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Thyroid And Diabetes Connection

Is Your Thyroid Killing You? Diabetes

Is Your Thyroid Killing You? Diabetes

Dana, your blood sugar and cholesterol are very high. Do you have a family history of diabetes and heart disease? Several months later… Dana, your blood sugar and cholesterol are high again. You should start a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and diabetes medication. Let’s wait until your next lab test to decide. 347 million people worldwide have diabetes. The World Health Organization warns that its escalating rates around the world will result in the doubling of diabetes deaths between 2005 and 2030.[1. World Health Organization. World Diabetes Day 2012] Thyroid Disease and Diabetes The frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients is higher than that of the general population. The Journal of Thyroid Research published an article in 2011 reviewing the scientific research worldwide on thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus.[2. Hage, M., Zantout, M.S., Azar, S.T. Review Article: Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Thyroid Research Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 439463, 7 pages] Perros et al. demonstrated an overall prevalence of 13.4% of thyroid diseases in diabetics with the highest prevalence in type 1 female diabetics (31.4%). A prevalence of 12.3% was reported among Greek diabetic patients and 16% of Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes were found to have thyroid dysfunction. In Jordan, a study reported that thyroid dysfunction was present in 12.5% of type 2 diabetic patients. Thyroid disorders remain the most frequent autoimmune disorders associated with type 1 diabetes. Positive TPO antibodies have been reported in as high as 38% of diabetic individuals. Ghawil et al. documented that 23.4% of type 1 diabetic Libyan subjects had positive TPO antibodies and 7% had positive TG antibodies. According to the World Health Organization, 50% of Continue reading >>

Background

Background

Hyperthyroidism is a condition of thyroid hyperfunction and overproduction of thyroid hormones. Autoimmune Graves' disease is the most common cause in young people, especially women, and toxic goitre or toxic adenoma are more common in older individuals. BACKGROUND In 1786 Caleb Perry made the first description of the association between goitre and exophthalmos. In 1835 Graves and in 1840 von Basedow independently described the condition associated with their names. Toxic multinodular goitre (Plummer's disease) was first described in 1913. Graves' disease accounts for nearly 60% of cases of hyperthyroidism, and occurs at a median age which is 20 years younger than patients with adenoma (about 10% of cases), and 10 years younger than multinodular goitre (30% of cases). Adenoma and multinodular goitre have a higher prevalence in iodine-deficient areas than in iodine-sufficient ones[1]. These different groups of patients have different relationship to diabetes. Diabetes is more likely to occur in hyperthyroid patients [2], and glucose intolerance is often present in untreated hyperthyroidism. Autoimmune thyroid disease also frequently occurs within type 1 diabetes (anti-TPO antibodies are present in up to 50% of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients) or vice versa, in the Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes[3], due to overlapping HLA associations. Thyroid dysfunction does not cause type 1 diabetes, but patients with Graves' disease are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes, and vice versa. EPIDEMIOLOGY A Japanese study showed that patients on treatment for hyperthyroid Graves’ disease are almost twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes than members of the general population, are less likely to have been overweight, and are less likely to have a family history of Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes Mellitus

Thyroid Disorders And Diabetes Mellitus

Mirella Hage , Mira S. Zantout , and Sami T. Azar * Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon Received 2011 Jan 26; Accepted 2011 May 13. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Studies have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders tend to coexist in patients. Both conditions involve a dysfunction of the endocrine system. Thyroid disorders can have a major impact on glucose control, and untreated thyroid disorders affect the management of diabetes in patients. Consequently, a systematic approach to thyroid testing in patients with diabetes is recommended. Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the two most common endocrine disorders encountered in clinical practice. Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other and associations between both conditions have long been reported [ 1 , 2 ]. On one hand, thyroid hormones contribute to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and pancreatic function, and on th Continue reading >>

Why Can Insulin Resistance Be A Natural Consequence Of Thyroid Dysfunction?

Why Can Insulin Resistance Be A Natural Consequence Of Thyroid Dysfunction?

Journal of Thyroid Research Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 152850, 9 pages Department of Endocrinology, Dr. César Milstein Hospital, La Rioja 951, C1221ACI, Buenos Aires, Argentina Academic Editor: Masanobu Yamada Copyright © 2011 Gabriela Brenta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. 1. Introduction The effects of T4 and T3 have a large impact on glucose homeostasis. This concept was acknowledged by Nobel Prize winner Dr. Bernardo Alberto Houssay in his lecture in 1947 “The blood sugar and the production and consumption of glucose are kept within normal bounds, therefore there is an equilibrium between the glands of internal secretions which reduce the blood sugar (pancreas) and those which raise it (anterohypophysis, adrenals, thyroid, etc.)”. Thyroid hormones exert both insulin agonistic and antagonistic actions in different organs. However, this occurs in a fine balance necessary Continue reading >>

The Full Article Title:

The Full Article Title:

BACKGROUND Hypothyroidism causes many metabolic abnormalities as well as multiple clinical symptoms. Some studies suggest that blood sugar may be affected in hypothyroidism and levels may increase. Indeed, it has been noted that patients with diabetes who also have hypothyroidism may have higher levels of Hemoglobin A1C (HBA1C). This test is done to diagnose and monitor control of blood sugar by patients with diabetes. An elevated HBA1C usually indicates worse control of diabetes. This study was done to look at the effect of thyroid hormone treatment on HBA1c levels in patients with hypothyroidism. This study was also done to look at the effect thyroid hormone treatment has on the diagnoses of pre diabetes and the control of diabetes after treatment. Anantarapu S et al Effects of thyroid hormone replacement on glycated he n non-diabetic subjects with overt hypothyroidism. Arch Endocrinol Metab. September 25 2015 [Epub ahead of print]. This study was done at a large hospital in India. Patients who were newly diagnosed with hypothyroidism were studied. They were at least 20 years old. Blood tests were done before starting the thyroid hormone and 3 months after the tests showed normal thyroid hormone levels. An HBA1C test and an oral glucose tolerance test were done on all patients. The results showed a significant drop in the HBA1c levels for patients diagnosed as having pre diabetes (HBA1C between 5.7 to 6.5 %) and diabetes (HBA1C above 6.5%) after starting thyroid hormone therapy. There was no change in the number of patients with elevated fasting glucose levels or impaired glucose tolerance after treatment with thyroid hormone. The body weight did not change to a great extent. This study suggests that hypothyroidism may be falsely increasing the levels of the HBA1C tes Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms With An Underactive Thyroid Boost Thyroid: Hashimoto's And Hypothyroid App

Diabetes Symptoms With An Underactive Thyroid Boost Thyroid: Hashimoto's And Hypothyroid App

Hage M, et al. Thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus, 2011 Dimitriadis G, et al. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism, 2006 Cettour-Rose P, et al. Hypothyroidism in rats decreases peripheral glucose utilisation, a defect partially corrected by central leptin infusion, 2005 Maratou E, et al. Studies of insulin resistance in patients with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, 2009 Rezzonico J, et al. Introducing the thyroid gland as another victim of the insulin resistance syndrome, 2008 Ayturk S, et al. Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with increased thyroid volume and nodule prevalence in a mild-to-moderate iodine-deficient area, 2009 Coiro V, et al. Influence of residual C-peptide secretion on nocturnal serum TSH peak in well-controlled diabetic patients, 1997 Donckier JE. Endocrine diseases and diabetes, 2003 Radetti G, et al. Frequency of Hashimotos thyroiditis in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 1995 McCanlies E, et al. Hashimotos thyroiditis and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: differences among individuals with and without abnormal thyroid function, 1998 Burek CL, et al. Thyroid autoantibodies in black and in white children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their first degree relatives, 1990 Sougioultzoglou F, et al. Coincidence of high antiislet and antithyroid autoantibody titles in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes, 2005 Kordonouri O, et al. Predictivity of thyroid autoantibodies for the development of thyroid disorders in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, 2002 Kordonouri O, et al. Natural course of autoimmune thyroiditis in type 1 diabetes: association with gender, age, diabetes duration, and puberty, 2005 Lindberg B, et al. High prevalence of thyro Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 18 NO. 1 Winter 2000 PRACTICAL POINTERS Thyroid Disease and Diabetes By Patricia Wu, MD, FACE, FRCP Thyroid disease is common in the general population, and the prevalence increases with age. The assessment of thyroid function by modern assays is both reliable and inexpensive. Screening for thyroid dysfunction is indicated in certain high-risk groups, such as neonates and the elderly. Hypothyroidism is by far the most common thyroid disorder in the adult population and is more common in older women. It is usually autoimmune in origin, presenting as either primary atrophic hypothyroidism or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid failure secondary to radioactive iodine therapy or thyroid surgery is also common. Rarely, pituitary or hypothalamic disorders can result in secondary hypothyroidism. Approximately 4 million people in the United States are hypothyroid and receive thyroxine replacement therapy. By contrast, hyperthyroidism is much less common, with a female-to-male ratio of 9:1. Graves' disease is the most common cause and affects primarily young adults. Toxic multi-nodular goiters tend to affect the older age-groups. Diabetic patients have a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders compared with the normal population (Table 1). Because patients with one organ-specific autoimmune disease are at risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, and thyroid disorders are more common in females, it is not surprising that up to 30% of female type 1 diabetic patients have thyroid disease. The rate of postpartum thyroiditis in diabetic patients is three times that in normal women. A number of reports have also indicated a higher than normal prevalence of thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetic patients, with hypothyroidism being the most common disorder. Table Continue reading >>

Hyperthyroidism And Diabetes

Hyperthyroidism And Diabetes

Hyperthyroidism can make blood glucose control difficult, so proper diagnosis and treatment are important. People with type 1 diabetes are at a high risk for hyperthyroidism, a condition caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones. This excess of hormones speeds up the metabolism, the rate at which the body uses energy. Hyperthyroidism is usually associated with poor blood glucose control and a need for additional insulin. A increased metabolism “clears” insulin from the system at a faster rate, and an increased production and absorption of glucose can raise blood sugars. All of this can lead to insulin resistance – where cells are unable to respond to insulin in order to use glucose for energy. In extreme cases, this can lead to dangerously high blood sugars and diabetic ketoacidosis. Hyperthyroidism can also aggravate diabetic heart conditions. It can cause a rapid heart rate as well as arrhythmia (an irregular heartbeat). People with type 1 diabetes are particularly vulnerable to developing hyperthyroidism because thyroid disorders often result from problems with the immune system. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in people under 40 is Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder. People with type 2 diabetes can also be affected by hyperthyroidism. However, people with type 2 are more likely to have hypothyroidism, a condition where the body produces too little thyroid hormones and the metabolism is slowed. What is Hyperthyroidism? The source of the problem is the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck below the larynx or voice box. The thyroid consists of two lobes, one located on either side of the windpipe. The job of the gland is to store hormones and release them into the bloodstream, where they circulate throughout th Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Related Thyroid Diseases

The Relationship Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Related Thyroid Diseases

Go to: 1. Introduction The role of hyperthyroidism in diabetes was investigated in 1927, by Coller and Huggins proving the association of hyperthyroidism and worsening of diabetes. It was shown that surgical removal of parts of thyroid gland had an ameliorative effect on the restoration of glucose tolerance in hyperthyroid patients suffering from coexisting diabetes [1]. There is a deep underlying relation between diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction [2]. A plethora of studies have evidenced an array of complex intertwining biochemical, genetic, and hormonal malfunctions mirroring this pathophysiological association [2, 3]. 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central target for modulation of insulin sensitivity and feedback of thyroid hormones associated with appetite and energy expenditure [3]. Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) or thyroid over activity (Graves' disease) has been investigated to be associated with diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis reported a frequency of 11% in thyroid dysfunction in the patients of diabetes mellitus [4]. Autoimmunity has been implicated to be the major cause of thyroid-dysfunction associated diabetes mellitus [5–7]. Unmanaged pro diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, may induce a “low T3 state” characterized by low serum total and free T3 levels, increase in reverse T3 (rT3) but near normal serum T4 and TSH concentrations [8]. The relation between T2DM and thyroid dysfunction has been a less explored arena which may behold answers to various facts of metabolic syndrome including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and related cardiovascular disorders. T2DM owes its pathological origin to inappropriate secretion of insulin, due to defective islet cell function or beta cell mass. Continuous consump Continue reading >>

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder

The Relationship Between Diabetes And Thyroid Disorder

At the clinic today, a patient came in for an initial assessment for Diabetes Self-Management Education. She was taking thyroid medication along with her diabetes and other medications. She was not the first patient that I have seen lately who is taking thyroid medication. I was aware of the link between diabetes and thyroid disease, and had some basic information. I thought it would be interesting to look into the dynamics a little further. After all, the pancreas and the thyroid both fall within the endocrine system. Now let’s take a look at why people with diabetes often seem to have thyroid disorder, and the reasons behind it. What is thyroid disease? In order to understand the relationship between diabetes and thyroid disease, it is helpful to understand what thyroid disease is. At the front of your neck, just under your Adam’s apple is where you will find the thyroid gland. Thyroid disease is a problem that happens when the thyroid gland either under produces or over produces the thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are responsible for regulating the body’s metabolism. From research, the percent of the population that will develop thyroid disease is 7 percent. The percentage of people with diabetes who have thyroid disease is greater than the general population. We will dig in a little deeper to find the reasons why, and examine the link between the two. Note from Kirk and Health Institute: A high percentage of low thyroid is “Hashimoto’s”, which like Graves disease is an auto-immune in origin and most often creates low thyroid symptoms. To address Hashimoto’s and Graves affectively you must focus on the immune system, medication can be supportive but does not address the cause. Autoimmune conditions are best managed by change in diet and reducing infl Continue reading >>

The Connection Between Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

The Connection Between Thyroid Disease And Diabetes

It's not uncommon for someone to have both thyroid disease and diabetes. In fact, if you have type 1 diabetes , type 2 diabetes , insulin resistance , or metabolic syndrome , this doubles your risk of developing thyroid disease. And thyroid disease increases your risk of developing metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. This association is even stronger if you are overweight or obese. It's important, then, to make sure you undergo routine screening for diabetes if you have thyroid disease, and vice versa, to ensure early detection and timely treatment. When one of the conditions is poorly controlled, it can make management of the other condition and reducing your risk of complications more difficult. There are also few steps you can take to help reduce your risk of this double diagnosis. Your thyroid gland and thyroid hormones play a major role in regulating many of your body's biological processes, such as growth, development, and metabolism. Because thyroid disease interferes with metabolism, it can alter your blood sugar. This increases your risk of developing diabetes, and it makes it harder to manage your blood sugar if you already have diabetes. Hyperthyroidism, which is overactive thyroid hormone, and hypothyroidism, which is underactive thyroid hormone, are both associated with mild hyperglycemia (elevated glucose levels). You might not experience obvious symptoms of thyroid-induced hyperglycemia if you do not have diabetes because your insulin can regulate your blood sugar to get it near optimal levels. It is believed that the chronically high blood sugar that can be induced by thyroid disease may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome, a pre-diabetic state. Untreated metabolic syndrome can progress to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can cause alteratio Continue reading >>

Hypothyroidism And Diabetes: How To Reverse It And Why Sugar Is Not The Problem

Hypothyroidism And Diabetes: How To Reverse It And Why Sugar Is Not The Problem

Hypothyroidism and diabetes tend to go hand-in-hand. Anyone who is diabetic will functionally become hypothyroid because their cells become blocked from using thyroid hormone efficiently. And anyone who is hypothyroid will have a tendency toward becoming pre-diabetic and eventually diabetic because of how their body compensates for their thyroid condition. In this article, which is based largely on the work of Dr. Raymond Peat, I’m going to show you how you can prevent this from happening, but in order for this to all make sense… …you first have to understand the truth about diabetes and the vicious cycle that causes it. Today, diabetes (along with a list of other health conditions) is blamed directly on the over-consumption of sugar. It’s oftentimes referred to as the “Sugar Disease”. And for those without a proper understanding of how the body works, this might make sense. When a diabetic consumes large amounts of glucose, their blood sugar rises. And a chronic rise in blood sugar can lead to various health complications. But, let me ask you this… Imagine you have a clogged sink drain while your water is running. As the water level continues to get higher and higher do you curse the water and blame it for clogging your sink? No, that wouldn’t make any sense. Would turning off the water and letting the water sit there solve your problem? Of course not. We all know the underlying problem that you have to fix is the clog itself. Then why are so many people guilty of taking this very approach with diabetes today? Diabetes is NOT a Sugar Disease Let’s get one thing straight… Diabetes is not a disease “caused” by sugar. You require insulin to deliver glucose to your cells. This is why in type 2 diabetes, insulin injections are prescribed to treat the Continue reading >>

The 411 On Diabetes + Thyroid Disease

The 411 On Diabetes + Thyroid Disease

My dad has hypothyroidism, as does my grandmother. For my whole life, my dad has taken a tiny little pill every morning to make sure his metabolism functions properly. I always thought that compared to diabetes, thyroid disease wasn't very "serious" — all my dad needed to do was pop a pill! — and that it was nothing I needed to worry about anyway. But then, because of my diabetes and my "genetic predisposition," my endocrinologist insisted on starting to examine my thyroid regularly... But despite my risk factors, I never knew much about thyroid disease. Now's as good a time as any to learn. January is actually National Thyroid Awareness Month, so for this edition of our 411 series on diabetes complications and co-morbidities, we're taking a look at another body part in distress: the thyroid. What Does It Do Again? The thyroid is a little butterfly-shaped gland that lives in the middle of your neck, and it's part of the body's endocrine system, where diabetes also dwells. This system controls your body's metabolism. One of the thyroid's primary responsibilities is to manage your metabolism by producing two thyroid hormones: T3 and T4. An overactive thyroid can cause weight loss, a quick heartbeat, and other signs that your body is "on the go" a little too much. The opposite, an underactive thyroid, leaves people feeling sluggish, and causes weight gain and slow heartbeat. Essentially, your body's normal equilibrium slows down. Turns out, thyroid issues are incredibly common. They're so widespread, in fact, that Oprah was all on about it a few years ago. Thyroid disease affects 30 million people in the US — and some experts think thyroid disease may affect nearly 56 million Americans. Note that "thyroid disease" is actually an umbrella term for several different co Continue reading >>

The Signs Of Diabetes Mimic Thyroid Disease

The Signs Of Diabetes Mimic Thyroid Disease

Today’s article is about the thyroid and diabetes connection, and I will also cover risk factors, kidney disease and Hashimoto’s, gluten and much more. I have chosen to cover these topics because thyroid illness is a leading cause for diabetes, and I’m afraid that no one has told you this yet. You know now! If you have my diabetes book, then you knew about it almost 6 years ago. The Scary Truth If you don’t uncover the thyroid dysfunction, you could end up with complications of diabetes such as vision loss, heart attack or kidney disease. This may come as a surprise, but there is actually a very strong correlation between diabetes and hypothyroidism. Both of these disorders share one thing in common: Improper use of their associated hormone. So with diabetes, it is the improper use (or utilization) of insulin, whereas with hypothyroidism, it’s the improper use (or utilization) of thyroxine. These are two totally different hormones, but the net result is the same and the miserable symptoms are the same, and unfortunately, the frequency of misdiagnoses with these two conditions is rather high. Could you have been misdiagnosed? What if you have one of these two diseases and you don’t know it yet? Physicians have a hard time uncovering diabetes and thyroid disease until the damage is done! So many people taking cholesterol reducing medications now have diabetes, and that’s because statin drugs lead to hyperglycemia, and I’m wondering how many of you started a statin drug and now have diabetes! Happened to my mom, happens to people every single day! I’ve been on a mission to enlighten you, and empower you. The sad reality is that the wrong biomarkers are tested and when they come up within range, you’re dismissed with a clean bill of health. I wrote about Continue reading >>

Thyroid Disorders & Type 1 Diabetes: Diabetes Forecast

Thyroid Disorders & Type 1 Diabetes: Diabetes Forecast

A few years ago I felt extremely sluggish and I kept thinking it was blood sugar symptoms. When I talked to my endocrinologist about this, she checked my thyroid levels and “hypothyroid” was added as a new diagnosis on my chronic illness list. It wasn’t a surprise because it runs in my family and I know my immune system is more susceptible because of type 1 diabetes. But since my diagnosis, I have learned that there are a lot of people who live with both diabetes and thyroid issues. There are some interesting connections that you might not know about. Here’s an excerpt from the January edition of Diabetes Forecast article “Thyroid Disorders and Type 1 Diabetes” written by Allison Tsai. “Common things occur commonly” is an old medical school adage used to remind future doctors that two common diseases will frequently overlap but aren’t necessarily related. The link between type 2 diabetes and thyroid disease is a perfect example of this, says Peter Arvan, MD, PhD, professor of internal medicine and chief of the Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes at the University of Michigan. In the United States, nearly 28 million people have type 2 diabetes and 20 million have some form of thyroid disease. This means that people with type 2 diabetes frequently have thyroid disease as well. But type 2 does not increase your risk for thyroid disease. People with type 1 are even more likely to have thyroid problems, even though type 1 doesn’t directly cause thyroid disease. According to the American Diabetes Assocation’s 2016 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease occurs in 17 to 30 percent of people with type 1. The Regulator The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that produces two hormones, triiodothyronine, Continue reading >>

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