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Type 1 Diabetes Advances

Neo-islets, A Major Advance Toward A Functional Cure Of Type-1 Diabetes

Neo-islets, A Major Advance Toward A Functional Cure Of Type-1 Diabetes

'Neo-Islets', a Major Advance Toward a Functional Cure of Type-1 Diabetes SALT LAKE CITY, June 30, 2017 /PRNewswire/ --The cover of the July 2017 issue of the journal STEM CELLS Translation Medicine showcases the latest advance toward a functional cure of insulin-dependent diabetes. Scientists at SymbioCellTech (SCT), a small biotech company in Salt Lake City, developed a technology that combines Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) with culture-expanded pancreatic islet cells to form three-dimensional cellular clusters, termed "Neo-Islets".A single dose of Neo-Islets administered into the abdominal cavity provides durable blood sugar control, i.e., insulin-independence, without the need for potentially toxic anti-rejection drugs or encapsulation devices. Neo-Islets created by scientists at SymbioCellTech for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. Type-1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease in which the patient's own immune system attacks and destroys the islet cells in the pancreas resulting in the inability of the body to produce insulin. The standard cell therapy for diabetes is islet cell transplantation into the liver; however, this approach has serious drawbacks: (1) it requires the patient to permanently take potentially-toxic immunosuppression drugs, (2) it cannot be scaled up to treat the large number of patients that would benefit from this therapy because up to 5 donor pancreata are required for a single dose, and (3) it is expensive. In order to avoid the need for immunosuppressive agents, researchers have focused on using various devices that encapsulate islets or other insulin-producing cells. These devices, made of specially-formulated materials, are designed to protect against the immune attack yet allow for glucose-sensitive insulin release. Limited succe Continue reading >>

Jdrf’s Top Advances On Type 1 Diabetes Cure & Treatment Research

Jdrf’s Top Advances On Type 1 Diabetes Cure & Treatment Research

“JDRF made exciting progress this year in our mission of accelerating life-changing breakthroughs to cure, prevent and treat type 1 diabetes (T1D) and its complications,” explains Emily Howell from JDRF. This video with Aaron Kowalski, Ph.D. features some of JDRF’s most promising and exciting advances in type 1 diabetes cure and treatment research and technology. (Kowalski also takes questions from people in the diabetes community!) Here are a few of the notable advances mentioned in the video with details provided by Emily Howell. ViaCyte: Implantable Insulin Capsule JDRF is paving a pathway to a cure by pursuing research priorities that can improve treatment of T1D in the short term and mature over time into curative therapies. For example, ViaCyte’s VC-01 device that features pancreatic precursor cells enclosed in a device to protect them from immune attack. In January 2016 ViaCyte reported that VC-01’s precursor cells showed signs of developing into insulin-producing beta cells in one participant of the phase 1 safety trial. According to ViaCyte, although the observations are preliminary, they suggest the VC-01 device is working as designed. Read more about past ViaCyte research updates. Early Screening for Type 1 Diabetes in Children JDRF is funding the Fr1da project, in which 3-and 4-year-olds in Bavaria, Germany, are screened for early-stage markers of T1D at well-child visits. Those who test positive for the markers can enroll in a study monitoring disease progression or a trial testing whether oral insulin can stop progression of T1D. This trial raises the exciting prospect of stopping T1D in its tracks and changing the future for those at risk of developing T1D. New T1D Classification System Leading diabetes organizations along with JDRF’s leadersh Continue reading >>

Recent Advances In Understanding Type 1 Diabetes

Recent Advances In Understanding Type 1 Diabetes

Recent advances in understanding Type 1 Diabetes We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Recent advances in understanding Type 1 Diabetes Gustaf Christoffersson, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, and Matthias von Herrath Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease in which genetic and environmental factors play a key role. The triggering event is still obscure, and so are many of the immune events that follow. In this brief review, we discuss the possible role of potential environmental factors and which triggers are believed to have a role in the disease. In addition, as the disease evolves, beta cells are lost and this occurs in a very heterogeneous fashion. Our knowledge of how beta cell mass declines and our view of the diseases pathogenesis are also debated. We highlight the major hallmarks of disease, among which are MHC-I (major histocompatibility complex class I) expression and insulitis. The dependence versus independence of antigen for the immune infiltrate is also discussed, as both the influence from bystander T cells and the formation of neo-epitopes through post-translational modifications are thought to influence the course of the disease. As human studies are proliferating, our understanding of the diseases pathogenesis will increase exponentially. This article aims to shed light on some of the burning questions in type 1 diabetes research. Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes, Beta Cells, Environmental Triggers, Beta Cell Ma Continue reading >>

Diabetes Treatment Advances: Afrezza, Lucentis, Stem Cells, Artificial Pancreas, And More

Diabetes Treatment Advances: Afrezza, Lucentis, Stem Cells, Artificial Pancreas, And More

Diabetes treatment gets better every day. Scientists may be just a few years away from making an artificial pancreas that can detect and adjust your blood sugar (glucose) levels. In the meantime, new medications and insulin devices can make it easier and safer to live with diabetes. "We're getting more and more options," says Michael German, MD, clinical director of the Diabetes Center at the University of California, San Francisco. "That's good because no two people with diabetes are the same. It helps us get the right medicine for each person." Afrezza.This insulin inhaler for adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes hit the market in February 2015. You use it at the start of your meal for a boost of short-acting insulin. Unlike an older inhaler, which is the size of a can of shaving cream, Afrezza is easier to use and not as clunky to carry around. "It's quite small -- a little bigger than a whistle," says Sethu K. Reddy, MD, chief of adult diabetes at Joslin Diabetes Center at Harvard Medical School. It's probably not for you if you smoke or have a lung condition like asthma or emphysema. Medtronic MiniMed 640G.This device isn't sold in the U.S. yet, but it may go to the FDA for approval soon. It's a combined insulin pump and continuous blood sugar monitor -- and it's a step on the road toward an artificial pancreas. It automatically stops pumping insulin when your blood sugar levels trend down and starts again when they're back up. "Hypoglycemia [low blood sugar] is a real problem, particularly for people with type 1 diabetes," German says. If you have it but don't feel any symptoms, this device could be especially useful. Ranibizumab (Lucentis).Doctors already use this drug to treat the eye disease macular edema in people who don't have diabetes. But in February 20 Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes At A Crossroads!

Type 1 Diabetes At A Crossroads!

“Be at a crossroads”: to be at a stage in your life when you have to make a very important decision (1). Type 1 diabetes at a crossroads? What does that really mean? It cannot mean that progress has not been made! Indeed, in the field of diabetes, reporting of new information is clearly outpacing our ability to incorporate new findings into clinical treatment options and recommendations. Over the recent past, important new information regarding the burden of diabetes, prevention, and screening and comprehensive discussions on new therapies have been reported (2–7). However, on closer inspection, the most impressive changes in treatment and preventive strategies have been focused on type 2 diabetes. What then are the major advances in type 1 diabetes? How close are we to realizing an intervention that can delay or prevent type 1 diabetes? Are we any closer to a cure today than we were 10 years ago? What progress has been made toward the “holy grail” of offering a fully functioning artificial pancreas (AP)? To address these questions, our editorial team has elected to feature these topics in a series of articles in this issue of Diabetes Care. Specifically, articles in this issue describe research related to the present status of treatment methods and clinical outcomes in type 1 diabetes in the U.S.; discuss current concepts on the pathogenesis, prediction, and prevention of the disease; review the successes and ongoing challenges of islet transplantation; and describe a pathway for the translation of advances in diabetes technology into an AP suitable for home use by large numbers of patients (8–15). The limitations of current treatment of type 1 diabetes are addressed in the report by Miller et al. (8), which summarizes the most recent data collected on 16,6 Continue reading >>

Recent Advances In Type 1 Diabetes

Recent Advances In Type 1 Diabetes

Mervyn Kyi, John M Wentworth, Alison J Nankervis, Spiros Fourlanos and Peter G Colman Med J Aust 2015; 203 (7): 290-293. || doi: 10.5694/mja14.01691 Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells that leads to insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1D in Australia has doubled over the past 20 years. T1D treatment focuses on physiological insulin replacement, aiming for near-normal blood glucose levels. Hypoglycaemia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in T1D. Optimal T1D management is complex, and is enhanced by empowering individuals in all aspects of managing diabetes. New technologies, including insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors and sensor-augmented pumps, can assist people achieve better glycaemic control and reduce the risk of severe hypoglycaemia. Women with T1D can achieve significantly better outcomes during pregnancy and for their infants by planning for their pregnancy and by intensive glycaemic control. Several trials are underway that seek to identify the determinants of autoimmunity and to develop therapies that prevent T1D in at-risk individuals. Pancreatic and islet cell transplants are proven therapies, but are only offered to individuals with diabetes and renal failure (pancreas) or severe hypoglycaemia unawareness (islet cell transplants). Although T1D is still associated with considerable premature mortality, recent findings show that a significant improvement in life expectancy has occurred. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects around 120 000 Australians, half of whom are diagnosed in adulthood. 1 It is caused by the immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to insulin deficiency, hyperglycaemia and the risk of ketoacidosis. Antibodies directed against the beta-cell antigens insuli Continue reading >>

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Possible Cures For Type-1 In The News (december)

Here are some "bits and pieces" updates for December. Update on Dr. Faustman's Phase-II Trial of BCG Dr. Faustman's lab has published their Fall 2017 newsletter, which you can read here: This newsletter includes more information on her research, especially from the 3rd International BCG conference, The BCG Working Group, and the 2nd edition of the BCG and Autoimmunity book she edited. There are three pieces of new news there: The phase-II trial was fully enrolled in Summer of 2017. This is important because we now know when the trial will end. Since this is a five year study, they should finish collecting data in Summer of 2022 and publish before Summer of 2023. They have given BCG to the three untreated patients from their phase-I trial, so they will have data from six people to report in the future. The lab is going to be recruiting for more studies in the future, so would like to hear from anyone who is interested in participating. No details on future trials were provided. Another piece of news is that Dr. Faustman is branching out, and trying to apply BCG treatment to Fibromyalgia. This research is being done in collaboration with EpicGenetics, and they hope to start the trial in early 2018. If anything applicable to the type-1 world comes up in this research, I'll report it. Since Fibromyalgia is not generally considered an autoimmune disease, I'm not sure how much "cross pollination" of results there will be. You can read more about it here: DILfrequency Trial Completed There is a lot of research ongoing on IL-2 which is part of the immune system. About 18 months ago, I summarized all this research here: with an update here: One of those clinical trials was called "DILfrequency" and that trial has finished, and the results published. The purpose of that trial was Continue reading >>

Important Advances In Type 1 Diabetes Research

Important Advances In Type 1 Diabetes Research

Home / Conditions / Type 1 Diabetes / Important Advances in Type 1 Diabetes Research Important Advances in Type 1 Diabetes Research JDRF-funded studies on development of artificial pancreas, encapsulated islet cell therapies, and kidney preservation presented at 2015 ADA Scientific Sessions. Researchers at the University of Virginia are working to make the idea of an artificial pancreas a reality for anyone who needs it. Dr. Boris Kovatchev and his research team have developed a Diabetes Assistant Artificial Pancreas (DiAs AP) algorithm that can be used continuously in individuals with type 1 diabetes to help monitor their blood glucose levels and keep them in range all day and night. The target range is 70 180 mg/dL. According to their findings, the DiAs system is capable of reducing the amount of hypoglycemia experienced by type 1 diabetics, increasing the amount of time in range, and improving overnight control of blood glucose. Due to their promising preliminary results, research can now be expanded to a larger population, which could also include system options for use in children, teens, and pregnant women. Another focus of JDRF research has been the development of a new process that would allow for a significant decrease in the amount of time it takes researchers to create insulin-producing islet cells from human stem cells that would then be used in encapsulated islet cell therapies. Along with that, efforts are being made to pinpoint potential substances that can be used to encapsulate implanted islet cells without causing an immune response. Drs. Timothy Kieffer and Douglas Melton both claim to have developed procedures that shorten new islet cells production time by at least 70%; reducing the time from 20 24 weeks to as little as 6 weeks. The main difference Continue reading >>

Immunotherapy, Gene Editing Advances Extend To Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy, Gene Editing Advances Extend To Type 1 Diabetes

Immunotherapy, gene editing advances extend to Type 1 Diabetes December 13, 2017, Seattle Children's Research Institute Dr. Jane Buckner of the Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason and Dr. David Rawlings at Seattle Children's Research Institute are leading research to develop an immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes. Credit: Seattle Children's Advances in engineering T cells to treat cancer are paving the way for new immunotherapies targeted at autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Now, researchers are also investigating therapies that reprogram T cells to "turn down" an immune response, which may hold promise for curing type 1 diabetes, as well as a number of diseases where overactive T cells attack a person's healthy cells and organs. "Instead of stimulating the immune system to seek and destroy cancer cells , treating autoimmune conditions will require programming a patient's own T cells to tell rogue immune cells to calm down," said Dr. David Rawlings, director of the Center for Immunity and Immunotherapies at Seattle Children's Research Institute and chief of the Division of Immunology at Seattle Children's Hospital. Harnessing gene-editing techniques pioneered by Seattle Children's, Rawlings and colleagues have already made headway in equipping T cells with the instructions needed to potentially reverse type 1 diabetes . In a new $2 million research project funded by The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, researchers will leverage these recent successes using this new form of T-cell immunotherapy into first-in-human clinical trials. Developing a type 1 diabetes immunotherapy The new research continues the collaboration with Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, building on significant progress the joint research teams made af Continue reading >>

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

9 Diabetes Breakthroughs You Need To Know About

Diabetes is not just one condition - but whether your body is struggling with blood sugar levels due to type 1, or type 2, or even only during pregnancy, it's a serious condition that requires daily care and still doesn't have a cure. But scientists have been working hard to find cures, new treatments, and better management techniques for the millions of people worldwide dealing with diabetes. Here are some of the latest developments you need to know about. 1. Brand new beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when a person's immune system wipes out insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. But it turns out that another type of immature beta cell has been hiding in our pancreases all along, and scientists think it might be possible to use these 'virgin beta cells' to restore the functionality of the pancreas. 2. A preventative vaccine. Finnish researchers are about to embark on the first-ever clinical trial for a type 1 diabetes prevention vaccine. While it's not a cure for those who already have the condition, a successful vaccine could potentially prevent thousands of cases each year, as the vaccine targets a virus linked with the development of an autoimmune reaction in the pancreas. 3. A unique transplant. One woman with severe type 1 diabetes has spent a year without insulin injections thanks to an experimental transplant. Doctors implanted insulin-producing cells into a fatty membrane in the stomach cavity, and the success of the operation is paving the way towards more people receiving artificial pancreases. 4. New pancreas tissue. Earlier this year scientists announced that they reversed type 1 diabetes in mice by giving them a transplant of pancreatic tissue. The tissue was grown using stem cells from non-diabetic mice, and the success of this method suggests i Continue reading >>

Testimony From Griffin P. Rodgers, M.d., M.a.c.p. On Progress Toward A Cure For Type I Diabetes: Research And The Artificial Pancreas Before Special Committee On Aging

Testimony From Griffin P. Rodgers, M.d., M.a.c.p. On Progress Toward A Cure For Type I Diabetes: Research And The Artificial Pancreas Before Special Committee On Aging

Chairman Collins, Ranking Member Casey, and Members of the Committee, as Director of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), thank you for your invitation to testify at this hearing on type 1 diabetes. On behalf of NIDDK and the other Institutes and Centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), I am pleased to tell you about some of the significant recent scientific advances and future research opportunities in type 1 diabetes and its complications, including research supported by the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research (Special Diabetes Program). Today I would like to update you on the following topics: improving the outlook for people with type 1 diabetes; developing technologies to improve glucose control; restoring beta cell function; preventing, treating, and reversing diabetic complications; understanding the causes of type 1 diabetes toward disease prevention; testing strategies to stop the autoimmune attack and preserve beta cells; and emerging opportunities in type 1 diabetes research. The economic and personal toll diabetes takes on our nation is substantial, and biomedical research holds the promise to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure this disease. Toward improving the health of Americans affected by diabetes, NIH invests more than $1 billion a year in diabetes research. This investment has been complemented by the support and efforts of our research partners—academic institutions, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and charitable and patient advocacy groups such as JDRF (formerly the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation), the American Diabetes Association (AD Continue reading >>

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

City Of Hope Aims To Cure Type 1 Diabetes In Six Years

It’s an extraordinary goal powered by an extraordinary gift. City of Hope’s Diabetes & Metabolism Research Institute is committed to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) within six years, fueled by a $50 million funding program led by the Wanek family. It seems an audacious goal for a comprehensive cancer center, but City of Hope has a long history of groundbreaking work in diabetes. Research conducted by City of Hope led to the development of synthetic human insulin, which is still used today by many of the estimated 1.5 million Americans with T1D and 27 million with type 2 diabetes (T2D). “City of Hope is best positioned to take on this challenge,” said Robert W. Stone, president and chief executive officer of City of Hope. “This is thanks to our 40-year institutional legacy of pioneering treatment and research advances in diabetes.” The funding for the transformative research needed to embark on such an endeavor is led by a gift from the Wanek family, which owns Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest home furniture manufacturer. “City of Hope scientists’ research has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of diabetes,” said Todd Wanek, chief executive officer of Ashley Furniture, speaking on behalf of his family. “It continues today as physicians and scientists gain systemic understanding of diabetes as a complex, multifaceted disease.” Through the generosity of the family and gifts from an anonymous donor, City of Hope will be able to devote more than $50 million over the next six years to an unprecedented research effort: The Wanek Family Project for Type 1 Diabetes at City of Hope. A Multifaceted Approach The Wanek Family Project will result in the creation of a series of highly focused programs at City of Hope. The Continue reading >>

Advances In Management Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Advances In Management Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Advances in management of type 1 diabetes mellitus Ravindranath Aathira, Vandana Jain, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India Author contributions: Aathira R did the literature search and reviewed the relevant articles to contruct the body of the document; Jain V guided through the whole process and edited the final document. Correspondence to: Vandana Jain, Additional Professor, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029, India. [email protected] Telephone: +91-981-0167265 Fax: +91-011-26588663 Received 2014 May 13; Revised 2014 Jun 18; Accepted 2014 Jul 17. Copyright 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus has always posed a challenge to balance hyperglycemia control with hypoglycemia episodes. The quest for newer therapies is continuing and this review attempts to outline the recent developments. The insulin molecule itself has got moulded into different analogues by minor changes in its structure to ensure well controlled delivery, stable half-lives and lesser side effects. Insulin delivery systems have also consistently undergone advances from subcutaneous injections to continuous infusion to trials of inhalational delivery. Continuous glucose monitoring systems are also becoming more accurate and user friendly. Smartphones have also made their entry into therapy of diabetes by integrating blood glucose levels and food intake with calculated adequate insulin required. Artificial pancreas has enabled to a certain extent to close the loop between blood glucose level and insulin delivery with devices armed with meal and exercise anno Continue reading >>

Animal Research Creates Treatments And Advances For Type 1 Diabetes

Animal Research Creates Treatments And Advances For Type 1 Diabetes

Animal Research Creates Treatments and Advances for Type 1 Diabetes This is the first installment of a 3-part series covering some of the contributions animals have made to treatments for diabetes. Part 2 will be released next week. Diabetes was one of the first diseases ever described around 1500 BCE, both Indian and Egyptian physicians described a condition affecting patients urine. In 250 BCE the Greek physician Apollonius of Memphis gave it the name diabetes, meaning to pass through because of the increased urination associated with the disease. Various treatments were prescribed throughout the ages. Most were ineffective, with the notable exception of Avicenna of Persias mixture of lupine, trigonella (fenugreek), and zedoary seed this treatment had a marked effect upon the excretion of sugars in the urine. A truly effective treatment only emerged after Frederick Banting and Charles Best developed the first use of insulin in 1921. Since then, our understanding of diabetes has grown substantially, as have treatments for the disease. We now know diabetes to have two main variants type 1 and type 2, with other lesser types emerging as scientific knowledge advances. Best (left) and Banting (right) (courtesy University of Toronto) In type 1 diabetes, AKA diabetes mellitus type 1 or juvenile diabetes, the body destroys the insulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas, leading to elevated levels of blood and urine glucose . People with type 1 diabetes require the administration of insulin to substitute for the insulin that would have been produced by the beta cells and must be vigilant in maintaining blood sugar levels as both high and low blood sugar can cause severe complications. Type 1 diabetes accounts for up to 10% of all diabetes cases or roughly 80,000 children e Continue reading >>

Future Prospects - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Future Prospects - Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus - Diapedia, The Living Textbook Of Diabetes

Halting the autoimmune destruction of beta cells, ensuring their future survival and replacing cells already lost represent key future goals in type 1 diabetes research. Since much of the beta cell mass has already been lost at diagnosis, therapies must aim to salvage and replace beta cells. Currently, beta cells may be replaced by whole pancreas or islet cell transplantation, but the limited availability of human pancreas and the need for immunosuppression represent major drawbacks. Restoration of beta cells might be achieved by stem cell replacement therapy (embryonic or adult, including induced pluripotent stem cells) or by generation of new beta cells (e.g. by reprogramming alpha cells, or replication of existing beta cells). Encapsulation or other forms of sequestration from the immune system could also offer protection against rejection or recurrence of anti-islet autoimmunity without the complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Finally, many attempts have been made to grow beta cells in culture, and to devise means by which these might be introduced into the body without provoking their immune destruction. These efforts all represent biological approaches to cure, but improved improved technology (insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors and when combined an artificial pancreas) offers the prospect of control in type 1 diabetes. What does the future hold for type 1 diabetes? Yogi Berra, the famous baseball player, once said that 'it's tough to make predictions, especially about the future'. [1] This applies to any attempt to predict the future for research in type 1 diabetes. Six approaches that currently appear to offer the greatest promise of practical progress are described here. At the current time, type 1 diabetes is predictable with the measurement of Continue reading >>

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