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Topics In The Prevention, Treatment And Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes

Topics In The Prevention, Treatment And Complications Of Type 2 Diabetes

DOI: 10.5772/1542 Edited Volume Type 2 diabetes is estimated to affect 120 million people worldwide- and according to projections from the World Health Organization this number is expected to double over the next two decades. Novel, cost-effective strategies are needed to reverse the global epidemic of obesity which is driving the increased occurrence of type 2 diabetes and to less the burden of diabetic vascular complications. In the current volume, Topics in the Prevention, Treatment and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes, experts in biology and medicine from four different continents contribute important information and cutting-edge scientific knowledge on a variety of topics relevant to the management and prevention of diabetes and related illnesses. Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Havin Continue reading >>

A List Of 12 Perfect Ideas For A Dissertation On Diabetes

A List Of 12 Perfect Ideas For A Dissertation On Diabetes

Selection Of 12 Interesting Dissertation Ideas About Diabetes Writing a paper about diabetes is something that pretty much anyone can be able to handle these days. When you go through this site, you will come across a lot of useful material that will eventually help you get nothing but the best information that will eventually help you make sure the paper you write will be one of the best you have ever worked on so far. Remember that diabetes is something that is at the moment pretty common, to the extent that it would actually be a good idea for you to know how to or what to write in this paper, so that in the long run you can easily get to understand how the body system works, or reacts to such attacks. For those who have never worked on a paper like this one before, the following are some interesting ideas that you can use for your paper: Discuss some of the benefits to those who live with diabetes, of partaking in a low-carbohydrate and high fat diet Discuss the concept of diabetes in pediatrics, and why it is important to undergo this study from time to time Explain the threat and challenge of obesity and diabetes in young children today, highlighting some of the areas where parents are failing in their role as guardians to circumvent the situation Explain some of the challenges that people who are living with diabetes have to go through, particularly when it comes to getting access to the information and medical care that they need Explain some of the common complications that arise to those who are dealing with diabetes, and how these impact the prevalence of the same. Put forward measures that can be put in place to alleviate the situation Discuss the challenge of diabetes in Asian American adolescents Explain how self-management can come in handy as a means of Continue reading >>

Overview

Overview

The importance of both diabetes and these comorbidities will continue to increase as the population ages. Therapies that have proven to reduce microvascular and macrovascular complications will need to be assessed in light of the newly identified comorbidities. Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide. Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level. Several studies have suggested that process indicators such as foot exams, eye exams, and measurement of A1c may not be sensitive enough to capture all aspects of quality of care that ultimately result in reduced morbidity. New diabetes quality-of-care indicators are currently under development and may help determine whether appropriate, timely, evidence-based care is linked to risk factor reduction. In addition, the scientific evid Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Selected Scientific Articles by Our Researchers Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot produce or properly use insulin. Normally, insulin brings sugar out of the bloodstream and into cells. If the body cannot make insulin or does not respond to it, the sugar stays in the bloodstream. As a result of high blood sugar levels, damage eventually occurs to blood vessels and organs. More than 29 million Americans have diabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and 86 million more Americans are at risk to develop the disease. Many Veterans have the disease, including some who developed it as a result of being exposed to herbicides while serving in Vietnam. Symptoms of diabetes include blurry vision, excessive thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, hunger, and weight loss. Persons with diabetes need to have their hemoglobin A1C levels checked every three to six months. A1c is a measure of average blood glucose during the previous two to three months. It is one of the markers, along with blood pressure and cholesterol control, of good diabetes care. There are three major types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. In this type of diabetes the body makes little or no insulin, so daily injections of insulin are needed. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to insulin. More than 90 percent of adults with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. More are at risk due to overweight or obesity. The third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes, high blood glucose that develops during pregnancy in a woman who does not have diabetes. Diabetes affects nearly 25 percent of VA's pa Continue reading >>

16 Hot Topics In Diabetes Research Today

16 Hot Topics In Diabetes Research Today

Diabetic Living / Monitoring / Doctor Visits We've tapped some of the top researchers, clinicians, and advisers in diabetes care -- including our editorial advisory board members -- to focus on the most current and useful findings. Use this news to live better with diabetes today and in the years to come. By Lori Brookhart-Schervish and Hope S. Warshaw, R.D., CDE The latest statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reveal an eye-opening number: 24 million Americans are now living with diabetes -- 18 million have been diagnosed and 6 million have diabetes but they haven't yet been diagnosed. Statistics show that 90-95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2. Research studies and clinical trials are going on across the United States and around the world, sparking awareness, debate, and hope. The U.S. government spends more than $1 billion a year on diabetes research. For close to 70 years, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) has dedicated its resources to research, educate, legislate, and fight for progress and against discrimination. The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF), founded in 1970 by parents of children with type 1 diabetes, is another influential organization dedicated to type 1 research and advocacy, including advancements in drug therapies and stem cell research. Read on for updates on some of the biggest advances and findings in diabetes today. An international expert panel now recommends the A1C test -- the measure of blood glucose over the past two to three months -- to diagnose diabetes in everyone except pregnant women. Until now, diabetes was diagnosed by checking fasting or random blood glucose. Research revealed that while one or more blood glucose tests can just happen to be elevated, a high Continue reading >>

A Selection Of Excellent Topic Ideas For A Research Paper On Diabetes Mellitus

A Selection Of Excellent Topic Ideas For A Research Paper On Diabetes Mellitus

You will have to collect the information, digest it, and set out your thoughts in written form when composing a research paper on diabetes mellitus. The first thing you should do though is choosing an interesting and relevant topic for your study. Worthy Research Paper Topics on Diabetes An overview of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus. What are the complications of diabetes mellitus and is it possible to avoid them? Are lifestyle factors and genetics the only causes of diabetes? An overview of the preventive measures for diabetes mellitus. Could education about this disease lower diabetes rates? Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. Sedentary lifestyle: the main cause of diabetes in the West? On the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Proximal diabetic neuropathy as the main cause of muscle wasting and weakness. Stress and poor diet as the main causes of type 2 diabetes. Is there a link between hearing loss and diabetes? What are the lifelong risks of gestational diabetes? What are the main hypoglycemia prevention strategies? What kind of support do people with diabetes have? How does diabetes change a person’s life? On the importance of nutritional education in schools. On the effects of diabetes on the socioeconomic status of the person. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. On the prevention of diabetes in women. You may also narrow down your diabetes topics a little bit to make it sound original. “Sedentary lifestyle and fast food as the main causes of rising diabetes rates in America” is a good example of a narrow topic. If you need more information or help, you can check here. APA format is very popular for such studies, so you should carefully read its guidelines before writing. In your APA research paper on diabetes, you will have to use active voice Continue reading >>

Major Topics In Type 1 Diabetes

Major Topics In Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (TD1) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in children and can occur at any age. Incidences of T1D have steadily increased worldwide, and it is largely considered an autoimmune disorder resulting from the specific destruction of pancreatic beta-cells producing insulin. However, T1D pathophysiology is still not completely understood, and although insulin and other therapies... Type 1 diabetes (TD1) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in children and can occur at any age. Incidences of T1D have steadily increased worldwide, and it is largely considered an autoimmune disorder resulting from the specific destruction of pancreatic beta-cells producing insulin. However, T1D pathophysiology is still not completely understood, and although insulin and other therapies ameliorate the manifestations of the disease, no cure is currently available. This book has been written by widely acknowledged experts, with each chapter providing unique information on emerging aspects of T1D. Because a large body of information has been available regarding T1D, this book highlights lesser explored topics linked to the subject using important and recent knowledge that presages directions for further research. Current possibilities to forestall diabetic complications are also explored. Continue reading >>

Diabetes | Rand

Diabetes | Rand

Vision loss for diabetes patients is more a result of gaps in care than of simple biological sequence. A spatial "doubly robust" estimator can minimize geographically related risk difference among racial/ethnic groups in health disparities studies. A multi-disciplinary intervention using a Chronic Care Model framework to prevent a secondary stroke among underserved populations will be tested in a randomized controlled trial. Policies to promote early diabetes detection among Medicaid patients receiving antipsychotic medication could reduce the rate of diabetes over ten years, but would likely require higher spending. Higher-priced providers do not necessarily provide higher-quality care. Targeting parents' consumption of sodaand the availability of soda at homemay be an important step in reducing youth consumption of soda. Current methods for determining whether a provider performs above or below a certain threshold do not always produce accurate results. Regardless of statin use, postmenopausal women with new-onset diabetes had a significantly increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In young adults with European heritage, a blood marker used to classify type 2 diabetes, HbA1c, was found to be significantly associated with two variants of a genetic region involved in metabolic control, SH2B1. The Be There San Diego Data for Quality (DFQ) Group created a safe venue for competing health care organizations in San Diego County to share performance data on quality-of-care measures, insights, lessons learned, and challenges they face. Patients whose type 2 diabetes went into remission after bariatric surgery experienced a 29 percent reduction in risk of microvascular disease incidence for up to seven years after surgery. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Research Papers

Diabetes Research Papers

Diabetes research papers discuss the causes of diabetes and how it affects public health. This is a research paper topic outline on Diabetes. The research describes potential factors that may contribute to the need for more medical and health research into the problem. Our writers at Paper Masters want to help you succeed in your medical health career. Therefore, we give you tips on how to write a research paper on diabetes. Your research paper will want to include the following information to fully cover the disease of diabetes. Describe at least 3 determinants or factors that affect the incidence of diabetes in an individual, such as: Discuss how these factors may contribute to the problem of diabetes. Include in the research paper a brief description of exactly what diabetes is Give statistics on the number of people affected by diabetes Diabetes, at its simplest explanation, is a condition in which the body cannot metabolize food properly. Normally, food is processed when the body converts it to sugar and it enters the bloodstream. The pancreas produces insulin which is needed for the sugar to enter cell tissue where is then converted to energy. People with diabetes are either unable to produce insulin or cannot use it properly ( insulin resistance) . Your review of diabetes will want to explain many important issues of the illness, such as the following: The disease will be described, including how diabetes affects the body. The causes of diabetes and risk factors will be discussed. A discussion of diet for the purpose of disease management will be included. Research regarding cures for diabetes, both type I and type II . Type 1 diabetes is the form where the pancreas does not produce insulin. It was formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile- Continue reading >>

Diabetes - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Diabetes - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Diabetes is defined as failure of the -cells of the pancreas to secrete sufficient insulin to satisfy body requirements and is one of the most common complications of obesity (see 6.19 Diabetes/Syndrome X). JAMES M. SHIKANY DRPH, PA, in Handbook of Clinical Nutrition (Fourth Edition) , 2006 Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, amputations, and end-stage renal disease in the United States. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in persons with diabetes. Careful dietary management can improve quality of life and lessen the risk of complications in these patients. Regarding nutritional management of diabetes, multiple misconceptions and recommendations with little supporting evidence abound. An example is the endorsement of specially formulated diabetic or dietetic foods for which there are is no evidence of significant clinical benefit for important diabetic outcomes. This chapter will focus on evidence-based recommendations for the nutritional management of diabetes. Syed Khalid Imam FCPS, in Glucose Intake and Utilization in Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes , 2015 Diabetes education is a fundamental and integral part of diabetes management. Education of patients should be an active and concerted effort involving the physician, nutritionist, diabetes educator, and other health professionals. Moreover, diabetes education needs to be a lifetime exercise and cannot be accomplished in one or two visits. The education should include explanations of diabetes and its potential acute and chronic complications and how they can be recognized early and prevented or treated. SMBG should be emphasized, especially in insulin-requiring diabetic patients, and instructions must be given on proper testing and recording of data. Patients taking insulin should be taught ho Continue reading >>

Current Topics In Diabetes Mellitus

Current Topics In Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Authors: Stefano Del Prato, MD, Steven V. Edelman, MD, Satish K. Garg, MD This activity is intended for physicians and pharmacists. This article reviews 3 current topics in the management of diabetes. The first presentation outlines new approaches in the treatment of diabetes in special populations, the second discusses the use of insulin in type 2 diabetes, and the third reviews the cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones beyond glycemic control. On completion of this continuing medical education offering, participants will be able to: Describe the physiologic causes of type 2 diabetes. Outline the metabolic benefits of targeting postprandial glucose levels and insulin resistance. Describe new approaches to managing diabetes in special populations. Review the appropriate use of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Discuss the effects of thiazolidinediones on cardiovascular risk factors. Medical Education Collaborative, a nonprofit education organization, is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. Medical Education Collaborative designates this educational activity for a maximum of 1 hour in Category 1 credit towards the AMA Physician's Recognition Award. Each physician should claim only those hours of credit that he/she actually spent in the educational activity. Medical Education Collaborative, Inc. has assigned 1 contact hours (0.10 CEUs) of continuing pharmaceutical education credit. ACPE universal program number: 815-999-01-051-H04. Certificate is defined as a record of participation. For questions regarding the content of this activity, contact the accredited provider for this CME/CE activity noted above. For technical assistance, contact [emailprot Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Contents What is diabetes? How can you get it? What problems does it cause? What happens next? How to help your friend What some kids who live with diabetes say Did you know? What is diabetes? Diabetes happens when someone's body does not have enough insulin. A car needs fuel to give it the energy to keep working. Our bodies need fuel to give them the energy to keep working. We get the fuel from our food. Carbohydrates in food get changed into glucose, the main energy that our bodies use. This change happens in our gut and in our liver. Enzymes help this change (they are not the same enzymes as the ones in washing powder). These enzymes come from several different parts of our body including the pancreas [say pan-kree-ass]. The glucose travels around our bodies inside blood vessels but it cannot be used as energy until it gets into our body cells. Insulin is the key that lets the glucose go through the cell wall into our cells. Insulin is a hormone. If there is not enough insulin there can be a lot of glucose travelling around in the blood, but the cells do not have enough energy to work well, which makes people sick. Lots of small clumps of cells in the pancreas make insulin. These cells are called 'islets' because they are like little islands in the pancreas. The rest of the pancreas makes enzymes. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Children and young people usually get type 1, sometimes called 'juvenile diabetes'. (Juvenile [say joo-ven-ile is a word that means child or young person). People who get diabetes when they are older usually get type 2 diabetes. But more young people are getting Type 2 diabetes because they are overweight or obese. Dogs can get diabetes too! How can you get it? Type 1 diabetes happens when the 'islet' cells in the pan Continue reading >>

What's New In Endocrinology And Diabetes Mellitus

What's New In Endocrinology And Diabetes Mellitus

The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. All topics are updated as new evidence becomes available and our peer review process is complete. The following represent additions to UpToDate from the past six months that were considered by the editors and authors to be of particular interest. The most recent What's New entries are at the top of each subsection. DIABETES MELLITUS ACE inhibitors and statins do not prevent moderately increased albuminuria or progression of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes (November 2017) Angiotensin inhibition and statin therapy have been proposed as treatments to prevent microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, although evidence has not supported this hypothesis. In a 2x2 placebo-controlled trial of quinapril and atorvastatin in 443 normoalbuminuric and normotensive adolescents with type 1 diabetes, neither drug reduced the incidence of moderately increased albuminuria (primary outcome), and neither drug significantly reduced the progression of retinopathy (an exploratory outcome) [1]. Thus, UpToDate continues to recommend that angiotensin inhibition and statin therapy not be used for primary prevention of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes. (See "Moderately increased albuminuria (microalbuminuria) in type 1 diabetes mellitus", section on 'ACE inhibitors or ARBs' and "Diabetic retinopathy: Prevention and treatment", section on 'Prevention'.) Continuous glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabe Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that lead to high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia), which is caused when the body does not make any or enough insulin, or does not use insulin well. Because diabetes is a relatively common condition, practicing dentists are likely to encounter it frequently. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas create little to no insulin, and accounts for 5% to 10% of all diabetes cases. In contrast, Type 2 diabetes accounts for 85% to 90% or more of diabetes cases and is one of the commonest chronic diseases, characterized by decreased response of target tissues to insulin, dysregulation of insulin production, or a combination of both. As with any patient, the dentist should review the patients medical history, take vital signs, and evaluate for oral signs and symptoms of inadequately controlled diabetes, which may be common. Oral manifestations of uncontrolled diabetes can include: xerostomia; burning sensation in the mouth; impaired/delayed wound healing; increased incidence and severity of infections; secondary infection with candidiasis; parotid salivary gland enlargement; gingivitis; and/or periodontitis. Although patients with diabetes usually recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and self-intervene before changes in or loss of consciousness occurs, staff should be trained to recognize the signs and treat patients who have hypoglycemia. In such cases, a glucometer should be used to test patient blood glucose levels, and every dental office should have a protocol for managing hypoglycemia in both conscious and unconscious patients. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that leads to high levels of blood glucose and is caused when the body does not make Continue reading >>

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