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Thyroid And Diabetes Connection

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Thyroid

The Connection Between Diabetes And Your Thyroid

A new study from the Netherlands suggests that having too little thyroid hormone circulating in the blood – even at low-normal levels – raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, especially in patients who already have pre-diabetes. Risk factors for prediabetes A diagnosis of prediabetes usually occurs when one’s blood sugar level comes back elevated and further screening confirms the elevated level – which nevertheless is still shy of a full diabetes diagnosis. Prediabetes is considered a high-risk state for developing diabetes. Risk factors for prediabetes include: Being overweight or being diagnosed with obesity Having a waist size greater than 35 inches (women) or 40 inches (men) Being sedentary Being older than age 45 Having a family history of diabetes (parent, sibling) African-Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders all have a higher risk of prediabetes History of polycystic ovary syndrome Having certain sleep disorders like sleep apnea (often associated with obesity) Other conditions “linked” to prediabetes include: High blood pressure Low levels of HDL (good cholesterol) High levels of circulating triglycerides Clearly some of these risk factors are modifiable, while others should inspire you to be committed to a healthy lifestyle to help counterbalance the strong risk factors that you can’t change. Understanding your thyroidYour thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits at the lower portion of the front of your neck. It has two lobes, and when it is a normal size your doctor cannot feel it. The gland secretes several hormones. During infancy and childhood having a healthy thyroid is crucial to normal brain development. Hormones produced by the thyroid gland also influence metabolism, growth and develo Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes Mellitus

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes Mellitus

Copyright © 2011 Mirella Hage et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Studies have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders tend to coexist in patients. Both conditions involve a dysfunction of the endocrine system. Thyroid disorders can have a major impact on glucose control, and untreated thyroid disorders affect the management of diabetes in patients. Consequently, a systematic approach to thyroid testing in patients with diabetes is recommended. 1. Introduction Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the two most common endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice. Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other and associations between both conditions have long been reported [1, 2]. On one hand, thyroid hormones contribute to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and pancreatic function, and on the other hand, diabetes affects thyroid function tests to variable extents. This paper demonstrates the importance of recognition of this interdependent relationship between thyroid disease and diabetes which in turn will help guide clinicians on the optimal screening and management of these conditions. 2. Frequency of Thyroid Disorders in the General Population and in Patients with Diabetes Thyroid disorders are widely common with variable prevalence among the different populations. Data from the Whickham survey conducted in the late 1970s in the north of England revealed a prevalence of 6.6% of thyroid dysfunction in the adult general population [3]. In the Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence study involving 25,862 participants attendin Continue reading >>

Hyperthyroidism And Diabetes

Hyperthyroidism And Diabetes

Hyperthyroidism can make blood glucose control difficult, so proper diagnosis and treatment are important. People with type 1 diabetes are at a high risk for hyperthyroidism, a condition caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones. This excess of hormones speeds up the metabolism, the rate at which the body uses energy. Hyperthyroidism is usually associated with poor blood glucose control and a need for additional insulin. A increased metabolism “clears” insulin from the system at a faster rate, and an increased production and absorption of glucose can raise blood sugars. All of this can lead to insulin resistance – where cells are unable to respond to insulin in order to use glucose for energy. In extreme cases, this can lead to dangerously high blood sugars and diabetic ketoacidosis. Hyperthyroidism can also aggravate diabetic heart conditions. It can cause a rapid heart rate as well as arrhythmia (an irregular heartbeat). People with type 1 diabetes are particularly vulnerable to developing hyperthyroidism because thyroid disorders often result from problems with the immune system. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in people under 40 is Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder. People with type 2 diabetes can also be affected by hyperthyroidism. However, people with type 2 are more likely to have hypothyroidism, a condition where the body produces too little thyroid hormones and the metabolism is slowed. What is Hyperthyroidism? The source of the problem is the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck below the larynx or voice box. The thyroid consists of two lobes, one located on either side of the windpipe. The job of the gland is to store hormones and release them into the bloodstream, where they circulate throughout th Continue reading >>

Diabetes-thyroid Alert: Is There A Connection?

Diabetes-thyroid Alert: Is There A Connection?

Undiagnosed disorders can cause one to experience severe health problems and debilitating symptoms. Two stealthy conditions that can cause serious damage if not properly looked for are diabetes and thyroid dysfunction. However, being difficult to diagnose is not the only thing these two conditions have in common. There are various mutually impactful effects that thyroid malfunction and diabetes share between each other. Because of this, it is not surprising that many studies have found that prevalence of thyroid conditions among diabetics is notably higher than that of the general populace. Different study populations have shown percentages ranging from roughly 5% to about 30% with an overall prevalence of 13.4%. This is a significant rate of thyroid dysfunction among diabetics that should not be taken lightly. Furthermore, because both thyroid conditions and diabetes interact with the endocrine system, mutual damage can occur that promotes both conditions. Understanding the influence of each condition on the other is an important means of acquiring quality treatment. Diabetes Breakdown There are two primary forms of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Thyroid conditions are more commonly associated with type 1 diabetes. However, it is important to recognize that those with type 2 are still at increased risk of developing a thyroid condition when compared to the general population. Type 1 diabetes is classified as an autoimmune condition. Diseases in this category cause the body to turn on itself and attack its own systems. In the case of diabetes, the immune system attacks the pancreas, which severely reduces production of insulin. When this is further exaggerated by a thyroid condition, which can also inhibit insulin production by slowing one’s metabolism, proper blood glu Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

The Connection Between Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

It's not uncommon for someone to have both thyroid disease and diabetes. In fact, if you have type 1 diabetes , type 2 diabetes , insulin resistance , or metabolic syndrome , this doubles your risk of developing thyroid disease. And thyroid disease increases your risk of developing metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. This association is even stronger if you are overweight or obese. It's important, then, to make sure you undergo routine screening for diabetes if you have thyroid disease, and vice versa, to ensure early detection and timely treatment. When one of the conditions is poorly controlled, it can make management of the other condition and reducing your risk of complications more difficult. There are also few steps you can take to help reduce your risk of this double diagnosis. Your thyroid gland and thyroid hormones play a major role in regulating many of your body's biological processes, such as growth, development, and metabolism. Because thyroid disease interferes with metabolism, it can alter your blood sugar. This increases your risk of developing diabetes, and it makes it harder to manage your blood sugar if you already have diabetes. Hyperthyroidism, which is overactive thyroid hormone, and hypothyroidism, which is underactive thyroid hormone, are both associated with mild hyperglycemia (elevated glucose levels). You might not experience obvious symptoms of thyroid-induced hyperglycemia if you do not have diabetes because your insulin can regulate your blood sugar to get it near optimal levels. It is believed that the chronically high blood sugar that can be induced by thyroid disease may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, a pre-diabetic state. Untreated metabolic syndrome can progress to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can cause alteratio Continue reading >>

Low Thyroid Function And Type 2 Diabetes

Low Thyroid Function And Type 2 Diabetes

Study finds hypothyroidism tied to type 2 diabetes. Having too little thyroid hormone in the blood–even in the low-normal range–raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, especially in people with prediabetes, a new study in nearly 8,500 people finds. Adults in the lowest third of thyroid function levels had a 1.4 time higher risk of progressing from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes than those in the highest third of thyroid function, according to a study presented at the Endocrine Society annual meeting. Dutch researchers used a cohort of adults without diabetes at baseline, ages 45 and older, and found those with higher thyroid-stimulating hormone had a 1.2-fold increased risk of developing diabetes. Patients diagnosed with prediabetes have a 40% greater likelihood of developing diabetes if they are also diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Layal Chaker, MD, of Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, Netherlands, in his presentation, added that, “Low thyroid function is associated with higher risk of developing diabetes, but also the progression from prediabetes to diabetes and this is even within the normal range of thyroid function, “Low thyroid function as represented by higher TSH [thyroid-stimulating hormone] is with a 1.2-fold increased risk of diabetes and a 1.4-fold increased risk for progression from prediabetes.” She added that, over a lifetime, 70% to 75% of people diagnosed with prediabetes will progress to diabetes. Dr. Chaker presented the results at ENDO 2016. Thyroid hormone is important for metabolism, and thus important in controlling weight and cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, Dr Chaker and her team hypothesized that thyroid hormone could also be important in the development of type 2 diabetes. To test their hypothesis, the research team evalua Continue reading >>

The Full Article Title:

The Full Article Title:

BACKGROUND Hypothyroidism causes many metabolic abnormalities as well as multiple clinical symptoms. Some studies suggest that blood sugar may be affected in hypothyroidism and levels may increase. Indeed, it has been noted that patients with diabetes who also have hypothyroidism may have higher levels of Hemoglobin A1C (HBA1C). This test is done to diagnose and monitor control of blood sugar by patients with diabetes. An elevated HBA1C usually indicates worse control of diabetes. This study was done to look at the effect of thyroid hormone treatment on HBA1c levels in patients with hypothyroidism. This study was also done to look at the effect thyroid hormone treatment has on the diagnoses of pre diabetes and the control of diabetes after treatment. Anantarapu S et al Effects of thyroid hormone replacement on glycated he n non-diabetic subjects with overt hypothyroidism. Arch Endocrinol Metab. September 25 2015 [Epub ahead of print]. This study was done at a large hospital in India. Patients who were newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism were studied. They were at least 20 years old. Blood tests were done before starting the thyroid hormone and 3 months after the tests showed normal thyroid hormone levels. An HBA1C test and an oral glucose tolerance test were done on all patients. The results showed a significant drop in the HBA1c levels for patients diagnosed as having pre diabetes (HBA1C between 5.7 to 6.5 %) and diabetes (HBA1C above 6.5%) after starting thyroid hormone therapy. There was no change in the number of patients with elevated fasting glucose levels or impaired glucose tolerance after treatment with thyroid hormone. The body weight did not change to a great extent. This study suggests that hypothyroidism may be falsely increasing the levels of the HBA1C tes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms With An Underactive Thyroid Boost Thyroid: Hashimoto's And Hypothyroid App

Diabetes Symptoms With An Underactive Thyroid Boost Thyroid: Hashimoto's And Hypothyroid App

Hage M, et al. Thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus, 2011 Dimitriadis G, et al. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism, 2006 Cettour-Rose P, et al. Hypothyroidism in rats decreases peripheral glucose utilisation, a defect partially corrected by central leptin infusion, 2005 Maratou E, et al. Studies of insulin resistance in patients with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, 2009 Rezzonico J, et al. Introducing the thyroid gland as another victim of the insulin resistance syndrome, 2008 Ayturk S, et al. Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient area, 2009 Coiro V, et al. Influence of residual C-peptide secretion on nocturnal serum TSH peak in well-controlled diabetic patients, 1997 Donckier JE. Endocrine diseases and diabetes, 2003 Radetti G, et al. Frequency of Hashimotos thyroiditis in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 1995 McCanlies E, et al. Hashimotos thyroiditis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: differences among individuals with and without abnormal thyroid function, 1998 Burek CL, et al. Thyroid autoantibodies in black and in white children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives, 1990 Sougioultzoglou F, et al. Coincidence of high antiislet and antithyroid autoantibody titles in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, 2005 Kordonouri O, et al. Predictivity of thyroid autoantibodies for the development of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, 2002 Kordonouri O, et al. Natural course of autoimmune thyroiditis in type 1 diabetes: association with gender, age, diabetes duration, and puberty, 2005 Lindberg B, et al. High prevalence of thyro Continue reading >>

Hypothyroidism And Diabetes: How To Reverse It And Why Sugar Is Not The Problem

Hypothyroidism And Diabetes: How To Reverse It And Why Sugar Is Not The Problem

Hypothyroidism and diabetes tend to go hand-in-hand. Anyone who is diabetic will functionally become hypothyroid because their cells become blocked from using thyroid hormone efficiently. And anyone who is hypothyroid will have a tendency toward becoming pre-diabetic and eventually diabetic because of how their body compensates for their thyroid condition. In this article, which is based largely on the work of Dr. Raymond Peat, I’m going to show you how you can prevent this from happening, but in order for this to all make sense… …you first have to understand the truth about diabetes and the vicious cycle that causes it. Today, diabetes (along with a list of other health conditions) is blamed directly on the over-consumption of sugar. It’s oftentimes referred to as the “Sugar Disease”. And for those without a proper understanding of how the body works, this might make sense. When a diabetic consumes large amounts of glucose, their blood sugar rises. And a chronic rise in blood sugar can lead to various health complications. But, let me ask you this… Imagine you have a clogged sink drain while your water is running. As the water level continues to get higher and higher do you curse the water and blame it for clogging your sink? No, that wouldn’t make any sense. Would turning off the water and letting the water sit there solve your problem? Of course not. We all know the underlying problem that you have to fix is the clog itself. Then why are so many people guilty of taking this very approach with diabetes today? Diabetes is NOT a Sugar Disease Let’s get one thing straight… Diabetes is not a disease “caused” by sugar. You require insulin to deliver glucose to your cells. This is why in type 2 diabetes, insulin injections are prescribed to treat the Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder

At the clinic today, a patient came in for an initial assessment for Diabetes Self-Management Education. She was taking thyroid medication along with her diabetes and other medications. She was not the first patient that I have seen lately who is taking thyroid medication. I was aware of the link between diabetes and thyroid disease, and had some basic information. I thought it would be interesting to look into the dynamics a little further. After all, the pancreas and the thyroid both fall within the endocrine system. Now let’s take a look at why people with diabetes often seem to have thyroid disorder, and the reasons behind it. What is thyroid disease? In order to understand the relationship between diabetes and thyroid disease, it is helpful to understand what thyroid disease is. At the front of your neck, just under your Adam’s apple is where you will find the thyroid gland. Thyroid disease is a problem that happens when the thyroid gland either under produces or over produces the thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s metabolism. From research, the percent of the population that will develop thyroid disease is 7 percent. The percentage of people with diabetes who have thyroid disease is greater than the general population. We will dig in a little deeper to find the reasons why, and examine the link between the two. Note from Kirk and Health Institute: A high percentage of low thyroid is “Hashimoto’s”, which like Graves disease is an auto-immune in origin and most often creates low thyroid symptoms. To address Hashimoto’s and Graves affectively you must focus on the immune system, medication can be supportive but does not address the cause. Autoimmune conditions are best managed by change in diet and reducing infl Continue reading >>

Background

Background

Hyperthyroidism is a condition of thyroid hyperfunction and overproduction of thyroid hormones. Autoimmune Graves' disease is the most common cause in young people, especially women, and toxic goitre or toxic adenoma are more common in older individuals. BACKGROUND In 1786 Caleb Perry made the first description of the association between goitre and exophthalmos. In 1835 Graves and in 1840 von Basedow independently described the condition associated with their names. Toxic multinodular goitre (Plummer's disease) was first described in 1913. Graves' disease accounts for nearly 60% of cases of hyperthyroidism, and occurs at a median age which is 20 years younger than patients with adenoma (about 10% of cases), and 10 years younger than multinodular goitre (30% of cases). Adenoma and multinodular goitre have a higher prevalence in iodine-deficient areas than in iodine-sufficient ones[1]. These different groups of patients have different relationship to diabetes. Diabetes is more likely to occur in hyperthyroid patients [2], and glucose intolerance is often present in untreated hyperthyroidism. Autoimmune thyroid disease also frequently occurs within type 1 diabetes (anti-TPO antibodies are present in up to 50% of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients) or vice versa, in the Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes[3], due to overlapping HLA associations. Thyroid dysfunction does not cause type 1 diabetes, but patients with Graves' disease are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes, and vice versa. EPIDEMIOLOGY A Japanese study showed that patients on treatment for hyperthyroid Graves’ disease are almost twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes than members of the general population, are less likely to have been overweight, and are less likely to have a family history of Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes

Thyroid disorders are very common in the general U.S. population, affecting up to 27 million Americans, although half that number remains undiagnosed. It is second only to diabetes as the most common condition to affect the endocrine system — a group of glands that secrete hormones that help regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by cells. As a result, it is common for an individual to be affected by both thyroid disease and diabetes. Since the thyroid gland plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism, abnormal thyroid function can have a major impact on the control of diabetes. In addition, untreated thyroid disorder can increase the risk of certain diabetic complications and can aggravate many diabetes symptoms. Luckily, abnormal thyroid function can easily be diagnosed by simple blood tests, and effective treatment is available. For all of these reasons, periodic screening for thyroid disorder should be considered in all people with diabetes. What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck, just below the Adam’s apple and above the collarbone. It produces two hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which enter the bloodstream and affect the metabolism of the heart, liver, muscles, and other organs. The thyroid gland operates as part of a feedback mechanism involving the hypothalamus, an area of the brain, and the pituitary gland, which is located within the brain. First, the hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary through a hormone called TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone). When the pituitary gland receives this signal, it releases TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) to the thyroid gland. Upon receiving TSH, the thyroid responds by producing and releasing the two thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). The Continue reading >>

Thyroid, Blood Sugar, And Metabolic Syndrome

Thyroid, Blood Sugar, And Metabolic Syndrome

This article is part of a special report on Thyroid Disorders. To see the other articles in this series, click here. According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, 27 million Americans suffer from thyroid dysfunction – half of whom go undiagnosed. Subclinical hypothyroidism, a condition in which TSH is elevated but free T4 is normal, may affect an additional 24 million Americans. Taken together, more than 50 million Americans are affected by some form of thyroid disorder. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), also affects 50 million Americans, and insulin resistance, one of the components of metabolic syndrome, affects up to 105 million Americans. That’s 35% of the population. Metabolic syndrome has become so common that it’s predicted to eventually bankrupt our healthcare system. Both metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, two of the leading causes of death in the developed world. With such a high prevalence of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome, you might suspect there’s a connection between the two. And you’d be right. Studies show an increased frequency of thyroid disorders in diabetics, and a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in people with thyroid disorders. That’s because healthy thyroid function depends on keeping your blood sugar in a normal range, and keeping your blood sugar in a normal range depends on healthy thyroid function. How high blood sugar affects the thyroid Metabolic syndrome is defined as a group of metabolic risk factors appearing together, including: abdominal obesity; high cholesterol and triglycerides; high blood pressure; insulin resistance; tendency to form blood clots; and, inflammation. Metabolic syndrome is caused by chronic hyperglyc Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 18 NO. 1 Winter 2000 PRACTICAL POINTERS Thyroid Disease and Diabetes By Patricia Wu, MD, FACE, FRCP Thyroid disease is common in the general population, and the prevalence increases with age. The assessment of thyroid function by modern assays is both reliable and inexpensive. Screening for thyroid dysfunction is indicated in certain high-risk groups, such as neonates and the elderly. Hypothyroidism is by far the most common thyroid disorder in the adult population and is more common in older women. It is usually autoimmune in origin, presenting as either primary atrophic hypothyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid failure secondary to radioactive iodine therapy or thyroid surgery is also common. Rarely, pituitary or hypothalamic disorders can result in secondary hypothyroidism. Approximately 4 million people in the United States are hypothyroid and receive thyroxine replacement therapy. By contrast, hyperthyroidism is much less common, with a female-to-male ratio of 9:1. Graves' disease is the most common cause and affects primarily young adults. Toxic multi-nodular goiters tend to affect the older age-groups. Diabetic patients have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders compared with the normal population (Table 1). Because patients with one organ-specific autoimmune disease are at risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, and thyroid disorders are more common in females, it is not surprising that up to 30% of female type 1 diabetic patients have thyroid disease. The rate of postpartum thyroiditis in diabetic patients is three times that in normal women. A number of reports have also indicated a higher than normal prevalence of thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetic patients, with hypothyroidism being the most common disorder. Table Continue reading >>

Low Thyroid Hormone Raises Risk For Type 2 Diabetes

Low Thyroid Hormone Raises Risk For Type 2 Diabetes

People with prediabetes and low thyroid function were more than twice as likely to progress to full-blown type 2 diabetes compared to those with normal thyroid-hormone levels in a new study1 published September 30 in the journal BMC Medicine. For the study, researchers from the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands followed 8,492 adults, ages 54 to 74, for nearly eight years. At the start, 1,338 had prediabetes and 7,114 had normal blood sugar levels. After 7.9 years, 798 had developed type 2 diabetes. Overall, low thyroid function—even in the low-normal range—increased risk for diabetes by 13%. But among those with prediabetes, the risk for progressing to type 2 diabetes ranged from 15% for those with normal thyroid function to 35% for those with signs of low function. Even “low normal” thyroid functioning increased risk. It’s the first large study to track low and low-normal thyroid function and diabetes risk. “There are no other studies addressing the relation between diabetes and thyroid function in the euthyroid range or in individuals with prediabetes,” the researchers note. Lead study author Layal Chaker, MD2 a Research and Curriculum Fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and a research fellow in the Department of Endocrinology and Epidemiology at the Erasmus Medical Center told EndocrineWeb that its too soon to recommend thyroid screening tests for people with prediabetes. And while treating low thyroid can help people with type 2 control their blood sugar, it’s not known whether treatment could prevent or delay it. “Our findings suggest that screening in people with prediabetes could be considered for further research,” Dr. Chaker said. “There are many ways in which low thyroid hormone levels can increase the risk of Continue reading >>

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