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Type 1 Diabetes And Osteoarthritis

Keeping Active With Diabetes And Arthritis

Keeping Active With Diabetes And Arthritis

Daily physical activity is essential for good health and blood glucose control in people with diabetes. But what if you also have arthritis? One in five American adults has been diagnosed with arthritis, and half of all adults with diagnosed diabetes also have arthritis. Symptoms of arthritis can make it difficult to be active. But don’t let that stop you in your efforts: Frequent physical activity can help reduce the pain and stiffness of arthritis by improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Routine exercise also increases energy levels and helps with weight control. Other benefits include lowered blood pressure, a lower risk of heart disease, and sometimes improved sleep patterns. If you have arthritis as well as diabetes, it is important to keep your muscles as strong as possible, because the stronger the muscles and tissues are around the joints, the better they will support and protect those joints. When you don’t exercise, your muscles become weak and your bones become more brittle, which leads to a worsening of arthritis symptoms and to other health problems such as osteoporosis, the decrease in bone density that can lead to bone fractures. About arthritis The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis, in which cartilage in the joints deteriorates. Cartilage is the tough but flexible tissue that normally covers the ends of bones where they meet in a joint, allowing for easy movement. Over time, as cartilage deteriorates in an affected joint, the space between the bone ends may narrow, extra bits of bone may develop on the bone ends, and the joint may change shape. These changes can lead to friction, pain, stiffness, and further joint damage. Osteoarthritis often affects more than one joint, and while it can affect any joint in the body, so Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes May Boost Osteoarthritis And Arthroplasty Risk

Type 2 Diabetes May Boost Osteoarthritis And Arthroplasty Risk

(RxWiki News) Type 2 diabetes has been known to cause problems in the heart, eyes and feet. New research suggests that diabetes may be linked to joint damage as well. People with type 2 diabetes may have a higher risk of osteoarthritis than those without diabetes. People who are overweight or obese have a higher risk of diabetes. Obesity has also been linked to osteoarthritis. Other factors, such as age, can also add to osteoarthritis risk. After taking into account these other factors that could lead osteoarthritis, the researchers found that type 2 diabetes was still a predictor of arthroplasty, with a hazard ratio of 2.1. The risk of arthroplasty increased with the length of time patients had type 2 diabetes. "Stay active to protect your joints and control diabetes." Georg Schett, MD, of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany, and colleagues wanted to see if the presence of type 2 diabetes could predict severe osteoarthritis in the future. Osteoarthritis is sometimes called the "wear-and-tear" arthritis because it happens when joints and joint tissues wear down through use over time. Dr. Schett and colleagues found that people with type 2 diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to undergo arthroplasty - a surgery to rebuild or replace damaged joints. Rates of arthroplasty among diabetes patients were 17.7 per 1,000 person-years. In comparison, arthroplasty rates among those without diabetes were 5.3 per 1,000 person-years. The study's results suggested that type 2 diabetes increased the risk of arthroplasty, with a hazard ratio of 3.8. A hazard ratio explains how much an event happens in one group versus another. A ratio greater than 1.0 means the event happens more often in one group. In this case, type 2 diabetes patients were significantly m Continue reading >>

Association Of Hand Or Knee Osteoarthritis With Diabetes Mellitus In A Population Of Hispanics From Puerto Rico

Association Of Hand Or Knee Osteoarthritis With Diabetes Mellitus In A Population Of Hispanics From Puerto Rico

Go to: Abstract Although a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, inconsistencies and limitations of observational studies have precluded a conclusive association. To evaluate the association of hand or knee OA with DM in a population of Hispanics from Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 subjects (100 adult DM patients as per the National Diabetes Data Group Classification, and 102 non-diabetic subjects). OA of hand and knee was ascertained using the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, pharmacotherapy and DM clinical manifestations were determined. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of DM with hand or knee OA, and to evaluate factors associated with hand or knee OA among DM patients. The mean (standard deviation, SD) age for DM patients was 51.6 (13.1) years; 64.0% were females. The mean (SD) DM duration was 11.0 (10.4) years. The prevalence of OA in patients with DM and non-diabetics subjects was 49.0% and 26.5%, respectively (p<0.01). In the multivariable analysis, patients with DM had 2.18 the odds of having OA when compared to non-diabetic subjects (95% CI: 1.12–4.24). In a sub-analysis among DM patients, female patients were more likely to have hand or knee OA (OR [95% CI]: 5.06 [1.66–15.66]), whereas patients who did not use insulin alone for DM therapy were more likely to have OA (OR [95% CI]: 4.44 [1.22–16.12]). In this population of Hispanics from Puerto Rico, DM patients were more likely to have OA of hands or knees than non-diabetic subjects. This association was retained in multivariable models accounting for established risk factors for OA. Continue reading >>

Osteoarthritis And Diabetes: Increasing Pain, Complications

Osteoarthritis And Diabetes: Increasing Pain, Complications

As if life with osteoarthritis is not difficult enough, diabetes can make everything worse. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are related to frequently fluctuating and fragile blood sugar levels. On account of this instability, internal organs and other system wide functions do not operate at an optimum level. And when it comes to living with and treating osteoarthritis, diabetes exacerbates the pain and complicates the treatment. Like other forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis is basically a condition that inflames the joint or joints. The swelling, heat and pain from an inflamed joint can be exacerbated by frequent fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. That’s why a basic principle of the anti-inflammatory diet is to control blood sugar levels by eating a low glycemic load diet. This concept is even more important to someone with both diabetes and osteoarthritis. If and when the inflammation and pain in a joint becomes unbearable, a doctor might recommend a cortisone shot. This too is fraught with problems when the patient with arthritis also has diabetes. The steroids used in the injections will oftentimes spike the blood sugar levels in a diabetic for a short period of time. During this time, the blood sugar levels need to be monitored closely and the medications adjusted in order to prevent a Hyperglycemic Event. These types of complications are to be expected in someone with diabetes because diabetes affects the whole body. Infections are more likely. Kidney failure is more likely. And prolonged recovery times from surgery are more likely. In fact, in a nationwide study, researchers found that in those who had either knee or hip replacement surgery, diabetics had a much higher risk of complications than non-diabetics. Another group of researchers concluded: “Rega Continue reading >>

Live Well With Diabetes And Arthritis

Live Well With Diabetes And Arthritis

If you have diabetes and arthritis, you may have wondered if they are related. The answers is,” It depends.” Whether diabetes and arthritis are related depends on your age, the type of diabetes you have, the kind of arthritis you have, your lifestyle and the medications or supplements you take. Both diabetes and arthritis are chronic diseases. As you age, your chances for having chronic diseases increases. Also as we get older, many of us tend to get heavier. This extra weight adds stress on your joints, which can lead to inflammation and eventually a form of arthritis. TYPES OF ARTHRITIS There is more than one type of diabetes and there is more than one type of arthritis. As you already know, the two main types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2. The two main types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (or degenerative) and rheumatoid arthritis. Type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are both auto-immune diseases, meaning your body fights against another part of your body. In the case of type 1 diabetes, your body destroys the cells that make insulin. With rheumatoid arthritis, your body fights the linings of your joints. Both type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are more common among younger people. Type 2 diabetes is related to aging, being overweight and being sedentary. Degenerative, or osteoarthritis, is also related to getting older and being overweight, which results in inflammation of the joints. Inflammation is the pain, redness and swelling that occurs when you have an injury or infection. Inflammation can raise blood glucose levels—leading to diabetes. MEDICATIONS The medicines you take for arthritis are used to reduce the inflammation, swelling and pain. Some of these medicines increase insulin resistance and can raise your blood glucose levels. Steroi Continue reading >>

Long Term Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Hand Pain, Disability And Stiffness But Not With Structural Hand Osteoarthritis Features – The Dialong Hand Study

Long Term Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Hand Pain, Disability And Stiffness But Not With Structural Hand Osteoarthritis Features – The Dialong Hand Study

Abstract To explore whether having long-term type 1 diabetes (>45 years) is associated with a higher prevalence of radiographic hand OA, erosive hand OA and increased hand pain, disability and stiffness. In total N = 96 persons with type 1 diabetes diagnosed before 1970 were included (mean [SD] age: 62.2 [7.4], mean [SD] HbA1c: 7.43 [0.80] and N = 49 [51%] men). Regular measurements of their HbA1c were obtained till 2015. We included N = 69 healthy controls without any diabetes (mean [SD] age: 63.0 [7.0], mean [SD] HbA1c: 5.41 [0.32], N = 29 [42%] men). The groups were compared for radiographic hand OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥2 in ≥1 joint) and erosive hand OA (central erosions in ≥1 joint), Australian/Canadian index (AUSCAN) for hand pain, disability and stiffness using regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level and waist circumference. We found no associations between having long term type 1 diabetes and more prevalent radiographic hand OA (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.38–1.81). We found a trend towards higher prevalence of erosive hand OA in diabetes patients (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 0.82–10.64). Strong and consistent associations were observed between long term type 1 diabetes and increased hand pain (B = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.65–3.91), disability (B = 5.30, 95% CI = 3.48–7.12) and stiffness (B = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.33–2.67). These associations were particularly strong for women and participants below the median age of 61 years. Long-term type 1 diabetes was not associated with radiographic hand OA, but was strongly associated with hand pain, disability and stiffness. The association between diabetes and erosive hand OA warrants further investigation. Figures Citation: Magnusson K, Bech Holte K, Juel NG, Brox JI, Hagen KB, Haugen IK, et al. (2017) L Continue reading >>

Arthritis And Diabetes - Understanding The Connection

Arthritis And Diabetes - Understanding The Connection

Arthritis affects approximately 50% of people with diabetes. People with diabetes have twice the risk of developing arthritis compared to those without diabetes. Those are significant statistics because arthritis can be a barrier to physical activity which can benefit both conditions. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one-third of those who have both arthritis and diabetes rarely or never exercise. Also, adults with both conditions were 30% more likely to be physically inactive than those with diabetes alone. Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, and Diabetes Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are both associated with diabetes, but in different ways: Type 1 diabetes (also called juvenile diabetes) is classified as an autoimmune disease, as is rheumatoid arthritis. In patients with type 1 diabetes, the body attacks the pancreas and it cannot produce enough insulin. In rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial lining (i.e., lining of the joints) -- and in some cases, the organs -- is attacked by the body. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease. Inflammatory markers are elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes, as well as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There is an association between osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes (also called adult-onset diabetes). According to the American Diabetes Association, type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. With type 2 diabetes, the body does not use insulin properly -- known as insulin resistance. Initially, the pancreas produces extra insulin to compensate. Eventually, though, the pancreas isn’t able produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. The common factor in both osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes? Obesity. Just as overweight and obesity are know Continue reading >>

Status Of Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 In Knee Osteoarthritis Among Type 2-diabetic Postmenopausal Women

Status Of Soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 In Knee Osteoarthritis Among Type 2-diabetic Postmenopausal Women

DOI: Abstract Background: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disorder and a leading cause of pain and functional disability among elderly female population. Type 2-diabetes is frequently reported comorbidity in elderly female patients with knee osteoarthritis. VCAM-1 is emerging as a strong and independent predictor for severe osteoarthritis. VCAM-1 is an inducible cell surface sialo glycoprotein and mediates heterotypic cellular aggregation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the role of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 at the onset of knee osteoarthritis among type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women. Methods: The present study includes 100 type 2-diabetic female subjects of age above 50 years as cases and 100 normal healthy female age matched individuals as controls. Osteoarthritis of knee was ascertained using the American college of rheumatology classification criteria. Serum soluble VCAM-1 concentration was measured by ELISA method in all 200 subjects. Biochemical parameters-Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured using Mind ray BS-400 and HbA1c was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay method. Statistical analysis was made by student independent sample t-test. Correlation was determined by using spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results: Serum level of soluble VCAM-1 was found statistically highly significant (p<0.001) in type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women having early stage of knee osteoarthritis as compared to control healthy subjects. The mean levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C were also found significantly increased while HDL-C was found significantly decreased in cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: The increased level of soluble VCAM-1 in type 2 diabet Continue reading >>

Bone And Joint Problems Associated With Diabetes

Bone And Joint Problems Associated With Diabetes

If you have diabetes, you're at increased risk of various bone and joint disorders. Certain factors, such as nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), arterial disease and obesity, may contribute to these problems — but often the cause isn't clear. Learn more about various bone and joint disorders, including symptoms and treatment options. Charcot joint What is it? Charcot (shahr-KOH) joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, occurs when a joint deteriorates because of nerve damage — a common complication of diabetes. Charcot joint primarily affects the feet. What are the symptoms? You might have numbness and tingling or loss of sensation in the affected joints. They may become warm, red and swollen and become unstable or deformed. The involved joint may not be very painful despite its appearance. How is it treated? If detected early, progression of the disease can be slowed. Limiting weight-bearing activities and use of orthotic supports to the affected joint and surrounding structures can help. Diabetic hand syndrome What is it? Diabetic hand syndrome, also called diabetic cheiroarthropathy, is a disorder in which the skin on the hands becomes waxy and thickened. Eventually finger movement is limited. What causes diabetic hand syndrome isn't known. It's most common in people who've had diabetes for a long time. What are the symptoms? You may be unable to fully extend your fingers or press your palms together flat. How is it treated? Better management of blood glucose levels and physical therapy can slow the progress of this condition, but the limited mobility may not be reversible. Osteoporosis What is it? Osteoporosis is a disorder that causes bones to become weak and prone to fracture. People who have type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of osteoporosis. What are Continue reading >>

Osteoarthritis Drug Diacerein Improves Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes

Osteoarthritis Drug Diacerein Improves Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes

In a study, two months of treatment with the anti-inflammatory agent diacerein improved insulin secretion and dropped A1C levels in type 2 diabetes patients from 8.3% to 7.0%, within 60 days.… Diacerein has been studied to treat osteoarthritis of the knees and hips and is an anti-inflammatory medication that works differently from the typical NSAIDS. Diacerein blocks interleukin-1, as opposed to inhibiting the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway as NSAIDs do. Diacerein, which reduces levels of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1-beta, is widely used for arthropathies, although not in the U.S. The researchers who conducted the current study suspected its cytokine-lowering effects could help obese patients with type 2 diabetes improve their glucose control. They randomized 40 drug-naive adults with type 2 diabetes to placebo treatment or 50 mg/d diacerein for 15 days followed by 50 mg BID for 45 days. Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were assessed with hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps at baseline and at 2 months. According to Dr. Manuel Gonzalez-Ortiz with the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Guadalajara, the first phase, late phase and total insulin secretion decreased over the study period in the placebo group but increased significantly in the diacerein group. For example, with diacerein, total insulin secretion increased from 178 pmol/L at baseline to 216 pmol/L (p<0.01) at 60 days. From baseline to 60 days, the mean fasting glucose level was unchanged in the placebo group (7.8 mmol/L; 140.4 mg/dL) but fell from 7.9 mmol/L (142.2 mg/dL) to 6.8 mmol/L (122.4 mg/dL) in the diacerein group (p<0.001). Similarly, A1C concentration rose slightly with placebo (from 7.9% to 8.1%) but fell significantly with diacerein, from 8.3% to 7.0% (p<0.001). The most common Continue reading >>

Long Term Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Hand Pain But Not With Structural Hand Osteoarthritis Features – The Dialong Hand Study

Long Term Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Hand Pain But Not With Structural Hand Osteoarthritis Features – The Dialong Hand Study

Purpose: Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes and hand osteoarthritis (OA). However, these studies have not discriminated between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This makes it challenging to isolate the independent effect of hyperglycaemia per se on the development of hand OA. Type 1 diabetes is a purer model disease of hyperglycaemia than type 2 diabetes. Our aim was therefore to explore whether having long term type 1 diabetes is associated with a higher prevalence of radiographic hand OA, erosive hand OA and increased hand pain, -dysfunction and -stiffness. Methods: In total 95 persons with long term type 1 diabetes were recruited from the Dialong study in 2014 (mean (SD) disease duration 51 (4.8) years, mean (SD) age 60 (3.7) years and n=46 (48%) women). Close relatives and friends with similar age and sex distribution (mean (SD) age 62 (8.2), n=35 (58.3%) women) were recruited as healthy controls (n=60). Participants with known inflammatory rheumatic disease as well as potential controls with known diabetes or a HbA1c > 6.5% were excluded. Participants attended the Oslo University Hospital for fasting blood tests and conventional radiographs of the hands. The bilateral first carpometacarpal, scaphotrapezotrapezoidal, 1st–5th metacarpophalangeal joints, thumb interphalangeal, 2nd–5th proximal interphalangeal joints and 2nd–5th distal interphalangeal joints were scored for radiographic OA according to a modified Kellgren-Lawrence scale and for central erosions according to the OARSI atlas by one experience reader (IKH). Hand OA was defined as involvement of ≥1 hand joint with Kellgren-Lawrence grade (KLG) ≥2), whereas central erosion in the same joint was required for erosive OA. Self-reported hand pain (0–20 scale), physical function ( Continue reading >>

Which One Is Much More Cause In Osteoarthritis? Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Or 2?

Which One Is Much More Cause In Osteoarthritis? Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Or 2?

Osteoarthritis is a great public health problem indiscriminately; ie goanrthritis, coxarthritis or dejenerative spine diseases. Osteoarthritis is focude sixth decades in elderly people, espicially in women. Many studies assingned the efficiancy of Diabetes Mellitus in the etiology of Osteoarthritis. Correlations between bone-destructive characteristics and carbohydrate metabolism errors is now quite accused in this clinical views. A comparing between Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and 2 is aimed in this study which one cause in much more osteoarthritis. 167 (69 gonarthroisis, 57 coxarthritis and 41 dejenerative spine diseases) patients is joined to this trials for 4 years. All patients were evaluated by endocrinologists and orthopaedists. According to results; there were more counts of Type 2 patients in all groups (51 Type 2 and 18 Type 1 in gonarthrosis; 46 Type 2 and 11 Type 1 in coxarthritis, 32 Type 2 and 9 Type 1 in dejenerative spine diseases). Statistical difference is significiant (P<0.05). Many recently clincal and laboratory studies assigned a correlations between Diabetes Mellitus and all rheumatoid diseas. Carbohydrate metabolism is a headstone of all metabolic systems. All defects and errors in carbohydrate metabolism can affect other metabolic systems and bone-soft tissue systems by the metabolits, especially sorbitol. And also presdisposition of Type 2 to Metabolic Syndrome can mark pathophyisology of Osteoarthritis as difference proportions of these types. Background: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes and the most common cause in the pathway to diabetic foot ulceration. Screening for DSPN enables early intervention and prevention of complications. The Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Examination Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Arthritis: Is There A Connection?

Diabetes And Arthritis: Is There A Connection?

Diabetes mellitus (also known as ‘sugar’ diabetes) interferes with the body’s ability to use sugar. It is a long-term condition requiring treatment by diet, pills and often injections of insulin. Generally doctors recognise two types of diabetes. Type I typically occurs in younger people and often requires treatment with insulin. Type 2 occurs in older overweight people and is treated with tablets but there can be a lot of overlap between the two types. There is often a family history of diabetes in both. Early symptoms of diabetes include thirst and passing a lot of urine, and some people lose a lot of weight. The problems with handling sugar, and specifically high blood sugar levels, can eventually lead to complications in the blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and the nerves to the hands and feet. These complications can be delayed and minimised by controlling the blood sugar with treatment. People with diabetes are also prone to a number of musculoskeletal complications but the relationship between these complications and the diabetic control is not clear. Many of these problems are not unique to diabetes but occur more frequently in this condition. This short article describes the complications and offers advice on treatment and prevention. Shoulder problems Shoulder pain is probably the most common musculoskeletal disorder which I see associated with diabetes. Specifically the shoulder becomes stiff and painful due to inflammation and thickening of the tissue surrounding the shoulder joint – sometimes known as frozen shoulder. The pain may start following a minor injury or just come out of the blue. Typically the pain builds up to a constant nagging pain which limits the movement of the joint and causes sleep disturbance. The pain is worse in the first 3 months Continue reading >>

What's Causing Your Joint And Nerve Pain?

What's Causing Your Joint And Nerve Pain?

It’s natural to feel a little discomfort in your hands, fingers, feet, and ankles from time to time. Joint pain is a part of getting older and can have a number of causes. But that ache in your foot or arm could also be a problem with a nerve caused by your diabetes. And that’s an issue that could be serious and require quick attention. So how do you tell the difference? It’s the leading cause of disability in the U.S. It affects more than 50 million adults. Often referred to as arthritis, it’s broadly defined as discomfort where two or more bones meet. Though often mild, sometimes sporadic, and rarely an emergency, the pain can be severe, making it hard to move the joint. If you have it, you’ll probably notice changes to your joint like: Stiffness Less range in motion Swelling Redness Tenderness or warmth A tougher time using it A difference in shape The causes of joint pain vary greatly. It could be: Muscle strains or sprains A broken or dislocated bone Gout Hypothyroidism Leukemia Lupus Osteoarthritis Rickets Lyme disease Rheumatoid arthritis Your doctor might call it diabetic neuropathy. It’s pain in your nerves, not in your bones. It happens when high blood sugar harms the nerve fibers. You can get it anywhere in your body, but it most often affects your legs and feet. Anywhere from 60%-70% of people with diabetes have some sort of neuropathy. Most get it after having the disease for 10 years or more. There are many types. But the two most likely to cause problems with your joints are peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. This is the most common form of diabetic joint pain. It affects your legs, arms, hands, feet, fingers, and toes. With ongoing diabetes, joints can no longer respond like they should to the strain and stress placed on them. As a result, Continue reading >>

The Prevalence Of Radiological Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis In Long-term Type 1 Diabetes: The Dialong Shoulder Study

The Prevalence Of Radiological Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis In Long-term Type 1 Diabetes: The Dialong Shoulder Study

Objectives: This study compares the prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis (OA) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) for > 45 years and controls, and explores the association with shoulder pain and glycaemic burden in patients with DM1. Method: The Dialong study is a cross-sectional, observational study with 30 years of historical data on long-term glycaemic control. We included 102 patients with DM1 and 73 diabetes-free controls. Demographic data, worst shoulder pain last week [numeric rating scale (NRS) 0–10], pain on abduction at examination (NRS 0–10), and current and historical glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were collected. Standardized shoulder X-rays were taken and interpreted for OA applying the Kellgren–Lawrence classification. Results: In the diabetes group (49% women), the mean ± sd duration of DM1 was 50.6 ± 4.8 years, mean 30 year HbA1c 7.4%, and age 61.9 ± 7.1 years. The mean age of controls (57% women) was 62.6 ± 7.0 years. Radiological glenohumeral OA was found in 36 diabetes patients (35%) and 10 controls (14%) [odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 7.5; p = 0.002]. Few persons had moderate and severe OA [6.9% vs 1.3%, OR 5.3 (95% Cl 0.6 to 44.1); p = 0.1]. Fifteen diabetes patients had painful OA versus two controls (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 0.6 to 47.9; p = 0.13). There was no association between OA and long-term glycaemic burden (mean 30 year HbA1c) in the diabetes group (p > 0.2). Conclusions: Radiological glenohumeral OA was more common in patients with DM1 than in controls for mild, but not moderate and severe OA. The radiological findings were not associated with shoulder pain or long-term glycaemic burden. Continue reading >>

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