnosed at an older age. In the United States, the peak age at diagnosis is around 14. Type 1 diabetes is associated with deficiency (or lack) of insulin. It is not known why, but the pancreatic islet cells quit producing insulin in the quantities needed to maintain a normal blood glucose level. Without sufficient insulin, the blood glucose rises to levels which can cause some of the common symptoms of hyperglycemia. These individuals seek medical help when these symptoms arise, but they often will experience weight loss developing over several days associated with the onset of their diabetes. The onset of these first symptoms may be fairly abrupt or more gradual. To learn more about type 1 diabetes basics, see our type 1 diabetes slideshow. It has been estimated that the yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes developing is 3.7 to 20 per 100,000. More than 700,000 Americans have this type of diabetes. This is about 10% of all Americans diagnosed with diabetes; the other 90% have type 2 diabetes. What You Need to Know about Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Causes Type 1 diabetes usually develops due to an autoimmune disorder. This is when the body's immune system behaves inappropriately and starts seeing one of its own tissues as foreign. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the islet cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are seen as the "enemy" by mistake. The body then creates antibodies to fight the "foreign" tissue and destroys the islet cells' ability to produce insulin. The lack of sufficient insulin thereby results in diabetes. It is unknown why this autoimmune diabetes develops. Most often Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked To Type 1 Diabetes

A study led by researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine has found a correlation between vitamin D3 serum levels and subsequent incidence of Type 1 diabetes. The six-year study of blood levels of nearly 2,000 individuals suggests a preventive role for vitamin D3 in this disease. The research appears the December issue of Diabetologia, a publication of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). “Previous studies proposed the existence of an association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of and Type 1 diabetes, but this is the first time that the theory has been tested in a way that provides the dose-response relationship,” said Cedric Garland, DrPH, FACE, professor in UCSD’s Department of Family and Preventive Medicine. This study used samples from millions of blood serum specimens frozen by the Department of Defense Serum Registry for disease surveillance. The researchers thawed and analyzed 1000 samples of serum from healthy people who later developed type 1 diabetes and 1000 healthy controls whose blood was drawn on or near the same date but who did not develop type 1 diabetes. By comparing the serum concentrations of the predominant circulating form of vitamin D – 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) – investigators were able to determine the optimal serum level needed to lower an individual’s risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Based mainly on results of this study, Garland estimates that the level of 25(OH)D needed to prevent half the cases of type 1 diabetes is 50 ng/ml. A consensus of all available data indicates no known risk associated with this dosage. “While there are a few conditions that influence vitamin D metabolism, for most people, 4000 IU per day of vitamin D3 will be needed to achieve the eff Continue reading >>

Diabetes And B12: What You Need To Know

Diabetes And B12: What You Need To Know

Vitamin B12 is necessary for a healthy nervous system and healthy blood cells. The best way to get vitamin B12 is through your diet. This important vitamin is found in meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products. If you don’t eat enough of these foods, it could leave you with a deficiency. Consuming enough vitamin B12 isn’t the only problem. Your body also needs to be able to absorb it efficiently. Some medications like Pepcid AC, Prevacid, Prilosec, and Zantac, as well as others used to treat acid reflux, peptic ulcer disease, and infection, may make it harder for your body to absorb B12. Another medication that may interfere with B12 absorption is metformin, a common type 2 diabetes treatment. Simply having diabetes may make you more prone to B12 deficiency. A 2009 study found that 22 percent of people with type 2 diabetes were low in B12. Read on to learn the symptoms of B12 deficiency, what it could mean for your overall health, and what you can do about it. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency may be mild at first, and not always obvious. If you’re slightly low on B12, you may not have any symptoms at all. Some of the more common early symptoms are: tiredness weakness loss of appetite weight loss constipation It may be easy to dismiss these as minor complaints, but over time, insufficient B12 can lead to bigger problems. Very low levels of B12 can result in serious complications. One of these is called pernicious anemia. Anemia means you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells. This deprives your cells of much-needed oxygen. According to a study in the Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine, less than 20 percent of those with a B12 deficiency experience pernicious anemia. Symptoms of anemia include: fatigue pale skin chest pain dizziness headache You may even lose Continue reading >>

Vitamin Deficiencies In People With Diabetes: The Supplements You Need

Vitamin Deficiencies In People With Diabetes: The Supplements You Need

As an orthopedic surgeon, I have many patients with diabetes who tell me, “I can’t have surgery because I won’t heal.” That is certainly not the case, however. Diabetes does affect the small blood vessels and the function of immune cells when blood sugar is high, but with proper nutrition and blood sugar management, people with diabetes are very safe to undergo knee replacements, abdominal surgery, and many elective procedures. It is critical, of course, that people with diabetes who undergo elective or traumatic surgery work closely with their doctor to manage their blood sugar, but supplementation is also a vital part of recovery. Diabetes frequently causes nutritional deficiencies, often initiated by changes in diet or medications. As a result, people with diabetes must use supplements. Helping my patients identify their nutritional deficiencies and educating them on the importance of essential vitamins has made an overwhelming difference in their recovery from surgery and their overall daily health. The following essential vitamins are often deficient in people with diabetes. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is bound to protein in food. The activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach releases vitamin B12 from its protein. Once it is released, vitamin B12 begins to work quickly. It is important for the formation of red blood cells, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. It also supports the digestive system in keeping glucose levels stable. A simple blood test can determine the level of B12 in the body. Adults who have a value below 170 to 250 pg/mL are considered deficient in the vitamin. An elevated blood homocysteine level or elevated methylmalconic acid level may also suggest a B12 deficiency. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are megalob Continue reading >>

Vitamin D In Type 1 Diabetes Prevention

Vitamin D In Type 1 Diabetes Prevention

Presented as part of the symposium Vitamin D Insufficiency: A Significant Risk Factor in Chronic Diseases and Potential Disease-Specific Biomarkers of Vitamin D Sufficiency given at the 2004 Experimental Biology meeting on April 18, 2004, Washington, DC. The symposium was sponsored by the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and supported in part by educational grants from the Centrum Foundation of Canada and The Coca-Cola Company. The proceedings are published as a supplement to The Journal of Nutrition. This supplement is the responsibility of the guest editors to whom the Editor of The Journal of Nutrition has delegated supervision of both technical conformity to the published regulations of The Journal of Nutrition and general oversight of the scientific merit of each article. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and are not attributable to the sponsors or the publisher, editor, or editorial board of The Journal of Nutrition. The guest editors for the symposium publication are Mona S. Calvo, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD, and Susan J. Whiting, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 135, Issue 2, 1 February 2005, Pages 323325, Limited data from human observational studies suggest that early supplementation with 10 g/d (400 IU/d) or less of vitamin D may not reduce the risk for type 1 diabetes but that doses of 50 g/d (2000 IU/d) and higher may have a strong protective effect. Current U.S. recommendations (525 g/d, 200-1000 IU/d) fall in the largely unstudied dose range in between. All infants and children should receive between 5 g/d and 25 g/d of supplemental vitamin D, particularly if they have limit Continue reading >>

Association Of Vitamin D Deficiency And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Association Of Vitamin D Deficiency And Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

, Volume 38, Issue3 , pp 280288 | Cite as Association of vitamin D deficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis Some studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objectives of this review were to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis and to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and T1DM. PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, and Scielo databases were used to search the articles. The eligibility criteria were cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional observational studies, which assessed the association between vitamin D deficiency and T1DM, comparing T1DM patients with control group. Cross-sectional studies that compared means of vitamin D levels between T1DM patients and control group were included in the first meta-analysis, and cross-sectional studies that compared frequency of vitamin D deficiency between T1DM patients and control group were included in the second meta-analysis. Thirteen studies were included in the systematic review. Most studies (n = 12) compared vitamin D levels between T1DM patients and control group and 75% of them (n = 9) found lower vitamin D levels in T1DM patients. Over half studies (n = 8) compared vitamin D deficiency frequency between T1DM patients and control group and 50% (n = 4) of them observed a higher frequency of vitamin D deficiency in T1DM patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant difference of vitamin D levels between T1DM patients and control group (difference between means = 0.739 0.067, p < 0.001) and that there is a significant association of vitamin D deficiency and T1DM [OR = 1.640 (1.181.28), p = 0.003]. There is a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and T Continue reading >>

Could Vitamin A Deficiency Be A Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes?

Could Vitamin A Deficiency Be A Cause Of Type 2 Diabetes?

A new study published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry claims to have identified a potential driver of type 2 diabetes: vitamin A deficiency. The researchers, from the Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, NY, say their findings may lead to new treatments for the condition. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in the US, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnosed cases. The condition is characterized by insulin resistance, in which insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas are unable to function effectively. According to senior author Dr. Lorraine Gudas - chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at Weill Cornell - and colleagues, vitamin A boosts beta cell activity, meaning lack of the vitamin may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. There are two types of vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A, referred to as retinol, is present in meat, poultry, fish and dairy products, while pro-vitamin A, or beta-carotene, is found in many fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A aids cell growth and contributes to a healthy immune system and vision. Past studies have shown that, during fetal development, vitamin A is key for beta cell production. But Dr. Gudas and colleagues say it was unclear as to whether vitamin A played such a role in adulthood. Removal of dietary vitamin A led to beta cell loss in adult mice To find out, the team analyzed the beta cell development among two groups of adult mice; one group of mice had been genetically modified to be unable to store dietary vitamin A, while the other group was able to store the vitamin from foods as normal. The researchers found that the mice unable to store vitamin A experienced beta cell death, meaning these mice were unable to produce insulin. What is more, when the researchers removed vitamin A from Continue reading >>

Glycemic Changes After Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Vitamin D Deficiency

Glycemic Changes After Vitamin D Supplementation In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus And Vitamin D Deficiency

Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency From the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Correspondence: Dr. Khalid Aljabri, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, PO Box 6572, Makkah, Saudi Arabia T: +966-590-008035 F: +966-2-576-0665 [email protected] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A prospective, nonblinded and nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have vitamin D deficiency. Eighty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 50 nmol/L were assigned to receive 4000 IU of vitamin D3. Calcium supplements were provided to ensure a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. Glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. There was a significant difference in mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin level (%) between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of <35.4 nmol/L, 35.4-51 nmol/L and >51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.02). There was a significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin change from baseline between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of <35.4 nmol/L, 35.4-51 nmol/L and >51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.04). There was a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level betwe Continue reading >>

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type I Diabetes Could Improve Their Glycaemic Control

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type I Diabetes Could Improve Their Glycaemic Control

Treating vitamin D deficiency in children with type I diabetes could improve their glycaemic control 1Department of Paediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes, Alder Hey Childrens NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK 2Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 1Department of Paediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes, Alder Hey Childrens NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK 2Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 1Department of Paediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes, Alder Hey Childrens NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK 2Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 3Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Dinesh Giri, Email: [email protected] . Received 2016 Nov 28; Accepted 2017 Aug 31. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The datasets analysed during the study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. A part of data generated or analysed during this study are included in this article. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and type I DM is an ongoing area of interest. The study aims to identify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with T1DM and to assess the impact of treatment of vitamin D deficiency on their glycaemi Continue reading >>

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type 1 Improves Glycemic Control

Treating Vitamin D Deficiency In Children With Type 1 Improves Glycemic Control

Use of cholecalciferol demonstrated reductions in HbA1c. The active form of vitamin D is a very important hormone that works in the body by increasing the absorption of calcium. Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in a variety of chronic diseases, including bone mineral disease, malignancy, autoimmunity, and diabetes. In recent years, it has been found that beta cells express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and variations in the genes controlling the vitamin D metabolism and expression of VDR have been associated with a higher risk of diabetes, including type 1 and type 2. Patients with serum concentration of vitamin D below 30 nmol/L and 30-50 nmol/L are categorized as deficient and insufficient, respectively. Daily supplementation of vitamin D in the diet and sunlight exposure in the diet is essential for preventing deficient levels. Some studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance with a consequent development of type 2 diabetes in the adult population. In children with type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been found to be higher when compared to children without diabetes. Other studies have found the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is similar between children with and without diabetes. Furthermore, a Finnish study reported that there was a 4-fold increased risk of development of T1DM in children who had rickets, which is a long-term effect of vitamin D deficiency causing weak bones. All these background studies suggest that there is a possible correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of both type 1 and 2 diabetes. However, there is poor evidence related to the effects of vitamin D treatment in children with diabetes and vitamin D deficiency. A retrospective s Continue reading >>

Type I Diabetes

Type I Diabetes

Summary Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It is a condition where your own immune system attacks certain cells called beta-cells. Beta-cells help you produce a hormone called insulin. You need insulin to help your body manage glucose you get from food and turn it into energy for your body to use. Researchers don’t know what increases your chances of developing type 1 diabetes. Researchers believe that having a family member who has type 1 diabetes might increase your risk of getting type 1 diabetes. Also, viral infections and environmental factors may increase your chances of developing type 1 diabetes, but we need more research to say for sure or understand which factors play a role. Research shows that there is a link between vitamin D and type 1 diabetes. People with high vitamin D intake during their first year of life are less likely to develop type 1 diabetes later in life. Some research also suggests having high vitamin D levels during pregnancy might help prevent type 1 diabetes in their children later in life. However, this research has been observational, meaning we don’t know for sure if getting enough vitamin D prevents type 1 diabetes. Studies have shown that vitamin D supplementation may help improve insulin sensitivity and help control blood glucose levels in those with type 1 diabetes, though research has been small and inconclusive, so we can’t say for sure if vitamin D helps at all in type 1 diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes or you are trying to prevent type 1 diabetes and want to take vitamin D, it is unlikely to make your type 1 diabetes worse or cause you any harm, as long as you take less than 10,000 IU per day. However, it’s not proven that it will help your type 1 diabetes. It’s also not proven if taking vitamin D will help Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Deficiency And Glycemic Status In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamin D Deficiency And Glycemic Status In Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamin D Deficiency and Glycemic Status in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Affiliation Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliations Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy, IRCAD (Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases), Novara, Italy Affiliation Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliation Central Laboratory of Maggiore della Carit Hospital, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliation Central Laboratory of Maggiore della Carit Hospital, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliation Division of Cardiology, Ospedale Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy Affiliation Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliation Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Affiliation Division of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy Vitamin D Deficiency and Glycemic Status in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Vitamin D (25OHD) effects on glycemic control are unclear in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Aims of this study were to investigate 25OHD status among children with T1DM and its relationship with insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. A cross sectional study was carried out between 20082014. A total of 141 patients had a T1DM >12 months diagnosis and were enrolled in the present study. Of these 35 (24.8%) were migrants and 106 (75.2%) Italians (T2). We retrospectively analyzed Continue reading >>

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Possible Driver Of Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D Deficiency: A Possible Driver Of Type 2 Diabetes

The relationship between vitamin D and bone health is well-established, particularly in terms of reducing osteoporosis risk. According to the most recent clinical practice guideline released by the Endocrine Society, vitamin D deficiency leads to abnormalities in calcium, phosphorus and bone metabolism. Because vitamin D is not present in many foods, the guideline recommends supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper-limit levels and advises testing of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients at risk for deficiency. Recently, possible correlations between 25-(OH)D deficiency and type 2 diabetes have generated further interest in the potential preventive value of vitamin D supplementation. Experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between vitamin D deficiency and decreased insulin delivery, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, larger studies are needed to fully understand this connection. “In a number of observational studies, low 25-(OH)D levels correlate with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and rates of both vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes have been increasing dramatically across the globe,” Carolyn B. Becker, MD, associate professor of medicine and master clinician educator in the division of endocrinology, diabetes and hypertension at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, told Endocrine Today. “It remains unclear whether these trends are simply correlated with each other or truly causally linked.” Becker spoke with Endocrine Today about the connection between vitamin D and diabetes, the possible mechanisms of this connection, and the advisability of supplementing with vitamin D to prevent type 2 diabetes. What is known on the connection between vitamin D and diabetes? Becker: In cross-sectional stud Continue reading >>

Teens With Type 1 May Have Vitamin D Deficiency

Teens With Type 1 May Have Vitamin D Deficiency

In recent years, Vitamin D levels have become a yardstick for researchers to measure everything from heart health to bone density. Now, researchers have found that teens with Type 1 diabetes could be at increased risk of a Vitamin D deficiency. study, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing examined blood samples of 200 adolescents treated for diabetes at the Diabetes Center for Children in Philadelphia. They found that 40.6 percent of those tested had a Vitamin D deficiency (levels less than 20 ng/mL). Another 49.2 percent had what researchers considered low levels of Vitamin D (levels less than 35 ng/mL). In the study, only 10.2 percent of teens with Type 1 were found to have adequate or above adequate levels of Vitamin D. There is still some debate about how much Vitamin D one needs. Because of that, its difficult to find agreement about what the average level of Vitamin D deficiency is. An oft-cited 2009 study estimates that some 70 percent of U.S. children and teens had a Vitamin D deficiency. If the results of these two studies are accurate, that would mean teens with Type 1 would be at a higher risk of a deficiency. Vitamin D, also called the sunshine vitamin, is considered essential for bone health. Researchers also believe its an important nutrient for blood pressure maintenance and long-term heart health. Those diagnosed with a Vitamin D deficiency can take a supplement, eat more foods rich in Vitamin D, and get more sun exposure. The University of Pennsylvania researchers say the results show teens with Type 1 should be monitored for Vitamin D deficiency. More study is needed, however, to determine why teens with Type 1 might be more at risk of such a deficiency, and what the longterm implications might be. Thanks for reading this Ins Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Vitamin D Deficiency Occurs In Early Stage

Type 1 Diabetes: Vitamin D Deficiency Occurs In Early Stage

Follow all of ScienceDaily's latest research news and top science headlines ! Type 1 diabetes: Vitamin D deficiency occurs in early stage Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health Low levels of vitamin D are commonly found in people with type 1 diabetes. But even children who have multiple positive islet autoantibodies without manifest type 1 diabetes have lower levels of vitamin D in their blood. This does not appear, however, to influence the progression of the disease from pre-diabetes to diabetes, according to scientists. "Vitamin D deficiency precedes the onset of type 1 diabetes. This may be a consequence of an immune response," one author says. "In the case of prediabetic children, we must therefore be mindful of the risk of vitamin D deficiency and consider recommending vitamin D supplementation at an early stage of type 1 diabetes." Vitamin D is known as a major regulator of calcium levels and bone metabolism. Furthermore, it also influences the immune system. Previous studies have shown that patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes have significantly lower vitamin D levels. Scientists from the Institute of Diabetes Research (IDF) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen, a member of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), as well as from the Diabetes Research Group at the Technische Universitt Mnchen (TUM) examined whether a vitamin D deficiency occurs during an early stage of type 1 diabetes, defined by the presence of multiple diabetes-specific islet autoantibodies. Furthermore they also determined whether vitamin D deficiency influences the progression to type 1 diabetes in children with multiple islet autoantibodies. Vitamin D deficiency already exists in prediabetes Children who had not yet developed clinical type Continue reading >>

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