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Type 1 Diabetes Breakthrough 2017

Major Breakthrough Made In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Major Breakthrough Made In Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

Two studies have been released that appear to show a potential new therapy for those living with type 1 diabetes that wouldn’t use drugs to suppress the immune system. Currently, type 1 diabetes –an autoimmune disease that kills insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas – requires daily injections of insulin with one treatment option being a transplant to replace the patient’s islet cells, which are clumps of cells which create insulin in the pancreas. However, because the body sees this transplant as an invasive species in the body, the patient also needs to take immunosuppressant drugs. This treatment, while beneficial in the short term, gradually loses effectiveness over time as the immunosuppressant drugs gradually destroy the implanted islet cells leaving the patient back at square one. Now, according to Diabetes Ireland, there have been two papers published in Nature Medicine and Nature Biotechnology, respectively, which detail a new potential treatment that would encapsulate the new islet cells and protect them from the immunosuppressant drugs, thereby allowing them to control their blood sugar level without the need to take any drugs. The first paper showed the team had developed their modified alginate material capable of encapsulating the islet cells. The material, developed from brown algae, had been used before in attempts to encapsulate cells without causing them any direct harmful effects but it had been shown that, over time, scar tissue would eventually build up that would render the treatment useless. Could establish long-term insulin independence However, developing the concept further, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers discovered that one modified alginate – triazole-thiomorpholine dioxide (TMTD) – did not prov Continue reading >>

Device Could Help People With Type 1 Diabetes

Device Could Help People With Type 1 Diabetes

HOUSTON - A medical breakthrough could be life-changing for people with Type 1 diabetes, a condition in which the pancreas makes little insulin, or none at all. Doctors are hailing the so-called "artificial pancreas" as a game changer for millions with the disease. For Jamie Kurtzig, 13, and her mother, Sara, checking Jamie's blood sugar levels during the day is routine. They've been doing it since she was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at just 19 months old. But, at night, if her blood sugar drops, Jamie could easily have a seizure or even fall into a coma. "For 10 years, we just set alarms and get up, usually every two to three hours to do a check to make sure that she's in a safe range," Sara said. But this new device, which is placed just under Jamie's shoulder, is changing all that. Dubbed an artificial pancreas or closed-looped insulin delivery system, it checks glucose levels every five minutes and wirelessly alerts Jamie's pump, which then delivers the correct dose of insulin. "And so I can just go to bed and wake up,and be in auto mode and perfect blood sugar," Jamie said. Jamie is part of a trial that helped prompt the Food and Drug Administration to approve the device. It's being hailed as a historic step towards treating diabetes. But doctors warn this is not a cure. "This is a car analogy: that you are still driving, putting on the gas, putting on the brakes and making the turns, and it is not an autopilot car," Dr. Bruce Buckingham said. Jamie will have to manage her diabetes her entire life. But at least for now, she and her family can get a good night's sleep. For pediatric diabetics, 75 percent of all seizures occur at night. Researchers are hoping the artificial pancreas device will decrease those numbers dramatically. The system is not an option for m Continue reading >>

Diabetes Breakthrough Increases Insulin Producing Cells

Diabetes Breakthrough Increases Insulin Producing Cells

A potential cure for Type 1 diabetes looms on the horizon in San Antonio, and the novel approach would also allow Type 2 diabetics to stop insulin shots. The discovery, made at UT Health San Antonio, increases the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin. UT Health San Antonio researchers have a goal to reach human clinical trials in three years, but to do so they must first test the strategy in large-animal studies, which will cost an estimated $5 million. Those studies will precede application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for Investigational New Drug (IND) approval, Bruno Doiron, Ph.D., a co-inventor, said. The scientists received a U.S. patent in January, and UT Health San Antonio is spinning out a company to begin commercialization. The strategy has cured diabetes in mice. “It worked perfectly,” Dr. Doiron, assistant professor of medicine at UT Health, said. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects. But it’s a mouse model, so caution is needed. We want to bring this to large animals that are closer to humans in physiology of the endocrine system.” Ralph DeFronzo, M.D., professor of medicine and chief of the Division of Diabetes at UT Health, is co-inventor on the patent. He described the therapy: “The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar],” he said. “This is basically just like beta cells.” Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is only made by beta cells. In Type 1 diabetes, beta cells are destroyed by the immune system and the person has no insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, beta cells fail and insulin decreases. At the same time in Type 2, the body doesn’t use insulin efficiently. The ther Continue reading >>

Breakthrough Stem Cell Technology In Type 1 Diabetes

Breakthrough Stem Cell Technology In Type 1 Diabetes

A regenerative therapy company, known as Viacyte, just announced that a few patients have successfully been implanted with a pouch of stem cells they manufacture. The technology is called the PEC-Direct and consists in replacing lost stem cells in patients with type 1 diabetes with new fully functional ones to reconstitute their stock. It may seem like a straightforward procedure and a possible cure, but the process involves manipulating - though with immunosuppressive drugs - the immune system of these patients and there is always the risk of rejection. The trial took place at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, and UC san Diego School of Medicine's Atman Clinical Trials Research Institute. The scientists trialled and assessed PEC-Direct both for safety and efficacy there and, in the coming months, other centres like the University of Minnesota will do the same. The name of the game is to collect as much data as possible to understand and document all possible outcomes of using this method to grow or regrow the stem cell population. The stem cells used are what's called Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) found in early placental development, not to be confused with placenta-derived stem cells (p-SCs). The objective with this technology is that these hESC eventually differentiate into stem cell-derived pancreatic PEC-01™ cells and new pancreatic tissue. The whole process can take up to 15 days. The first cohort of patients who tested it for the first time received the precious stem cells packaged into immunoprotective durable devices, called sentinels, to facilitate their vascularisation and measure their viability. These can be easily removed at any moment to gather insights as to what stage in their development are the stem cells at, the latest p Continue reading >>

Researcher May Have Found A Cure For Diabetes

Researcher May Have Found A Cure For Diabetes

The most common form of treatment for Type 1 diabetes involves monitoring glucose levels and injecting insulin several times a day. Ending the world’s diabetes epidemic could be one step closer, with a promising new technique curing the condition in mice. Scientists at the University of Texas announced the breakthrough, which uses a novel approach that may eliminate Type 1 diabetes and see painful insulin injections become a thing of the past. University of Texas Health Science Center doctors used a virus as a carrier to introduce insulin-producing genes into the pancreas of rodent subjects. Professor Ralph DeFronzo said researchers altered cells so they secreted insulin, but only in response to glucose — mimicking the behavior of the body’s beta cells. This study bypasses the autoimmune system by altering other pancreatic cells so they can co-exist with immune defenses — unlike beta cells, which are rejected in Type 1 patients. At the moment, Type 1 diabetes is treated by monitoring glucose levels and injecting artificial insulin several times a day. While technology has made management of the condition easier, a cure has been elusive — until now. The patent’s co-inventor, Professor Bruno Doiron, said the results had never been seen before. “It worked perfectly,” Doiron said. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects.” Doiron predicted the same low-risk response in humans. “If a Type 1 diabetic has been living with these cells for 30, 40 or 50 years, and all we’re getting them to do is secrete insulin, we expect there to be no adverse immune response.” DeFronzo said the same method of treatment has been approved almost 50 times by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat various conditions, including rare childhood diseases. Whi Continue reading >>

Scientists Cure Type 1 Diabetes For A Year Without Side Effects

Scientists Cure Type 1 Diabetes For A Year Without Side Effects

A potential cure for Type 1 diabetes looms on the horizon – and the novel approach would also allow Type 2 diabetics to stop insulin shots. The treatment totally cured diabetes in mice for an entire year without any side effects. The discovery, made at UT Health San Antonio, works by increasing the types of pancreatic cells that secrete insulin. “It worked perfectly,” said Dr. Bruno Doiron, assistant professor of medicine at UT Health. “We cured mice for one year without any side effects. That’s never been seen.” CHECK OUT: First Ever Quadriplegic Treated With Stem Cells Regains Motor Control in His Upper Body Insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is only made by beta cells. In Type 1 diabetes, beta cells are destroyed by the immune system and the person has no insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, beta cells fail and insulin decreases. At the same time in Type 2, the body doesn’t use insulin efficiently. The therapy is accomplished by a technique called gene transfer. A virus is used as a vector, or carrier, to introduce selected genes into the pancreas. These genes become incorporated and cause digestive enzymes and other cell types to make insulin. Unlike beta cells, which the body rejects in Type 1 diabetes, the other cell populations of the pancreas co-exist with the body’s immune defenses. Gene transfer using a viral vector has been approved nearly 50 times by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat various diseases. MORE: After Marrying On Her ‘Deathbed,’ This Bride Made a Miraculous Recovery After Quitting 1 Food “The pancreas has many other cell types besides beta cells, and our approach is to alter these cells so that they start to secrete insulin, but only in response to glucose [sugar],” said co-inventor Ralph DeFronzo. “This is basicall Continue reading >>

Stem-cell Researchers Make Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Stem-cell Researchers Make Breakthrough In Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. Updated Oct. 13 Researchers have made a major breakthrough in finding a treatment for type 1 diabetes, Harvard University announced Thursday. For the first time, scientists were able to create insulin-producing beta cells using human embryonic stem cells, at a volume required for cell transplantation and pharmaceutical use. Type 1 is the variety of the metabolic disease that can be inherited and which is likely due to an underlying autoimmune condition in which the body destroys the beta cells that produce insulin, a hormone that regulates glucose and helps the body process sugar. (Unlike type-2 diabetes, there is no way to prevent type-1.) “We are now just one pre-clinical step away from the finish line,” said Doug Melton, who led the research and who has worked toward finding a cure for diabetes since his son was diagnosed as an infant 23 years ago. That final step is finding a way to protect the 150 million beta cells needed to for transplant in the treatment of each patient from their immune systems, which automatically attack those cells. Melton is working with other researchers to develop a device for such protection. Tests of a device in mice have so far protected insulin-producing beta cells for several months. Continue reading >>

New Diabetes Treatment Could Eliminate Need For Insulin Injections

New Diabetes Treatment Could Eliminate Need For Insulin Injections

A cell-based diabetes treatment has been developed by scientists who say it could eliminate the need for those with the condition to inject insulin. The therapy involves a capsule of genetically engineered cells implanted under the skin that automatically release insulin as required. Diabetic mice that were treated with the cells were found to have normal blood sugar levels for several weeks. Scientists said they hope to obtain a clinical trial licence to test the technology in patients within two years. If successful, the treatment would be relevant for all type 1 diabetes patients, as well as those cases of type 2 diabetes that require insulin injections. Martin Fussenegger, who led the research at the ETH university in Basel, said: “By 2040, every tenth human on the planet will suffer from some kind of diabetes, that’s dramatic. We should be able to do a lot better than people measuring their glucose.” Fussenegger said that, if confirmed as safe and effective in humans, diabetes patients could be given an implant that would need to be replaced three times a year rather than injections, which do not perfectly control blood sugar levels, leading to long-term complications including eye, nerve and heart damage. In Britain, about 400,000 people have type 1 diabetes and three million have type 2 diabetes, about 10% of whom need to inject insulin to control the condition. Type 1 diabetes normally begins in childhood and is an autoimmune disease in which the body kills off all its pancreatic beta cells. The cells respond to the body’s fluctuating glucose levels by releasing insulin, which regulates blood sugar. Without beta cells, patients need to monitor glucose and inject insulin as required – typically several times each day. Previously, scientists have attempt Continue reading >>

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

A Quest: Insulin-releasing Implant For Type-1 Diabetes

Scientists in California think they may have found a way to transplant insulin-producing cells into diabetic patients who lack those cells — and protect the little insulin-producers from immune rejection. Their system, one of several promising approaches under development, hasn't yet been tested in people. But if it works, it could make living with diabetes much less of a burden. For now, patients with Type-1 diabetes have to regularly test their blood sugar levels, and inject themselves with insulin when it's needed. Some researchers are developing machines to automate that process. But Crystal Nyitray, founder and CEO of the biotechnology startup Encellin, in San Francisco, didn't want to use a machine to treat diabetes. As a graduate student in bioengineering at the University of California, San Francisco a few years ago, Nyitray wanted to try something different: living cells. "Cells are the ultimate smart machine," she says. Clinical trials that transplant insulin-making pancreatic cells into people with diabetes have been underway for several years, with some success. But the recipient's immune system is hard on these transplanted cells, and most patients still need insulin injections eventually. Nyitray and colleagues designed a system that would encase live islet cells from the pancreas in a flexible membrane that could be implanted under the skin. Insulin and blood sugar could pass through the membrane, but cells from the recipient's immune system would be kept out, preventing immune rejection. "I think of it like if you're sitting in a house and you have the window open with a screen," Nyitray says. "So you can feel the breeze of the air outside, and smell everything, but the bugs and the flies aren't able to get through because you have the screen in place. Continue reading >>

Cell-centered: Scientists Embrace Cell-replacement Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes

Cell-centered: Scientists Embrace Cell-replacement Therapy For Type 1 Diabetes

Cell-Centered: Scientists Embrace Cell-Replacement Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes A century ago, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence. Now, its a daily struggle. When blood sugar soars, diabetics risk damage to their eyes, kidneys, and nerves. And when blood sugar dips too low, vital organs like the heart and brain shut down, leading to lightheadedness or even coma. Normally, the pancreas regulates blood sugar. A special population of cells, known as beta cells, make insulin, which helps the body soak up excess blood sugar after a meal. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system kills these cells. To compensate, patients inject themselves with insulin and check their blood sugar levels before and after meals. Its a stressful task, though recent advances have helped. The major insulin makers including Sanofi, Novo Nordisk, and Eli Lilly offer slow- and fast-acting insulins to help patients control their blood sugar throughout the day. And in 2016, the FDA approved the first artificial pancreas, a device that combines a blood sugar monitor and an insulin pump to automatically give patients the dose of insulin that they need. These treatments aim to make up for the loss of beta cells. But a group of scientists has another solution: put the beta cells back in. The idea may sound too simple to be true, but its already yielded promising results and could free type 1 diabetics from having to inject insulin. What we would like to put back into diabetic patients is not just the hormone insulin, we would love to put back the beta cells, said Matthias Hebrok, Ph.D., director of the UCSF Diabetes Center. The beta cell is such a beautifully fine-tuned machine that it would completely regulate sugar levels. Beta cell transplants have already been done using cells from deceased organ donors. Continue reading >>

Latest Breakthroughs In Type 1 Diabetes

Latest Breakthroughs In Type 1 Diabetes

com: Nov. This investment strategy ensures that the most life-changing breakthroughs can make it through the long research, development and delivery process and get to people living with T1D sooner. To shine a light on some of these, we've While there is strong evidence to support the view that some people have a genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes, scientists still don't understand what actually Latest projections show that over the next decade more than 500,000 women could develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy,” said Professor Greg 24 Oct 2017 So, JDRF the largest funder of type 1 diabetes research, started a venture fund called the T1D Fund to spark investments into startups that might be able to take those scientific advancements and turn them in to approved treatments. Current news and events relating to Type 1 Diabetes, including research, studies, treatments, potential cures and more. We want a cure, and we . The discovery, made at UT Health San Antonio, works by increasing the types of 10 Feb 2016Gina was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes when she was nine years and has been dependent 18 Oct 2017 Encellin obtained exclusive rights from UCSF for a proprietary cell encapsulation technology aimed at improving physicians' ability to perform cell transplants without the need for immunosuppressive drugs. curing diabetes If this procedure is replicated in humans, it has the potential to cure type-1 diabetes and allow type-2 diabetics to stop their insulin shots, the researchers believe. S. Robinson, MD, FACS, MSOM (Hon). In a paper published in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, UT Health researchers cured T1D in mice by reprogramming cells to produce insulin. 11 Jul 2017 City of Hope's Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing Continue reading >>

Gore Joins Viacyte’s Quest For A Functional Type 1 Diabetes Cure

Gore Joins Viacyte’s Quest For A Functional Type 1 Diabetes Cure

A cure for type 1 diabetes has been “just around the corner” for decades now — or so patients have been told. But the moonshot mission has been rough. ViaCyte knows this well after years 18 years of R&D. With every step of progress, a new mountain of challenges looms. The company puts its head down and troubleshoots through, with backing from private investors, pharma partners, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Fund (JDRF). On Wednesday, the San Diego, California-based company announced a new partner; W. L. Gore & Associates, the multi-billion dollar manufacturer of medical and non-medical fabrics and devices, including the iconic GORE-TEX. If Gore can contribute some materials expertise, one more problem could get solved. The partnership centers around ViaCyte’s flagship islet replacement therapy. Type 1 diabetes (aka juvenile diabetes) is an autoimmune disease. It accounts for around 5 percent of all diabetes cases. Some 95 percent are caused by so-called adult-onset diabetes, which is a longer-term metabolic disorder. While genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a role, the ultimate trigger for type 1 diabetes is not known. At some point, the immune system incorrectly recognizes beta cells in the pancreas as foreign or threatening. It begins systematically destroying them and with that, the ability of the body to produce insulin. Insulin is the key that allows glucose to enter cells. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream while cells are effectively being starved. For decades, patients have replaced the missing insulin with a synthetic version. Yet dosing is problematic. Too little insulin and the blood glucose levels rise; too much and the patient becomes hypoglycemic Continue reading >>

Vaccine Against Type 1 Diabetes 'shows Promise'

Vaccine Against Type 1 Diabetes 'shows Promise'

News of a successful trial of a vaccine for type 1 diabetes has been covered by BBC News, who reported that, “It may be possible to reverse type 1 diabetes by training a patient’s own immune system to stop attacking their body.” Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. This means people with the condition require lifelong insulin treatment. It’s possible to block the effects of the immune system by using immunosuppressants, but this would make people more vulnerable to infections. An ideal type 1 diabetes treatment would block the immune cells attacking the pancreas while leaving the rest of the immune system untouched. New research suggests that this could be possible. A trial of a new vaccine compared its effects against placebo in just 80 people. The vaccine improved the function of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, but its effects seemed temporary as beta cell functioning declined soon after the regular vaccine injections were stopped. This suggests that regular vaccine injections might be required for it to work long-term, but this was not tested directly. There are thought to be many different substances that are recognised by, and possibly trigger, immune cells to attack the beta cells of the pancreas. This vaccine is quite specific in preventing just one such pathway. This means the vaccine may lead to an improvement in symptoms, but not a complete cure for the condition. Nonetheless, these are positive results and are likely to spur on larger and longer term studies. If all goes well, it could provide the basis for a new treatment approach for type 1 diabetes. Where did the story come from? The study was carried out by researchers from Europe, the US and Au Continue reading >>

Clinical Trials Of Stem Cell-based

Clinical Trials Of Stem Cell-based "functional Cure" For Type 1 Diabetes Underway

2 pictures A human clinical trial examining the safety and efficacy of a "functional cure" for type 1 diabetes is currently underway. Trials of the novel islet cell replacement therapy developed by ViaCyte involve a device containing stem cells being implanted into a patient with type 1 diabetes. It's hoped these cells will then mature into human islet tissue with insulin-producing beta cells that produce insulin on demand. So far, 2017 is proving to be an exciting year for breakthroughs in diabetes research, particularly in regards to treatments for type 1 diabetes. We have seen two very promising developments based in gene therapy, while a human trial for a type 1 diabetes vaccine is currently underway in Finland targeting a viral group known to trigger the disease. The new treatment developed by ViaCyte is being described as a "functional cure" in that it could replace the missing insulin cells in a diabetic patient, as opposed to a more direct "cure" which would address the autoimmune roots of the disease. The treatment being trialed piggybacks off prior working knowledge of islet cell transplantation being successful in patients with type 1 diabetes. For some time, patients with the disease have been treated with pancreatic cells from organ donors, successfully liberating them from insulin injections. "Islet transplants have been used to successfully treat patients with unstable, high-risk type 1 diabetes, but the procedure has limitations, including a very limited supply of donor organs and challenges in obtaining reliable and consistent islet preparations," says trial investigator James Shapiro. "An effective stem cell-derived islet replacement therapy would solve these issues and has the potential to help a greater number of people." The new treatment involves a Continue reading >>

City Of Hope Sets New Goal For Type 1 Diabetes Cure

City Of Hope Sets New Goal For Type 1 Diabetes Cure

DUARTE, Calif., Jan. 16, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- A cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in six years is the new goal of City of Hope's Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. City of Hope, which has a long and groundbreaking history in diabetes, was the first to engineer synthetic human insulin by Arthur D. Riggs, Ph.D., in 1978, which is still used today by many of the estimated 1.5 million Americans with type 1 diabetes, (T1D) and 27 million with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Funding for this transformative research is being led by a gift from the Wanek family, which owns Ashley Furniture Industries, the world's largest home furniture manufacturer. Through the generosity of the family and gifts from an anonymous donor, individuals and corporate and foundation partners across the country, City of Hope will be able to devote more than $50 million over the next six years to an innovative research effort, the Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes, that seeks to find a cure for T1D. Research results may also benefit the larger T2D population. The project will create a series of highly-focused programs based at City of Hope that will use an integrated approach to curing T1D, including immunotherapy approaches, as well as research into beta cell transplantation and preventing the body from rejecting those insulin secreting cells. "City of Hope is best positioned to take on this challenge," said Robert W. Stone, president and chief executive officer of City of Hope. "This is thanks to our 40-year institutional legacy of pioneering treatment and research advances in diabetes. "City of Hope is extremely grateful for the Wanek family's significant gift that will enable the institution to forward type 1 diabetes research, th Continue reading >>

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