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The Essence Of Molecular Mechanisms Of Diabetes Type I

Artificial Intelligence: No Command, And Control

Artificial Intelligence: No Command, And Control

Home Innovation Artificial Intelligence: No command, and control Artificial Intelligence: No command, and control Chaos fills battlefields and disaster zones. Artificial intelligence may be better than the natural sort at coping with it ARMIES have always been divided into officers and grunts. The officers give the orders. The grunts carry them out. But what if the grunts took over and tried to decide among themselves on the best course of action? The limits of human psychology, battlefield communications and (cynics might suggest) the brainpower of the average grunt mean this probably would not work in an army of people. It might, though, work in an army of robots. Handing battlefield decisions to the collective intelligence of robot soldiers sounds risky, but it is the essence of a research project called ALADDIN. Autonomous Learning Agents for Decentralised Data and Information Networks, to give its full name, is a five-year-old collaboration between BAE Systems, a British defence contractor, the universities of Bristol, Oxford and Southampton, and Imperial College, London. In it, the grunts act as agents, collecting and exchanging information. They then bargain with each other over the best course of action, make a decision and carry it out. So far, ALADDINs researchers have limited themselves to tests that simulate disasters such as earthquakes rather than warfare; saving life, then, rather than taking it. That may make the technology seem less sinister. But disasters are similar to battlefields in their degree of confusion and complexity, and in the consequent unreliability and incompleteness of the information available. What works for disaster relief should therefore also work for conflict. BAE Systems has said that it plans to use some of the results from ALAD Continue reading >>

Food And Drug Administration

Food And Drug Administration

"FDA" redirects here. For other uses, see FDA (disambiguation) . The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services , one of the United States federal executive departments . The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety , tobacco products, dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed [4] and veterinary products . As of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget (approximately $700 million) is funded by the pharmaceutical companies due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act . [5] [6] June30, 1906; 111 years ago(1906-06-30) [1] Food, Drug, and Insecticide Administration (July 1927 to July 1930) Bureau of Chemistry, USDA (July 1901 through July 1927) Division of Chemistry, USDA (established 1862) Rachel Sherman , Principal Deputy Commissioner The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act , which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; the FDA also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and associated regulations, many of which are not directly related to food or drugs. These include regulating lasers, cellular phones, condoms and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction . The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs , appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate . The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services . Scott Gottl Continue reading >>

Why Most People Need Vitamin B12 Supplementation

Why Most People Need Vitamin B12 Supplementation

Why Most People Need Vitamin B12 Supplementation According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, nearly 40 percent of the U.S. population have marginal vitamin B12 status and 9 percent are deficient Vitamin B12 insufficiency and deficiency increase your risk of serious health problems, many of which mimic more serious neurological diseases and can easily lead to misdiagnosis and improper treatment B12 is required for many vital biological functions, including production of adrenal hormones, metabolizing fat, carbs and folate, formation of red blood cells, iron absorption, nervous system function, cognitive health and much more B12 deficiency can even affect a womans Pap test, which screens for cervical cancer. Low B12 can affect the appearance of cervical cells, which can result in a false positive Animal foods have become a questionable source of B12 thanks to modern farming practices, and many experts now believe most people really need to take a B12 supplement to ensure healthy B12 status According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), nearly 40 percent of the U.S. population have marginal vitamin B12 status and 9 percent are deficient. 1 Vitamin B12 insufficiency and deficiency increase your risk of serious health problems, many of which mimic more serious neurological diseases and can easily lead to misdiagnosis and improper treatment. Neurological problems, in particular, are a possibility even at the low normal range at or just below 258 picomoles per liter (pmol/L). A level of 148 pmol/L or less is considered a deficiency state. As noted by the USDA: 2 Deficiency can cause a type of anemia marked by fewer but larger red blood cells. It can also cause walking and balance disturbances, a loss of vibration sensation, confusion and, in advanced cases, deme Continue reading >>

Poin Kita Semua - Llabnutz Juoo

Poin Kita Semua - Llabnutz Juoo

You're currently viewing a stripped down version of our content. View the full version with proper formatting. Keith Miller from Killeen was looking for japanese - americans Karl Higgins found the answer to a search query japanese - americans best essay writing service ESSAYERUDITE.COM are the best cv writing serviceoutline for research paper on lung cancer, thesis front matter latexhelp with esl expository essay on hackingesl critical analysis essay ghostwriter website usa. write me women and gender studies course work essay topics life of pi, japanese - americans research paper writing websites usa. top university article ideastop blog post writers sites onlinefun persuasive essay. best cv writing services for university essay jointer plane steinem essay wonder woman. short essay about my room. esl article review ghostwriting websites uk , essay footnotes example chicago styleesl thesis statement writing services for college. sociology gcse essay questions ceria thesis! should we raise driving age essay dissertation editing services , gay marriage essays conclusionsessay on supreme court of indialesson plans for teaching thesis statementA Time to Remember? esl critical essay editor sites usa, essay argument topics essayWriters As Landmarks of the PastDiscrimination for Obese Peopletop business plan writers services for college. cheap article review editing for hire for school. help me write journalism report top home work proofreading site ca. speech terms, japanese - americans thesis editing rates uk. Competencies Within The WorkplaceGenetic Engineering AwarenessWRITE A BRIEF CRITIQUE OF THE. pay to do top school essay on pokemon go writing essays type my personal essay on hackingnarrative essay prompts for 5th gradeDorothea Lynde Dix - Social Reformer. professional Continue reading >>

Farmed Salmon Is One Of The Most Toxic Foods In The World According To Toxicology Testing

Farmed Salmon Is One Of The Most Toxic Foods In The World According To Toxicology Testing

Farmed Salmon Is One of the Most Toxic Foods in the World According to Toxicology Testing Fish farms are the water-based equivalents of land-based concentrated animal feeding operations, and as such they create the same, if not worse, environmental concerns Since the salmon pens are placed along wild salmon runs, they pose a severe threat to wild salmon that pass by, exposing wild fish to diseases such as piscine reovirus, which now threatens wild salmon with extinction Toxicology testing reveals farmed salmon is one of the most toxic foods in the world more than five times more toxic than any other food tested, with eight times higher PCB levels than wild salmon One of the reasons farmed salmon contain higher levels of toxins than wild is because their feed is highly contaminated. Another is because they contain far higher levels of fat, which binds and accumulates toxins A chemical of particular concern found in farmed salmon (but not in wild) is ethoxyquin a rubber stabilizer, pesticide, preservative and antioxidant all in one, and a suspected carcinogen that damages DNA Do you buy farmed salmon in the belief that its the environmentally responsible thing to do? Think again. Fish farms are the water-based equivalents of land-based concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and as such they create the same, if not worse, environmental concerns. Since the salmon pens are placed along wild salmon runs, they pose a severe threat to wild salmon stocks that pass by, exposing wild fish to diseases such as sea lice, pancreas disease, 1 infectious salmon anemia virus and piscine reovirus. For a quick review, see Racing a Virus 2 above a video created by Alexandra Morton, a Canadian marine biologist who has spent decades studying the impact of salmon farming on wild salm Continue reading >>

Must Read:genetic Assassins Among Us:this Is A Suicide Mission Which Seeks To Exterminate The God And His Divine Image From Mankind Before A Fiery Cat

Must Read:genetic Assassins Among Us:this Is A Suicide Mission Which Seeks To Exterminate The God And His Divine Image From Mankind Before A Fiery Cat

This post was originally published on this site And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elects sake those days shall be shortened. Matthew 24:22 Genetic assassins are living among us today. They say reality is stranger than fiction, and much darker. Science is beguiled with ancient genetic technologies, forbidden knowledge, which is creating an unholy union or marrying ancient technology with the memories of the Watchers who passed their hybrid genetic memories (mind, body and spirits) from the rephaim and giants of old into the bloodlines of mankind. Just as it was in the days of Noah. This is a suicide mission which seeks to exterminate the God and His Divine Image from mankind before a fiery cataclysm. But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. Matthew 24:37 Memories are our constant traveling companions oftentimes evoking strong emotions which seem to come out of thin air. Our memories can either be cherished, painful, and manipulated. These memories are imprinted onto your code and then transferred down the generations. Scientists and researchers are in a frenzy plumb the depths of ancient memory to animate ancient genetic materials and prepare mankind to be a host for demonic spirits which were and are being released through various gateways and portals. This genetic memory of the rephaim and giants resides in pockets of the collective memory of mankind. There is evidence within archeology and genetics that latent tainted blood from the consorting of the sons of God and the daughters of men producing offspring who became mighty men which were of old, men of renown, resumed post-Flood. The Bible tells us of Og and Sihon. It is a horrific thought, the possibility of having tainted reph Continue reading >>

Farmed Salmon Contaminated With Synthetic Tire Chemical

Farmed Salmon Contaminated With Synthetic Tire Chemical

Farmed Salmon Contaminated With Synthetic Tire Chemical Fish farms are the water-based equivalents of land-based concentrated animal feeding operations, and as such they create the same, if not worse, environmental concerns Since the salmon pens are placed along wild salmon runs, they pose a severe threat to wild salmon that pass by, exposing wild fish to diseases such as piscine reovirus, which now threatens wild salmon with extinction Toxicology testing reveals farmed salmon is one of the most toxic foods in the world more than five times more toxic than any other food tested, with eight times higher PCB levels than wild salmon One of the reasons farmed salmon contain higher levels of toxins than wild is because their feed is highly contaminated. Another is because they contain far higher levels of fat, which binds and accumulates toxins A chemical of particular concern found in farmed salmon (but not in wild) is ethoxyquin a rubber stabilizer, pesticide, preservative and antioxidant all in one, and a suspected carcinogen that damages DNA Do you buy farmed salmon in the belief that its the environmentally responsible thing to do? Think again. Fish farms are the water-based equivalents of land-based concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and as such they create the same, if not worse, environmental concerns. Since the salmon pens are placed along wild salmon runs, they pose a severe threat to wild salmon stocks that pass by, exposing wild fish to diseases such as sea lice, pancreas disease, 1 infectious salmon anemia virus and piscine reovirus. For a quick review, see Racing a Virus 2 above a video created by Alexandra Morton, a Canadian marine biologist who has spent decades studying the impact of salmon farming on wild salmon. Piscine reovirus is a highly c Continue reading >>

Molecular Aspects Of Type 1 Diabetes

Molecular Aspects Of Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Abstract Type 1 diabetes is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease, characterised by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells, and susceptibility is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental agents implicated include viruses and dietary factors, although none has yet been shown to be directly responsible for triggering β cell autoimmunity. The genetic factors that influence disease risk have been subjected to more intensive study and two gene regions of major importance have been identified: the human leucocyte antigen locus and the insulin gene. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which these genes might influence the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Keywords: type 1 diabetes, HLA molecules, molecular mechanisms Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, which is characterised by T cell mediated destruction of the insulin secreting β cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The destructive process leads to severe insulin depletion, which results in hyperglycaemia, because of hepatic overproduction of glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decreased cellular uptake of glucose from the circulation. In the absence of insulin, there is also an increase in fat breakdown and fatty acid oxidation, resulting in the excessive production of ketones. If left untreated, these metabolic disturbances lead progressively to central nervous system depression, coma, and death. Therefore, the disease requires life long treatment with exogenous insulin for survival. The rate of β cell destruction varies from patient to patient, but tends to be more aggressive in infants and young children.1 Hence, type 1 diabetes usually presents during childhood or adolescence, although it may develop m Continue reading >>

Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Of Diabetic Atherosclerosis: Herbal Medicines As A Potential Therapeutic Approach

Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Of Diabetic Atherosclerosis: Herbal Medicines As A Potential Therapeutic Approach

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9080869, 16 pages Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Atherosclerosis: Herbal Medicines as a Potential Therapeutic Approach 1Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China 2Graduate School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China 3Cardiovascular Disease Centre, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China Correspondence should be addressed to Yue Liu and Shuzheng Lyu Received 26 April 2017; Revised 30 June 2017; Accepted 10 July 2017; Published 13 August 2017 Copyright 2017 Jinfan Tian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. An increasing number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms affecting the incidence of diabetic atherosclerosis are still unclear, as are appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss progress in the study of herbs as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including atherosclerosis, are important complications of diabetes and the leading causes of mortality in patients with diabetes. Systemic factors accompanying diabetes, such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension, are thought to affect the development of diabetic vascular diseases. In addition, Continue reading >>

Molecular Mechanisms In Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes: A Critical Review.

Molecular Mechanisms In Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes: A Critical Review.

1. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Oct;47(2):174-92. doi: 10.1007/s12016-014-8422-2. Molecular mechanisms in autoimmune type 1 diabetes: a critical review. (1)Diabetes Center, 2nd Xiangya Hospital, and Institute of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China. Erratum in Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2014 Oct;47(2):258. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes is characterized by selective destruction ofinsulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas of genetically susceptibleindividuals. The mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes are notfully understood. However, a widely accepted point is that type 1 diabetes iscaused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Although most type 1 diabetes patients do not have a family history, genetic susceptibility doesplay a vital role in beta cell autoimmunity and destruction. Human leukocyteantigen (HLA) regions are the strongest genetic determinants, which cancontribute 40-50 % of the genetic risk to type 1 diabetes. Other genes, includingINS also contribute to disease risk. The mechanisms of the susceptible genes intype 1 diabetes may relate to their respective roles in antigen presentation,beta cell autoimmunity, immune tolerance, and autoreactive T cell response.Environmental susceptibility factors also contribute to the risk of developingtype 1 diabetes. From an epigenetic standpoint, the pathologic mechanismsinvolved in the development of type 1 diabetes may include DNA methylation,histone modification, microRNA, and molecular mimicry. These mechanisms may actthrough regulating of gene expression, thereby affecting the immune systemresponse toward islet beta cells. One of the characteristics of type 1 diabetesis Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Integrated Modules Analysis To Explore The Molecular Mechanisms Of Phlegm-stasis Cementation Syndrome With Ischemic Heart Disease | Physiology

Frontiers | Integrated Modules Analysis To Explore The Molecular Mechanisms Of Phlegm-stasis Cementation Syndrome With Ischemic Heart Disease | Physiology

Front. Physiol., 22 January 2018 | Integrated Modules Analysis to Explore the Molecular Mechanisms of Phlegm-Stasis Cementation Syndrome with Ischemic Heart Disease 1Research Centre for Disease and Syndrome, Institute of Basic Theory for Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Beijing, China 2School of Computer and Information Technology and Beijing Key Lab of Traffic Data Analysis and Mining, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China 3Data Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) has been the leading cause of death for several decades globally, IHD patients usually hold the symptoms of phlegm-stasis cementation syndrome (PSCS) as significant complications. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PSCS complicated with IHD have not yet been fully elucidated. Materials and Methods: Network medicine methods were utilized to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of IHD phenotypes. Firstly, high-quality IHD-associated genes from both human curated disease-gene association database and biomedical literatures were integrated. Secondly, the IHD disease modules were obtained by dissecting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) topological modules in the String V9.1 database and the mapping of IHD-associated genes to the PPI topological modules. After that, molecular functional analyses (e.g., Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses) for these IHD disease modules were conducted. Finally, the PSCS syndrome modules were identified by mapping the PSCS related symptom-genes to the IHD disease modules, which were further validated by both pharmacological and physiological evidences derived from published literatures. Results: The t Continue reading >>

Transposons In Humans

Transposons In Humans

LINEs (Long interspersed elements); SINEs (Short interspersed elements); HIV-1. Corn is an extreme example, but humans have plenty, too: Transposable elements make up nearly half of the Much of the human genome is made up of transposable elements, also known as jumping genes. These endogenous mutagens can alter genes, promote genomic rearrangements, and may help to drive the speciation of organisms. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile repetitive sequences that make up large fractions of mammalian genomes, including at least 45% of the human genome (Lander et al. These pieces of DNA, also known as transposable elements, can theoretically move or jump themselves around the genome, but they stay put most of the time. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Transposons in maizeThe bacterial transposons were discoveredin 1940s by Barbara McClintock whoworked with maize. These endogenous mutagens can alter genes, promote Transposons can be used to facilitate cloning of genes, identify regulatory elements, and produce transgenic organisms. Retrotransposons, the most common type of transposable element in humans, make up about 45 percent of the human genome. . Oosumi; , W. The cause is that the human genome contains many active TEs that have caused TE inserts in relatively recent 6 days ago In rare cases, however, transposons are associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal rearrangements that cause disease in humans. They found that Teratorn is huge. The features of chromosomes can include protein-coding genes, ancient molecular parasites known as transposons, or stretches of repeat sequences. Mobilization continues in the genomes of extant humans but is now r Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia The Molecular Mechanisms | Endocrinology

Frontiers | Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia The Molecular Mechanisms | Endocrinology

Front. Endocrinol., 31 March 2016 | Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia The Molecular Mechanisms Genetics and Genomic Medicine Programme, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, UCL Institute of Child Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS, London, UK Under normal physiological conditions, pancreatic -cells secrete insulin to maintain fasting blood glucose levels in the range 3.55.5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH), this precise regulation of insulin secretion is perturbed so that insulin continues to be secreted in the presence of hypoglycemia. HH may be due to genetic causes (congenital) or secondary to certain risk factors. The molecular mechanisms leading to HH involve defects in the key genes regulating insulin secretion from the -cells. At this moment, in time genetic abnormalities in nine genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GCK, SCHAD, GLUD1, SLC16A1, HNF1A, HNF4A, and UCP2) have been described that lead to the congenital forms of HH. Perinatal stress, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal diabetes mellitus, and a large number of developmental syndromes are also associated with HH in the neonatal period. In older children and adults insulinoma, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome and post bariatric surgery are recognized causes of HH. This review article will focus mainly on describing the molecular mechanisms that lead to unregulated insulin secretion. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH) is biochemically characterized by the unregulated secretion of insulin from the pancreatic -cells in the presence of low blood glucose levels. Under normal physiological conditions, -cells synthesize, store, and secrete insulin in a precisely controlled manner so that the fasting blood glucose level is kept within a narrow range of 3.55.5 mmol/L ( 1 Continue reading >>

Combivent Coupons - Combivent Vs Albuteral - Who Makes Combivent Inhaler

Combivent Coupons - Combivent Vs Albuteral - Who Makes Combivent Inhaler

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Cloning - Wikipedia

Cloning - Wikipedia

For the cloning of human beings, see Human cloning . For other uses, see Cloning (disambiguation) . Many organisms, including aspen trees , reproduce by cloning Cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria , insects , plants or animals reproduce asexually . Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments ( molecular cloning ), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). Beyond biology , the term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software . The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane , is derived from the Ancient Greek word kln, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In botany, the term lusus was traditionally used. [1] In horticulture , the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o". [2] [3] Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively. Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for hundreds of millions of years. It is the reproduction method used by plants , fungi , and bacteria , and is also the way that clonal colonies reproduce themselves. [4] [5] Examples of these organisms include blueberry plants , hazel trees , the Pando trees , [6] [7] the Kentucky coffeetree , Myrica s, and the American sweetgum. Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes , but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters , non-coding s Continue reading >>

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