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Treatments For Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs and is distinct from diabetes mellitus (DM). There are 2 types of DI and both are related to the pituitary gland. Your dog will most likely present with issues with urination frequency and amount of water intake. Other diagnoses may have to be ruled out due to their similar symptoms, some of those include diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s disease, renal failure, liver disease and infection of the uterus amongst others. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an issue with your dog’s ability to control his water intake and urine output. This is a pituitary gland disorder that is rare in dogs and causes your dog’s urine to become diluted due to his inability to concentrate his urine and can lead to dehydration in your dog if left alone. Symptoms are quite simple to identify, however once again they are similar to other disorders and cannot be used solely to diagnose. Excessive urination (polyuria) Excessive drinking (polydipsia) It may appear that your dog has incontinence problems, however, it is probably the excessive urination he is experiencing Weight loss Failure to thrive Types There are two types of diabetes insipidus and both are directly related to the pituitary gland and how it interacts with the body. Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) Caused by the pituitary gland not releasing enough of the hormone called vasopressin which is an antidiuretic hormone May be due to birth defect, trauma, tumor on the pituitary gland, or possible unknown cause Found in any breed, gender and age of dog Can begin anywhere from 7 weeks to 14 years of age Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) Caused by your dog’s kidneys not responding to vasopressin that the pituitary gland produces May be due to birth defect, drugs, other metabolic disorders Found more of Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central Diabetes Insipidus The most common form of serious diabetes insipidus, central diabetes insipidus, results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH. Damage to the pituitary gland can be caused by different diseases as well as by head injuries, neurosurgery, or genetic disorders. To treat the ADH deficiency that results from any kind of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary, a synthetic hormone called desmopressin can be taken by an injection, a nasal spray, or a pill. While taking desmopressin, a person should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. The drug prevents water excretion, and water can build up now that the kidneys are making less urine and are less responsive to changes in body fluids. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus results when the kidneys are unable to respond to ADH. The kidneys' ability to respond to ADH can be impaired by drugs-like lithium, for example-and by chronic disorders including polycystic kidney disease, sickle cell disease, kidney failure, partial blockage of the ureters, and inherited genetic disorders. Sometimes the cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is never discovered. Desmopressin will not work for this form of diabetes insipidus. Instead, a person with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may be given hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or indomethacin. HCTZ is sometimes combined with another drug called amiloride. The combination of HCTZ and amiloride is sold under the brand name Moduretic. Again, with this combination of drugs, one should drink fluids only when thirsty and not at other times. Dipsogenic Diabetes insipidus Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in or damage to the thirst Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus Treatment

Diabetes Insipidus Treatment

Diabetes insipidus treatment depends on the type and therefore pathology of the condition. For example, treatment of cranial or central diabetes insipidus aims at correcting deficient levels of the fluid regulator antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin. Among those who have the nephrogenic form of disease however, ADH levels are normal and treatment is aimed at reducing diuresis or loss of excess water from the body. Treatment The general outline for treating diabetes insipidus is given below: Treatment of cranial diabetes insipidus Mild cases of cranial diabetes insipidus do not usually require any medical treatment and patients are usually advised to drink more water to compensate for the water loss. Diabetes insipidus is considered mild if around 3 to 4 litres of urine is passed every 24 hours. In more severe cases, the deficient ADH or vasopressin may be replaced by a synthetic substitute called desmopressin. Desmopressin is used most widely in the form of a nasal spray that is used once or twice a day. Also available is a tablet form of the drug but this may need to be taken more than twice a day since absorption of the tablet form is less effective than with the nasal spray. The side effects of desmopressin are usually mild and include a blocked or runny nose, stomach ache, headache, and nosebleed. However, a combination of excessive water intake along with the use of desmopressin can cause low sodium levels in the blood, a condition called hyponatremia. Thiazide diuretics are a form of medication that is commonly used to treat water retention and increase the passage of water in urine. However, in patients with diabetes insipidus, the drug raises the concentration of urine and reduces the amount of urine passed from the body. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dr Continue reading >>

Natural Treatments For Diabetes Insipidus

Natural Treatments For Diabetes Insipidus

When you think of the word diabetes, what comes to mind? Maybe you think of insulin injections, since type 1 diabetes occurs as a result of the body being unable to create insulin. Or perhaps you think of controlling high blood sugar through a low glycemic index diet? What if I told you that the name diabetes has nothing to do with blood sugar control or insulin injections? Let me explain… What is Diabetes Insipidus? In general, diabetes is a term that causes the body to produce a large amount of urine. Excessive urination is a symptom that is highly characteristic of all types of diabetes, especially diabetes insipidus. It is a chronic endocrine disorder that is distinctive of intense thirst—known as polydipsia. In other words, this form of diabetes has absolutely nothing to do with blood sugar or insulin. Ad There is a cancer-killing nutrient in your kitchen, right now, that acts like a "smart bomb" against cancer cells. But this is just the tip of the iceberg. I'm Dr. Victor Marchione and I'm revealing this and 16 other amazing "healing foods" in my newest report that you can see here. Causes of Diabetes Insipidus There are two main types of diabetes insipidus—nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and central diabetes insipidus (neurogenic diabetes insipidus). Central diabetes insipidus results from a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)—also called vasopressin—it’s basically a hormone that promotes the retention of water by the kidneys. It can be characterized by pituitary gland damage caused by inflammation, surgery, a tumor, a head injury, or an illness such as meningitis. The cause is usually genetic with children. Also, in some cases the cause of central diabetes insipidus is not known. On the other hand, your body will often make enough vasopressin with neph Continue reading >>

Treatment

Treatment

Treatments for diabetes insipidus aim to reduce the amount of urine your body produces. Depending on the type of diabetes insipidus you have, there are several ways of treating your condition and controlling your symptoms. Cranial diabetes insipidus Mild cranial diabetes insipidus may not require any medical treatment. Cranial diabetes insipidus is considered mild if you produce approximately 3-4 litres of urine over 24 hours. If this is the case, you may be able to ease your symptoms by increasing the amount of water you drink, to avoid dehydration. Your GP or endocrinologist (specialist in hormone conditions) may advise you to drink a certain amount of water every day, usually at least 2.5 litres. However, if you have more severe cranial diabetes insipidus, drinking water may not be enough to control your symptoms. As your condition is due to a shortage of vasopressin (AVP), your GP or endocrinologist may prescribe a treatment that takes the place of AVP, known as desmopressin (see below). Desmopressin Desmopressin is a manufactured version of AVP that's more powerful and more resistant to being broken down than the AVP naturally produced by your body. It works just like natural AVP, stopping your kidneys producing urine when the level of water in your body is low. Desmopressin can be taken as a nasal spray, in tablet form or as a form that melts in your mouth, between your gum and your lip. If you're prescribed desmopressin as a nasal spray, you'll need to spray it inside your nose once or twice a day, where it's quickly absorbed into your bloodstream. If you're prescribed desmopressin tablets, you may need to take them more than twice a day. This is because desmopressin is absorbed into your blood less effectively through your stomach than through your nasal passage Continue reading >>

Clinical Results Of Treatment Of Diabetes Insipidus With Drugs Of The Chlorothiazide Series

Clinical Results Of Treatment Of Diabetes Insipidus With Drugs Of The Chlorothiazide Series

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. DIABETES insipidus ordinarily is due to lack of the neurohypophyseal hormone, vasopressin, which enables the kidneys to form concentrated urine. Treatment consists of administering material obtained from animal sources intranasally, sublingually or intramuscularly. To control polyuria adequately with the first two routes, treatment must be repeated on the average four times daily whereas the preparation for intramuscular use, in which the hormone is tannated and suspended in oil, provides relief for approximately forty-eight hours. Less commonly, a nephrogenic type of the disease is encountered. Here, endogenous hormone is formed in abundance, but the kidney fails to respond to it. Moreover, . . . *From the Medical Research Council, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Cambridge. We are indebted to Professor R. A. McCance, in whose department these observations were made. Miss Elizabeth Colburn provided valuable nursing assistance. Most of the analyses were carried out by Miss Janet R. Adams and Mr. Brian Misson. Drug supplies were kindly made available by Dr. Karl H. Beyer, Jr., of Merck Sharp and Dohme, by Dr. Thomas Hanley, of Ciba Pharmaceutical Products, and by Dr. J. Warwick Buckler, of Boots Pure Drug Company. We are particularly indebted to Professor C. E. Dent, Professor M. L. Rosenheim and Dr. L. E. Cole for allowing us to make observations on their patients. Sir Wilfrid Sheldon and Dr. Michael Simpkiss have been most generous in permitting us to make note of the results of chlorothiazide treatment in the series of patients with congenital nephrogenic disease under their care. One of us (J.D.C.) acknowledges the support of the Commonwealth Fund of New York, which made possible the fe Continue reading >>

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Central Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) results from a deficiency of vasopressin (ADH) due to a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder (central DI [CDI]) or from resistance of the kidneys to vasopressin (nephrogenic DI [NDI]). Polyuria and polydipsia develop. Diagnosis is by water deprivation test showing failure to maximally concentrate urine; vasopressin levels and response to exogenous vasopressin help distinguish CDI from NDI. Treatment is with desmopressin or lypressin. Nonhormonal treatment includes use of diuretics (mainly thiazides) and vasopressin-releasing drugs, such as chlorpropamide. The posterior lobe of the pituitary is the primary site of vasopressin storage and release, but vasopressin is synthesized within the hypothalamus. Newly synthesized hormone can still be released into the circulation as long as the hypothalamic nuclei and part of the neurohypophyseal tract are intact. Only about 10% of neurosecretory neurons must remain intact to avoid central diabetes insipidus. The pathology of central diabetes insipidus thus always involves the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus or a major portion of the pituitary stalk. Onset of central diabetes insipidus may be insidious or abrupt, occurring at any age. The only symptoms in primary central diabetes insipidus are polydipsia and polyuria. In secondary central diabetes insipidus, symptoms and signs of the associated lesions are also present. Enormous quantities of fluid may be ingested, and large volumes (3 to 30 L/day) of very dilute urine (specific gravity usually < 1.005 and osmolality < 200 mOsm/L) are excreted. Nocturia almost always occurs. Dehydration and hypovolemia may develop rapidly if urinary losses are not continuously replaced. Central diabetes insipidus must be differentiated from other causes Continue reading >>

Medications For Diabetes Insipidus

Medications For Diabetes Insipidus

This medication may not be approved by the FDA for the treatment of this condition. Prescription Only / Over the Counter Rx Prescription Only OTC Over the Counter Rx/OTC Prescription or Over the Counter Pregnancy A Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters). B Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. X Studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities and/or there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience, and the risks involved in use in pregnant women clearly outweigh potential benefits. N FDA has not classified the drug. Controlled Substances Act Schedule N Is not subject to the Controlled Substances Act. 1 Has a high potential for abuse. Has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. There is a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. 2 Has a high potential for abuse. Has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions. Abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Most people have heard of the two main types of diabetes. But did you know the name has nothing to do with high blood sugar? It's a general term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine. And that’s just what, diabetes insipidus does. This condition makes you extra thirsty. As a result, you pee -- a lot. Your body makes a substance called antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It’s produced in a part of your brain called the hypothalamus and stored in your pituitary gland. It tells your kidneys to hold onto water, which makes your urine more concentrated. When you’re thirsty or slightly dehydrated, ADH levels rise. Your kidneys reabsorb more water and put out concentrated urine. If you’ve had plenty to drink, ADH levels fall and what comes out is clear and dilute. When your body doesn’t make enough ADH, the condition is called central diabetes insipidus. If you make enough but your kidneys can't respond to it, you have nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In either form, the result is the same. Your kidneys can't retain water, so even if you’re dehydrated, they'll put out a lot of pale, or diluted urine. When your kidneys can’t conserve water, you’ll: Get really thirsty Pee a lot -- this is known as polyuria Some people get dehydrated. If you lose too much water, you could have: Lethargy Muscle pains Irritability If you have this condition, you’ll probably wind up at the doctor for help with your thirst and constant need for a bathroom. To diagnose you, the doctor will do a series of blood and urine tests that may take several hours. You’ll go without water the whole time, so you’ll get thirstier. Your doctor will measure the sodium in your blood and pee. He may give you an ADH substitute to see if your kidneys respond by concentrating your ur Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which your ability to control the balance of water within your body is not working properly. Your kidneys are not able to retain water and this causes you to pass large amounts of urine. Because of this, you become more thirsty and want to drink more. There are two different types of diabetes insipidus: cranial and nephrogenic. Cranial diabetes insipidus may only be a short-term problem in some cases. Treatment includes drinking plenty of fluids so that you do not become lacking in fluid in the body (dehydrated). Treatment with medicines may also be needed for both types of diabetes insipidus. A note about thirst and water balance in your body Getting the balance right between how much water your body takes in and how much water your body passes out is very important. This is because a large proportion (about 70%) of your body is actually water. Also, water levels in your body help to control the levels of some important salts, particularly sodium and potassium. Your body normally controls (regulates) water balance in two main ways: By making you feel thirsty and so encouraging you to drink and take more water in. Through the action of a chemical (hormone) called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which controls the amount of water passed out in your urine. ADH is also known as vasopressin. It is made in a part of your brain called the hypothalamus. It is then transported to another part of your brain, the pituitary gland, from where it is released into your bloodstream. After its release, ADH has an effect on your kidneys. It causes your kidneys to pass out less water in your urine (your urine becomes more concentrated). So, if your body is lacking in fluid (dehydrated), your thirst sensation will be triggered, encouraging you to drink. As Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

Diabetes Insipidus In Dogs

What is Diabetes insipidus? There are two types of diabetes in dogs. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called “sugar diabetes” and results from a disruption of pancreas function and abnormal regulation of blood sugar. The term, meaning “sweetened with honey,” originated from the fact that the urine of these patients was “sweet” due to high amounts of sugar excreted from the body. Diabetes insipidus (DI) gets its name from the fact that the urine of these patients is dilute enough to be “tasteless” or “insipid.” Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in dogs, and is characterized by excessive thirst/drinking and the production of enormous volumes of extremely dilute urine. Some dogs may produce so much urine that they become incontinent (incapable of controlling their urine outflow). The irony of this disease is that despite drinking large volumes of water, the dog can become dehydrated from urinating so much. My dog is drinking and urinating a lot. Is DI the likely cause? There are many causes of increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urine production (polyuria), including diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, liver problems, and kidney disease, to name a few. It is essential that several diagnostic tests be performed to determine the cause of your dog’s problem. How is DI diagnosed? Part of diagnosing DI involves first eliminating other potential explanations for increased drinking and increased urinating. Typical laboratory testing will include a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry panel to evaluate liver and kidney parameters and blood sugar, and a urinalysis. The urine concentration (specific gravity) is quite low in these dogs. A more advanced test involves calculating normal daily water intake, measuring how much the dog is truly drinking Continue reading >>

Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Of Diabetes Insipidus

Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Of Diabetes Insipidus

There are two main types of diabetes insipidus. Although they are both related to an antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin, they each have separate causes. Central diabetes insipidus, also known as neurogenic or vasopressin-sensitive, occurs when the brain’s pituitary gland does not secrete enough of the hormone vasopressin or does not produce it at all. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused when there are normal production levels of vasopressin, but there is an impaired response to the hormone from the kidneys. Diabetes insipidus occurs when the body fails to regulate how it handles fluids. In healthy individuals, excess body fluids are excreted from the bloodstream by the kidneys. The bladder temporarily stores the liquid waste, or urine, until it is ready to be discharged. Normal functioning kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when the body is dehydrated or when sweating a lot, such as during exercise. Vasopressin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and is stored in the pituitary gland. It governs how much fluid is excreted by the kidneys. Diabetes insipidus occurs when there are imbalance levels of vasopressin in the body. 3 Foods to Throw Out Cut a bit of belly bloat each day, by avoiding these 3 foods nucific.com Polyuria, or an excessive output of urine, is the main symptom of diabetes insipidus. In most cases, polyuria causes an increased thirst that does not seem to be quenched no matter how much a person drinks. This contributes to urine output, which is already a common symptom of the condition. The need to urinate frequently can be disruptive to sleep and other daily schedules such as working or sitting in a classroom for several hours during the day. Depending on how severe the condition is, people with diabetes insipidus may lose as muc Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

On this page: What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person's kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day. As a result, a person with diabetes insipidus may feel the need to drink large amounts of liquids. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus—which includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes—are unrelated, although both conditions cause frequent urination and constant thirst. Diabetes mellitus causes high blood glucose, or blood sugar, resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. People with diabetes insipidus have normal blood glucose levels; however, their kidneys cannot balance fluid in the body. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys normally filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. How is fluid regulated in the body? A person's body regulates fluid by balancing liquid intake and removing extra fluid. Thirst usually controls a person’s rate of liquid intake, while urination removes most fluid, although people also lose fluid through sweating, breathing, or diarrhea. The hormone vasopressin, also called antidiuretic hormone, con Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus Types Signs Diagnosis Treatment Personal Stories Ziggy, Puff, & Simone the cats Sonny the Samoyed Ferris Resources References What is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder of water balance. The animal is unable to concentrate urine, so the urine volume is very high and the urine is dilute. "Insipid" means tasteless -- referring to the dilute urine. This disease is rare in both dogs and cats. The condition is usually permanent, and the prognosis is good. Without treatment, dehydration leads to stupor, coma, and death. This is a completely different disease from Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a disorder of sugar metabolism involving the hormone insulin. We include the information here because people are often looking for resources and we had some owners of pets with DM who also have experience with DI. Types of diabetes insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the pituitary gland does not secrete enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [also called vasopressin]. This type of DI may be the caused by a congenital defect, trauma, a tumor on the pituitary gland, or unknown causes. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the kidneys do not respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other metabolic disorders polyuria (excessive urination) polydipsia (excessive drinking) Diagnosis includes ruling out other diseases such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism (in cats), renal failure, liver disease, pyometra (infection of the uterus), and other disorders. Images of the pituitary gland may be taken to determine if there is a tumor. A water deprivation test or an ADH trial with DDAVP may be done. These tests det Continue reading >>

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Tweet Diabetes insipidus, often shortened to DI, is a rare form of diabetes that is not related to blood sugar-related diabetes mellitus, but does share some of its signs and symptoms. Diabetes insipidus is simply excessive urination (polyuria) and complications thereof, caused by an antidiuretice hormone called a vasopressin. Read on to find out more about what diabetes insipidus is, how it affects the body, the different forms of the disease, and how it is diagnosed and treated. What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus? Diabetes Insipidus leads to frequent urination, and this is the most common and clear symptom. In extreme cases, urination can be in excess of 20 litres per day. A secondary symptom is increased thirst, as a result of passing so much water. If this is not met, then dehydration can occur which, in turn, can lead to: Cracked skin Confusion Dizziness and even Unconsciousness Children suffering from the condition may become irritable or listless, with fever and vomiting also possible. How does diabetes insipidus compare with diabetes mellitus? Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus should not be confused. The two conditions are unrelated, with diabetes insipidus a completely different type of illness. Diabetes mellitus is also far more common. Diabetes mellitus occurs due to insulin resistance or insulin deficiency and subsequent high blood glucose levels. Diabetes Insipidus on the other hand develops as a result of the stilted production of a hormone in the brain, which is released to stop the kidneys producing so much urine in order to retain water. Without this hormone, water is not retained and the kidneys constantly work to their maximum capacity. The word "Mellitus" tagged onto the main form of diabetes comes from an old word roughly meaning "to Continue reading >>

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