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Type 1 Diabetes Causes And Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that increase your odds of getting type 1 diabetes. It's important to keep in mind that these risk factors often work in combination. Family history. You are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if one or both of your parents or any of your grandparents has or had the disease. Also, risk increases if both your parents carry the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes (human leukocyte antigen). In the United States, 40% of the population has one or more of these genes. Race. Caucasians have the highest rate of the disease. Environmental factors. In people who have a family history of type 1 diabetes, it's possible that viruses may trigger the disease. Diet. Type 1 diabetes is more common in those who were not fed breast milk or who started eating solid foods at an exceptionally early age. Basics Type 1 Basics Causes & Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Healthcare Team Treatment Diabetes Treatment Options Mastering Insulin, Making Real Change Tests to Monitor Your Care: Type 1 Features What's Your Diabetes IQ? Diabetes and Eating Disorders: The Dangers of Diabulimia What's Your Type? 6 Easy Ways to Make Your Life Better Questions for Your Doctor How to Ask Your Family for Support Insulin Syringe Safety for Diabetics Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

By the dLife Editors Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas are gradually destroyed and eventually fail to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body’s cells use glucose for energy. Blood glucose (or blood sugar) is manufactured from the food we eat (primarily carbohydrates) and by the liver. If glucose can’t be absorbed by the cells, it builds up in the bloodstream instead. Untreated, the high blood sugar levels that result can be toxic to every system of the body, causing serious complications. Type 1 accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed diabetes in the United States. Although type 1 diabetes develops most often in children and young adults, the disease can be diagnosed at any age. Of the 1.25 million Americans living with type 1 diabetes, about 200,000 are younger than twenty years old. Unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes is more common in Caucasians than in those of Latino, African American, or other non-Caucasian backgrounds. The rate of type 1 diabetes has been increasing by roughly 2 to 5 percent each year, globally. Type 1 Diabetes Causes Researchers have identified several genes associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. While the causes are complex and not completely understood, the prevailing belief about the etiology, or cause, of type 1 diabetes is that while someone may have a genetic predisposition for developing the disease, it takes an environmental trigger or series of triggers (e.g., virus, toxin, drug) to set off the autoimmune process that destroys insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes may include: Family history A child with an immediate relative with type 1 diabetes has a risk of developin Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Summary Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Causes, Risk Factors And Prevention Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes, Risk Factors And Prevention Of Type 1 Diabetes

Photo Credit: JGI/Tom Grill/Blend Images/Getty Images Causes, Risk Factors and Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes Dr. Chase was appointed the first Director of the University of Colorado Pediatric Diabetes Clinic in 1976. He has been the Executive, Clinical and Pediatric Clinic Director of the Barbara Davis Center. His work has resulted in over 300 peer-reviewed publications, 76 book chapters and five diabetes educational books about type 1 diabetes. We know that Type 1 diabetes is not contagious like a cold. Three factors seem to be important in determining why a person develops Type 1 diabetes: Although 90 percent of people who develop Type 1 diabetes have no close relative with the condition, there is still a strong genetic component. Most people with Type 1 diabetes inherit an HLA DR3 or DR4 gene from each parent, which makes them at high risk to develop diabetes. A person with a close family member with diabetes has about a 10 percent (1 in 10) chance of developing diabetes (compared to a 1 percent chance in the general population). When one identical twin develops Type 1 diabetes, the second twin has a 66 percent chance of also developing the disease. The second cause that seems to be important in Type 1 diabetes is self-allergy (or autoimmunity). Normally, our immune system protects our bodies from disease. In the case of Type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, arthritis and multiple sclerosis, the immune system turns against a body part. The immune system treats that body part like an allergen and damages it. The allergic (autoimmune) reaction in Type 1 diabetes is against the islet cells in the pancreas, which make insulin. Islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) may be present in the blood for many years before insulin is required. Because the geneti Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Tweet Type 1 diabetes belongs to a group of conditions known as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are when the body incorrectly identifies its own useful cells as an attacking organism. In type 1 diabetes, it is the beta cells in the pancreas which produce insulin that are wrongfully targeted and killed off by specific antibodies created by the body’s immune system. Researchers have been investigating what may cause the immune system to act in this way but to date researchers have theories but no concrete proof. Genetic predisposition Researchers have uncovered a number of genetic regions that are linked closely with type 1 diabetes. Each of these is denoted with a name such as IDDM1. At least 18 different regions have been discovered and some of the genetic areas include an increased susceptibility for other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease. Whilst genetics offers clues as to why some people are more susceptible to type 1 diabetes, it doesn’t explain why some people with these genes develop type 1 diabetes and why others with these genes don’t. For example, having an identical twin with type 1 diabetes gives you a statistically higher risk but it doesn’t necessarily mean you will develop the condition. Genetics does not explain either why people will develop type 1 diabetes at different ages. Type 1 diabetes is most commonly diagnosed in 10 to 14 year olds but can be diagnosed at any age. Read more on diabetes and genetics Type 1 diabetes triggers Researchers have hypothesised that whilst some people are have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, there is likely to be an environmental factor that triggers the initial development of type 1 diabetes. Some of the possible triggers that have been suggested include: Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

An Exploration Of The Hygiene And Overload Hypotheses

Objective To assess the relationship between selected maternal and infant characteristics and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus, specifically characteristics identified from birth records that may pertain to the hygiene or overload hypotheses. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Washington State from 1987 to 2005. Participants All children younger than 19 years hospitalized for type 1 diabetes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 250.x1 and 250.x3) identified (n = 1852) from hospital discharge data and linked with their birth certificates. Controls (n = 7408) were randomly selected from birth records, frequency matched on year of birth. Main Exposures Maternal factors included age, race, educational attainment, marital status, use of Medicaid insurance, body mass index, prepregnancy weight, prior births, timing and adequacy of prenatal care, and cesarean delivery. Infant factors included birth weight, size for gestational age, and gestational age. Main Outcome Measure The main outcome was first hospitalization for type 1 diabetes mellitus; adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association of selected maternal and infant characteristics with type 1 diabetes. Results Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, type 1 diabetes was negatively associated with having older siblings (for ≥3 siblings, odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.70) and with indicators of lower economic status or care access, such as an unmarried mother (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91), inadequate prenatal care (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.40-0.71), or Medicaid insurance (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.77). Related to the overload hypothesis, maternal body mass index of 30 or higher (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.64) was associated with increased risk of d Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes, juvenile) is a condition in which the body stops making insulin. This causes the person's blood sugar to increase. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is attacked by the immune system and then it cannot produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes the pancreas can produce insulin, but the body can't use it. Causes of type 1 diabetes are auto-immune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. This can be caused by viruses and infections as well as other risk factors. In many cases, the cause is not known. Scientists are looking for cures for type 1 diabetes such as replacing the pancreas or some of its cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are family history, introducing certain foods too soon (fruit) or too late (oats/rice) to babies, and exposure to toxins. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes are skin infections, bladder or vaginal infections, and Sometimes, there are no significant symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by blood tests. The level of blood sugar is measured, and then levels of insulin and antibodies can be measured to confirm type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin and lifestyle changes. Specifically, meal planning to ensure carbohydrate intake matches insulin dosing. Complications of type 1 diabetes are kidney disease, eye problems, heart disease, and nerve problems (diabetic neuropathy) such as loss of feeling in the feet. Poor wound healing can also be a complication of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented, however, keeping blood sugar at healthy levels may delay or prevent symptoms or complications. There is currently no cure, and most cases of type 1 diabetes have no known cause. The prognosis or life-expectancy for a person with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Diabetes affects 26 million people (nearly 9% of the population) in the United States. But not all cases of diabetes are the same. The focus of this lesson is type 1 diabetes. We'll learn what it is, why it occurs, and how it affects the body in both the short- and long-term. Definition and Risk Factors You hear a lot about diabetes in the news, especially how it's linked to factors like unhealthy lifestyle decisions and obesity. But that is not true of every case of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus type 1, more commonly known as type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas that results in a lack of insulin. Let's break that down. An autoimmune disease is caused by the response of an overactive immune system. Just like an overactive imagination can see a shadow and think it's the boogeyman, an overactive immune system can mistake a part of its own body for a pathogen and attack it. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks beta cells, which are cells in the pancreas located in the islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are important because they produce insulin, the protein hormone required to get glucose, or sugar, into your body's cells. A reduced number of beta cells equals a reduced amount of insulin. When your body is insulin-deficient, you begin to experience the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Scientists have isolated several possibilities as to why this autoimmune response takes place, including: Genetics - activation of several genes is one possibility as to why someone gets type 1 diabetes Environmental factors, such as where you live (for some reason, people living further from the equator tend to be more afflicted) Dietary factors, such as low vitamin D intake And even viral attack ...but there are no definite answers. Symptoms Loss of one of Continue reading >>

Causes Of Diabetes

Causes Of Diabetes

Tweet Diabetes causes vary depending on your genetic makeup, family history, ethnicity, health and environmental factors. There is no common diabetes cause that fits every type of diabetes. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is because the causes of diabetes vary depending on the individual and the type. For instance; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary considerably from the causes of gestational diabetes. Similarly, the causes of type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved: Viral or bacterial infection Chemical toxins within food Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause. Type 2 diabetes causes Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial - more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. These include: Living a sedentary lifestyle Increasing age Bad diet Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors. Gestational diabetes causes The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of deve Continue reading >>

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes

In the normal digestive process, your body breaks down much of the food you eat into glucose, a simple sugar that's stored in your body and used for energy. The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates the amount of glucose in your blood by helping liver, muscle, and fat cells absorb the sugar. Diabetes is a disease that develops when your pancreas doesn't make enough insulin, or your body doesn't use insulin properly — resulting in high blood glucose levels, which can cause a range of health issues. There are several types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the most common. Type 1 diabetes develops when the body produces little to no insulin. It’s considered an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system erroneously attacks and destroys the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. Type 1 — previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it often develops at a young age) — accounts for about 5 percent of all diabetes diagnoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Type 2 diabetes develops when liver, muscle, and fat cells don't respond properly to insulin and become "insulin resistant." Glucose doesn't enter the cells as efficiently as before, and instead builds up in the bloodstream. In type 2, the pancreas responds to these increased blood glucose levels by producing more insulin. Eventually, however, it can no longer make enough insulin to handle spikes in glucose levels — such as what happens after meals. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes, according to the CDC. Type 1 Diabetes Prevalence In 2012, an estimated 29.1 million people in the United States — 9.3 percent of the population — had diabetes, according to Continue reading >>

What Are The Main Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes?

What Are The Main Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes?

ANSWER Type 1 diabetes usually starts in childhood. Your pancreas stops making insulin. You have type 1 diabetes for life. The main things that lead to it are: Family history. If you have relatives with diabetes, chances are strong you'll get it, too. Anyone who has a mother, father, sister, or brother with type 1 diabetes should get checked. A simple blood test can diagnose it. Diseases of the pancreas. They can slow its ability to make insulin. Infection or illness. Some infections and illnesses, mostly rare ones, can damage your pancreas. ANSWER If you have type 2 diabetes, your body can't use the insulin it makes. This is called insulin resistance. Type 2 usually affects adults, but it can begin at any time in your life. The main things that lead to it are: Obesity or being overweight. Research shows this is a top reason for type 2 diabetes. Because of the rise in obesity among U.S. children, this type is affecting more teenagers. Impaired glucose tolerance. Prediabetes is a milder form of this condition. It can be diagnosed with a simple blood test. If you have it, there's a strong chance you'll get type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes often starts with cells that are resistant to insulin. That means your pancreas has to work extra hard to make enough insulin to meet your body's needs. Ethnic background. Diabetes happens more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives. Gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you had gestational diabetes. This raises your chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life. Sedentary lifestyle. You exercise less than three times a week. Family history. You have a parent or sibling who has diabetes. Polycystic Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational

Risk Factors For Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational

This article is about risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Usually just called diabetes, this is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin in the way it should. Diabetes results in a person having too much of a type of sugar, called glucose, in their blood and not enough in their cells. At least 1 in 4 people with diabetes does not know that they have the disease. Knowing risk factors for diabetes is very important for preventing the damage it can cause. If a person knows what these factors are, they can see a doctor early to find out if they have, or are at risk of, diabetes. There are three main kinds of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Each of these is briefly described below, along with their important risk factors. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body makes no or very little insulin. It affects around 5 percent of those with diabetes. It is treated with either insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with diet. The main risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Family history. Having a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes increases the chances of a person having the same type. If both parents have type 1, the risk is even higher. Age. Type 1 diabetes usually affects younger people. Ages 4 to 7 and ages 10 to 14 are the most common. Type 1 diabetes may occur at other ages, although it does so less often. Genetics. Having certain genes may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes. Your doctor can check for these genes. Where a person lives. Studies have found more type 1 diabetes the further away from the equator a person lives. There may be other risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Researchers are currently investigating these. Type 2 diabetes The body can still make some insulin, but is not able to use it the way it Continue reading >>

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