Type 1.5 Diabetes: An Overview
Type 1.5 Diabetes (T1.5D) is also known as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA). LADA is considered by some experts to be a slowly progressive form of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) while other experts in the field consider it a separate form of Diabetes. LADA or T1.5D is sometimes thought of as T1D that is diagnosed in adults over the age of 30—T1D is commonly diagnosed in children and younger adults. T1.5D is often found along with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D): up to 25% of individuals with T1.5D also have characteristics of T2D.1 This is sometimes called “double diabetes”. Individuals with T1.5D are all eventually dependent on insulin for treatment, and have a very high risk of requiring insulin within months or years (up to six years) after the initial diagnosis. This is in contrast to people with T1D—these people tend to need insulin within days or weeks of diagnosis.2 Individuals diagnosed with T2D relatively rarely require insulin treatment. Current recommendations are to treat individuals with T1.5D immediately with insulin, though this is not universally accepted (see below). The Causes of T1.5D Just as with other forms of diabetes, we don’t truly understand the underlying cause(s) of T1.5D. There are autoimmune components in Types 1, 1.5 and 2 diabetes with some overlap in the types of antibodies formed, so it is clear that as in T1D, the immune system has become “confused” and begins to act against the beta cells of the pancreas—the source of the insulin needed to control blood sugars. Both T1D and T1.5D have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or anti-GAD antibodies. As with T1D, individuals with T1.5D tend not to be obese, whereas in T2D, most individuals are overweight or obese. Genetics and Environmental Susceptibility Individuals with T1.5D Continue reading >>
Type 1.5 | Diabetesnet.com
Wed, 11/17/2010 - 10:38 -- Richard Morris Type 1.5 is one of several names now applied to those who are diagnosed with diabetes as adults, but who do not immediately require insulin for treatment, are often not overweight, and have little or no resistance to insulin. When special lab tests are done, they are found to have antibodies, especially GAD65 antibodies, that attack their beta cells. This sort of diabetes is sometimes called Slow Onset Type 1 or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults or LADA. About 15% to 20% of people diagnosed as "Type 2" actually have this type. They are often diagnosed as Type 2 because they are older and will initially respond to diabetes medications because they have adequate insulin production. The treatment the person is first put on may be diet, exercise, and standard Type 2 medications. Since insulin resistance is minimal or non-existent, medications designed to reduce insulin resistance such as Avandia and Actos are not effective. Other meds that stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin, slow digestion of carbs, or reduce excess glucose production by the liver are often effective in controlling the blood sugar for a few years. One study done in Bruneck, Italy, published in the October, 1998, issue of Diabetes, found that 84% of the people diagnosed as Type 2 had insulin resistance, but the other 16% did not, suggesting these individuals had Type 1.5. Several other studies have shown similar results, and these studies also often show the presence of antibodies, especially those against glutamic acid decarboxylase or GAD, characteristic of Type 1 in this group of people diagnosed with Type 2. A misdiagnosis is easy to make when the person is older and responds well at first to treatment with oral medications. If someone does not clearly Continue reading >>
Do You Know The 5 Types Of Diabetes?
(BlackDoctor.org) — What is diabetes? Essentially, it’s a disorder where your body has problems producing or effectively using insulin, which can, in turn, cause many other mild to severe health problems. There are several different causes of insulin problems – managing your diabetes will depend on which type you have. Type 1 Diabetes: Little To No Insulin With type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile diabetes, your body does not produce insulin or produces very little. Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease because it occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and young adults and accounts for 5 to 10 percent of diabetes cases in the United States. Symptoms may include thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, unexplained weight loss, blurry vision, and fatigue. People who have type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections daily to make up for what their pancreas can’t produce. Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Resistance Type 2 diabetes, which used to be called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 to 95 percent of diabetes cases. While most people who develop type 2 diabetes are older, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children is on the rise. The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is largely unknown, but the disease tends to develop in people who are obese and physically inactive. People who have a family history of diabetes or a personal history of gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, certain groups, particularly African Americans, have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually develop gradually, and are similar to Continue reading >>
Type 1.5 Diabetes : Adult Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes
Do you know that up to 25 percent of people suffering from type 2 diabetes may also be suffering from type 1.5 diabetes? Type 1.5 is a mix of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes? To comprehend type 1.5 diabetes, let us first try to understand Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the bodys immune system mistakenly targets and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas resulting in the negligible production of insulin. Insulin is a key hormone responsible for maintenance of normal blood sugar levels. In the absence of insulin, the body is unable to use sugar as a source of energy resulting in elevated sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes because it requires daily administration of insulin. It is also referred to as juvenile diabetes as it is commonly diagnosed in children but may occur at any age. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes include constant thirst, general tiredness, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss and itchiness in the genitals. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes are not known. Genetic predisposition with environmental factors acting as the trigger may cause type 1 diabetes. If not treated in time it can prove fatal. Type 1 diabetes requires a regular dose of insulin. The administration of insulin starts soon after its diagnosis and continues for life.The management of blood sugar levels is vital in type 1 diabetes. To do so, the patient must track the daily sugar levels. Both high blood sugar and low blood sugar are dangerous for the patient. Along with insulin, dietary changes and exercise are also recommended. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that also results in high blood sugar level. In this type of diabetes, insulin production is higher than normal. But these higher level Continue reading >>
What Is Type 1.5 Diabetes?
When most people think of diabetes, it’s usually type 1 or type 2. Type 1 diabetes develops during childhood when the body is unable to produce needed insulin, while type 2 diabetes, by far the most common type, is typically diagnosed in adulthood and caused by the body’s learned resistence to insulin. But there seems to be a third or hybrid form of diabetes, one in which the symptoms, if any, begin to develop in adulthood and are caused by the body not producing insulin rather than a learned insulin resistance. Because this form of diabetes seems to span both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it’s called type 1.5 diabetes, though the term latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, is often used. One reason a type 1.5 diagnosis can be confusing to some in the medical community is that it doesn’t fit the traditional definition of type 1 or type 2 diabetes — it has many of the traits of type 1, but it’s diagnosed in adults. “LADA was first noted decades ago when researchers noticed that some patients — about 10 percent — with type 2 diabetes would have the same autoantibodies as patients who had type 1 diabetes,” says Abraham Thomas, MD, MPH, division head of endocrinology, diabetes, and bone and mineral disorders at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. “Since then, several studies have looked at the similarities and differences between type 1 diabetes and LADA and have found more similarities than differences, making some researchers suggest that type 1 diabetes and LADA are variations of the same disease. From the research performed to date, it seems LADA is closer to type 1 diabetes than type 2 diabetes.” What You Should Know About Type 1.5 Diabetes Like type 1, type 1.5 is completely caused by factors outside of the patient’s control. The process is Continue reading >>
Diabetes Personal Story – Finally A Diagnosis Of Lada (1.5) Diabetes
I am writing this to thank Diabetes Ireland for the help and support that was provided to me. On visiting my GP 1.5 years ago I had been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. I had been very unwell, had lost a lot of weight and was very tired all the time. Subsequently it was discovered that I have little to no feeling in my feet due to poor circulation and have vascular problems and nerve damage as a result of my diabetes. I had numerous hypos and was very distressed. My medication was not easing my symptoms and I was feeling very low. I did not put an importance on myself and looking after my symptoms. I paid a visit to Diabetes Ireland Cork Care Centre for my eye screening appointment and the staff in Cork Care Centre chatted to me about the range of services that they offer. I decided to attend the podiatry service for my feet, and I was also informed of an upcoming Community Orientated Education Programme (Code) being run by Diabetes Ireland. Visit our CODE webpage to learn more I was encouraged to attend this course by the staff, and was very pleased with the course and learnt a lot of very valuable information. Once the course was completed I attended a monthly support group which is run through the Cork centre in Diabetes Ireland. This support group offers a cup of tea and a chat for people with diabetes and there is also guest speakers who come and talk to us. From speaking to other people at the support group I realised that there was something more to my condition and I needed further help. I returned to my GP and was put on insulin and began to slowly improve. More recently I was diagnosed with Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). Only for the caring staff in Diabetes Ireland who took me under their wing and supported me by giving me the courage to seek fu Continue reading >>
Diabetes Type 1.5: Overview
There are two major types of diabetes, Type 1 ("Juvenile diabetes" or "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus") and Type 2 ("Adult onset" or "non-insulin dependent" diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This article discusses a newer classification, Type 1.5. Type 1.5 is one of several names now applied to those who are diagnosed with diabetes as adults, but who do not immediately require insulin for treatment, are often not overweight, and have little or no resistance to insulin. When special lab tests are done, they are found to have antibodies, especially GAD65 antibodies, that attack their beta cells. This sort of diabetes is sometimes called Slow Onset Type 1 or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). One study performed in Bruneck, Italy [Diabetes, October 1998] found that 84% of the people diagnosed as Type 2 had insulin resistance, but the other 16% did not, suggesting these individuals had Type 1.5 diabetes. Several other studies have shown similar results as well as the presence of antibodies, especially those against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), characteristic of Type 1 in this group of people diagnosed with Type 2. Causes and Development Type 1.5 diabetes has virtually the same underlying cause as type 1. The difference is that type 1.5 happens in people older than 25, whereas type 1 happens in childhood, the teen years and young adulthood. People as old as 80 have been diagnosed with type 1.5. Diagnosis and Tests A misdiagnosis is easy to make when the patient is older and responds well at first to treatment with oral medications. If someone does not clearly fit the model for Type 1 diabetes, they may be mistakenly placed on oral agents even though limited capacity for insulin production remains. The immune system's slower and more selective attack on the beta Continue reading >>
Type 1.5 Diabetes
Type 1.5 diabetes is a slow, progressing variation of type 1 diabetes, and a term given to people who do not need insulin instantly to manage their diabetes. The most common other name for the disease is Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), while an alternative term is late-onset type 1 diabetes. Type 1.5 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adults who have low or no resistance to insulin. Diagnosis is common in people of normal weight, but overweight people can also develop type 1.5 diabetes. While type 1.5 diabetes is a form of type 1 diabetes, it shares similarities with type 2 diabetes, particularly in its slower development of symptoms. Relationship between type 1.5 and type 1 diabetes Type 1.5 diabetes and type 1 diabetes are similar as both are characterised by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. People who develop type 1 diabetes have an immediate resistance to insulin, but those with type 1.5 diabetes can go a long time before requiring insulin. Type 1.5 diabetes is not immediately dependent upon insulin treatment following diagnosis and some doctors and endocrinologists may withhold insulin therapy until it is strictly necessary. Insulin will eventually be required to manage type 1.5 diabetes. However, in some cases it can take up to six years for people with type 1.5 diabetes to become dependent on insulin. Relationship between type 1.5 and type 2 diabetes Type 1.5 diabetes is not a form of type 2 diabetes, but misdiagnosis is common. The typical development of type 1.5 in adulthood and slow progression of the disease is often confused with type 2. People with type 1.5 will require insulin therapy within several years, a key difference in people with type 2 diabetes. Another difference is that unlike type 2 diabetes, type 1.5 dia Continue reading >>
New Type Of Diabetes Discovered - Could You Be Showing Symptoms Of Type 1.5 Not Type 2?
Researchers working on a ground-breaking study said the discovery of type 1.5 diabetes could mean adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in later life might actually be suffering from a strain more similar to type 1 diabetes. They said the new study ‘highlights the uncertainty of the current classification of diabetes’. There are two forms of the condition - type 1 diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce insulin. One in ten people with diabetes have type 1 and it usually affects children or young adults. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin produced does not work properly and can be linked to lifestyle factors such as being overweight. Type 1.5 is believed to share features with both types of diabetes and occurs mainly in adults. Fri, August 19, 2016 Diabetes is a common life-long health condition. There are 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK and an estimated 500,000 who are living undiagnosed with the condition. Scientists believe it might offer more clues to accurate diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. The type of diabetes has been informally called type 1.5 diabetes but its medical name is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). Like type 1 diabetes, LADA is an indicator that an overactive immune system is damaging the body’s insulin-producing cells. However, LADA also shares some of the same features with type 2 diabetes. For example, LADA patients do not require insulin treatments when first diagnosed – like type 2 patients. "Correctly diagnosing subtypes of diabetes is important, because it affects how physicians manage a patient's disease," said Dr Struan Grant, co-author of the study. Type 1 diabetes generally presents in childhood but may also appear first in adults while t Continue reading >>
Typical Symptoms Of A Lada?
Registration is fast, simple and absolutely free so please,join our community todayto contribute and support the site. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. While wading through the internet, something struck me, there seems to be a group of diagnosed "T2" that have similarities at diagnosis time: - weight loss through a short period of time - Past episodes of uncontrolled weight loss? - No signs of diabetic complications at diagnosis? - All other levels (colesterol, BP, etc...) quite healthy? Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a form of autoimmune (type 1 diabetes) which is diagnosed in individuals who are older than the usual age of onset of type 1 diabetes (that is, over 30 years of age at diagnosis). Alternate terms that have been used for "LADA" include Late-onset Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood, "Slow Onset Type 1" diabetes, and sometimes also "Type 1.5 [Type one-and-a-half]" diabetes. * Adult age at diagnosis (usually over 25 years of age) * Initial presentation masquerades as non-obese type 2 diabetes (does not present as diabetic ketoacidosis) * Initially can be controlled with meal planning with or without diabetes pills * Insulin dependency gradually occurs, frequently within months * Unlikely to have a family history of type 2 diabetes. ------------------------------------------------------------ LADA often does not require insulin at the time of diagnosis and may even be managed with changes in lifestyle in its early stages. However, some clinicians believe that insulin should be started at onset or as soon as possible, rather than using sulfonylureas or other diabetes pills for initial treatment. It is not clear whether early insulin therapy is of benefit to the remaining beta islet cells. Initially, a person with Continue reading >>
Type 1.5 Diabetes
A form of diabetes sometimes called “double diabetes,” in which an adult has aspects of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past three decades, diabetes researchers have gradually fine-tuned the classification of different underlying diseases that comprise diabetes. In the early 1970’s, they spoke of “juvenile-onset” and “adult-onset” diabetes to distinguish between two seemingly different forms of the disease based on when they tended to appear; however, sometimes the “juvenile” form showed up in adults. They later coined the terms “insulin-dependent” and “non-insulin-dependent” diabetes to distinguish between the two basic forms of the disease based on how they were treated rather than the age of onset. But this, too, was confusing because some people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes also used insulin. So scientists had to come up with yet another classification system. In the late 1990’s, they began classifying the two major types of diabetes by their underlying metabolic problems and called them Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells (and the resulting production of little or no insulin), and the presence of certain autoantibodies against insulin or other components of the insulin-producing system such as glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), tyrosine phosphatase, and/or islet cells. It often develops in children (although it can occur at any age) and requires insulin treatment for survival. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, usually develops in adults (although it is now occurring with alarming frequency in children), does not show signs of autoimmune disease, and usually does not require insulin to maintain survival (at l Continue reading >>
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults
Reviewed by endocrinologist Stanley S. Schwartz, MD, emeritus Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE, Chairman of the Grunberger Diabetes Institute, Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine and Molecular Medicine & Genetics at Wayne State University School of Medicine and President of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Call it diabetes type 1.5. Double diabetes. Or “slim type 2.” By any name, LADA—latent autoimmune diabetes in adults—plays by its own rules. Similar to type 1 diabetes, in LADA the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-making beta cells in the pancreas. But it progresses more slowly than type 1. Like type 2, it tends to happen after age 30. That’s just one reason LADA is usually misdiagnosed as type 2. Like typical type 2s, people with LADA may be insulin resistant; their bodies don’t respond readily to insulin’s signals to absorb blood sugar. And LADA can usually be controlled for months or years with pills and other non-insulin blood-sugar medications used by type 2s. But eventually, people with LADA need daily insulin shots or a pump to control their blood sugar.1 Researchers are still delving into LADA’s true nature. Some experts think it’s simply slow-motion type 1. Others have a hunch LADA’s got its own unique genetic signature.2 Up to 10% of people with type 2 may have LADA. “Knowing you have LADA could help your doctor choose early medications that can preserve beta cells longer. And it could help you and your doctor move you to insulin therapy sooner when blood sugar levels rise,” explains endocrinologist Stanley S. Schwartz, MD, an emeritus Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Is it LADA? Blood glucose tes Continue reading >>
I've Been Diagnosed With Lada — Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults. What's The Difference Between It And Other Forms Of Diabetes?
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow progressing form of autoimmune diabetes. Like the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, LADA occurs because your pancreas stops producing adequate insulin, most likely from some "insult" that slowly damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. But unlike type 1 diabetes, with LADA, you often won't need insulin for several months up to years after you've been diagnosed. Many researchers believe LADA, sometimes called type 1.5 diabetes, is a subtype of type 1 diabetes. Other researchers believe diabetes occurs on a continuum, with LADA falling between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. People who have LADA are usually over age 30. Because they're older when symptoms develop than is typical for someone with type 1 diabetes and because initially their pancreases still produce some insulin, people with LADA are often misdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and you're lean and physically active or you've recently lost weight without effort, talk with your doctor about whether your current treatment is still the best one for you. At first, LADA can be managed by controlling your blood sugar with diet, weight reduction if appropriate, exercise and, possibly, oral medications. But as your body gradually loses its ability to produce insulin, insulin shots will eventually be needed. More research is needed before the best way to treat LADA is established. Talk with your doctor about the best LADA treatment options for you. As with any type of diabetes, you'll need close follow-up to minimize progression of your diabetes and potential complications. Continue reading >>
Lada And Gad: Diagnosing Type 1.5 Diabetes
Researchers in Germany have further endorsed the effectiveness of a blood test that helps determine whether some adult diabetics diagnosed as type 2 diabetes are actually in the early stages of having type 1 diabetes. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA) like type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune response that that destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It is often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes because it looks and acts a lot like type 2– arising usually in adulthood and progressing slowly– but, unlike type 2 diabetes, LADA results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. A test for glutamic acid decarboxylase, or GAD, antibodies, has long been used as a method of differentiating between LADA (which is sometimes referred to at type 1.5 diabetes) and type 2 diabetes in people over age 30. With LADA as well as type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system begins to attack its own beta cells. When the immune system attacks pathogens, one weapon in its arsenal is the creation of antibodies that bind to the foreign objects and mark them as invaders. In the case of autoimmune diabetes, the body begins to create antibodies against parts of proteins that are not foreign, but rather are associated with its own beta cells. GAD is one of the earliest proteins to be targeted by antibodies, and so by testing for the presence of GAD antibodies, doctors can determine whether there is an autoimmune reaction to beta cells taking place. “At diagnosis, people with LADA usually do not require insulin right away because they are still producing some insulin,” according to Christy L. Parkin, MSN, RN, CDE, Associate Editor of Diabetes Forecast. “Because of their older age, they are often misdiagnosed as type 2 and started on oral medication Continue reading >>
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Of Adults
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles. Adults with LADA may initially be diagnosed incorrectly as having type 2 diabetes based on their age, particularly if they have risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as a strong family history or obesity. The diagnosis is typically based on the finding of hyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that islet failure rather than insulin resistance is the main cause; detection of a low C-peptide and raised antibodies against the islets of Langerhans support the diagnosis. It can only be treated with the usual oral treatments for type 2 diabetes for a certain period of time, after which insulin treatment is usually necessary, as well as long-term monitoring for complications. The concept of LADA was first introduced in 1993, though The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus does not recognize the term, instead including it under the standard definition of diabetes mellitus type 1. Signs and symptoms The symptoms of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults are similar to those of other forms of diabetes: polydipsia (excessive thirst and drinking), polyuria (excessive urination), and often blurred vision. Compared to juvenile type 1 diabetes, the symptoms develop comparatively slowly, over a period of at least six months. Diagnosis It is estimated that more than 50% of persons diagnosed as having non-obesity-related type 2 diabetes may actually have LADA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA), islet cell autoantibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibody, and zinc transporter autoantibody (ZnT8) t Continue reading >>