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The Creation Of Glucose From Noncarbohydrate Sources Such As Protein Is Called Quizlet

Nutrition & You Ch: 4

Nutrition & You Ch: 4

The most abundant sugar in foods and the primary energy source for your body. carbs/sugars, it breaks down amylose and amylpectin A process by which green plants create carbohydrates using the energy from sunlight. stomach acidity, so breakdown of carbs in stomach - produced by the pancreas, released by duct into the small intestine - breks down amylose and amylopectin into disaccrides The green pigment in plants that absorbs energy from sunlight to be gin the process of photosynthesis. a category of carbohydrates that contain a single sugar unit or two sugar units combined. The storage form of glucose in humans and animals. Nondigestible polysaccharides found in foods. The nondigestible polysaccharides that are added to foods because of a specific desired effect on health. A type of fiber that dissolves in water and is fermented by intestinal bacteria. A type of fiber that doesn't dissolve in water and is not fermented by intestinal bacteria. The indigestible outer shell of the grain kernel. Grain foods that are made with only the endosperm of the kernel. Grain foods that are made with the entire edible grain kernel. Refined grain foods that have folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and iron added. The inability to digest lactose in foods due to low levels of the enzyme lactase. When maldigestion of lactose results in symptoms such as nausea, cramps, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea. Protein- or lipid based chemical substances that act as "messengers" in the body to initiate or direct sctions or processes. The hormone, produced in and released from the pancreas, that directs the glucose from the blood into cells. The process of converting excess glucose into glycogen in your liver and muscle. The hormone that directs glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increas Continue reading >>

Nasm Chptr 4 Exercise Metabolism And Bioenergetics - Jjt

Nasm Chptr 4 Exercise Metabolism And Bioenergetics - Jjt

All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. _____________ is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body. The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise. The material or substance on which an enzyme acts. Proteins, carbs and lipids constitute the main substrates used to transfer metabolic energy to be used for all types of cellular activity and life Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which includes starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are important source of energy. All ___________ are eventually broken down in the body to glucose and simple sugars. Stored as glucose in the liver and muscle sells A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel. The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, _________ is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells. One the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. __________ help the body use some vitamins and help keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In foods there are two types of _________, saturated and unsaturated. The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. Amino Acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds. The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids. Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body. A high-energy compound occurr Continue reading >>

Ch. 23: Digestion Of Carbohydrates

Ch. 23: Digestion Of Carbohydrates

When glucose enters a cell, what is added? To maintain a strong concentration gradient (tells the direction); its no longer glucose according to the transport protein The fate of glucose-6-phosphate depends on what? & what 2 things does it do? IF we still have a lot of energy leftover, what do we make? 1) The cell needs energy (ATP) glycolysis What process occurs when there's not enough glucose? (2) What occurs in the first place if sugar is too low (between meals) -process What uses small non-carbohydrate sources as the second place to look if sugar is too low? Glycolysis breaks down each glucose into what? Other monosaccharide's can be converted into what 2 things? Glucose; one of the glycolysis intermediates Under NORMAL aerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted into what? What is the reaction called when pyruvate is converted to AcoA? In the process of oxidative decarboxylation, what is oxidized? (so it can go into CAC) How many carbons in pyruvate/AcoA in the process of ox. decarb.? The reaction of NAD+ -->NADH (and CO2) is oxidized. What process is this in regards to pyruvate being oxidized into AcoA? When we're in aerobic conditions, what do we want pyruvate to convert to? When we're in anaerobic conditions, what do we want pyruvate to convert to? Under anaerobic conditions (not enough O2), pyruvate is changed to what? The reaction of pyruvate to lactate is what? The reaction of NADH --> NAD+ is reduced. What process is this in regards to pyruvate being reduced to lactate? How many carbons in pyruvate and lactate in the process of reduction? Which has more energy, pyruvate or lactate? How does lactate diffuse out of cells? (what transport) Then where does it go to? (organ) Normal cells are unable to deal with lactate. How come? Muscle cells can't deal with it wh Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of the following statements about diabetes is true? a. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin. b. Type 1 diabetes is more common than type 2 diabetes. c. Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with a healthy body weight. d. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces a type of insulin that is abnormal and thus not recognized by the body. e. Concentrated sweets, such as candy, are strictly excluded from the diabetic diet. Which of the following statements regarding lactose intolerance is false? a. Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant. b. Lactose intolerance is greatest among native North Americans and Southeast Asians. c. People who consume no milk products must take care to meet riboflavin, vitamin D, and calcium needs. e. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Which of the following is an herbal product that has recently been granted the status of "generally recognized as safe" and will be used as an alternative sweetener in the United States? Which of the following statements is false regarding lipid chemistry? a. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids. b. Triglycerides are made up of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. c. Fatty acids made up of 20 carbons are the most common in foods. d. Fatty acids come in long chains made up of an even number of carbon atoms. Which of the following is not a role of phospholipids? b. acting as a cofactor for certain fat-soluble vitamins c. helping fat-soluble substances pass in and out of cells ________ is the nation's number one killer of adults. Continue reading >>

Nasm Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nasm Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself; metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body the examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise the material or substance on which an enzyme acts organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. are all eventually broken down to glucose a simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel the complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells; when carbohydrate energy is needed glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy; also serve as energy stores in the body the chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body a high energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate is formed the breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids FFAS to convert FFAs into acyl-coa molecules, which then are able to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) the state Continue reading >>

Pe469 - Carbohydrates

Pe469 - Carbohydrates

A simple sugar known for its sweet taste that is commonly found in fruits The disaccharide found in milk that is composed of the simple sugars glucose and galactose A commonly consumed disaccharide also known as table sugar. It is composed of linked glucose and fructose molecules A disaccharide made up of two linked molecules of glucose A form of carbohydrate that exists as a monosaccharide or disaccharide A carbohydrate composed of two or more linked simple sugar molecules The point on an increasing continuum of exercise intensity where fats and carbohydrates each contribute 50% of the needed energy and beyond which carbohydrates become the predominant energy source A single sugar molecule. They are the building blocks for more complex carbohydrates A simple carbohydrate that consists of two linked sugar molecules A complex carbohydrate composed of 11 or more linked simple sugars. Starches and glycogen are examples of this The storage form of carbohydrates in animal cells. Consists of intricately branches chains of linked glucose molecules A metabolic pathway that is responsible for the breakdown of glucose. It is unique in that it can function with or without the presence of oxygen An index for classifying carbohydrate based foods on how quickly they are digested and absorbed into the bloodstream. The more quickly blood glucose rises after ingestion, the higher the value A condition in which blood glucose levels fall below normal An abnormally high blood glucose level; usually a feature of diabetes The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as proteins What happens when a combination of appropriate training and high carb diet can result in above normal muscle glycogen stores A high carbohydrate dietary plan commonly used by endurance athletes that is Continue reading >>

Nutrition: Chapter 4: Carbohydrates: Part Two

Nutrition: Chapter 4: Carbohydrates: Part Two

Chemical messengers that regulate the amount of glucose in your blood. They're protein or lipid based chemical substances that act as "messengers" in the body to regulate initiate or direct actions. Examples: insulin, glucagon, and estrogen are examples of hormones After we eat a meal with carbs, glucose floods our blood. To lower our blood glucose level, the pancreas releases the hormone 'insulin' into the blood Insulin helps direct the uptake of glucose by cells and also determines whether it will be used immediately as energy, or stored for later use. When the cells need fuel, insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose to energy If the amount of glucose in your blood exceeds your body's immediate energy needs, insulin directs it to be stored as glycogen and/or fat if glycogen stores are at max. Insulin directs the conversion of excess glucose to fat Glycogen can't be unlimited stored, starch has an unlimited capacity in plants though. Most of the energy stored in our body is in the form of fat, not glycogen When your body's glucose levels dip too low, such as its been longer than 4 hours since your last meal. Your body will then use its glycogen reserve to supply glucose to the blood Glycogen in the liver is used for blood glucose supply, and the glycogen in muscle is used for fuel of the muscles When your blood glucose levels begin to drop, your pancreas releases a hormone called 'glucagon' that directs the release of glucose from the store glycogen in the liver, which will raise your blood glucose level. This breakdown of glycogen is called 'glycogenolysis' Glucagon also signals the liver to start gluconeogenesis The creation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, predominantly protein. Gluconeogenesis can only occur in your liver and kidneys, because these ar Continue reading >>

Biochemistry 1 - Week 3

Biochemistry 1 - Week 3

To syntheize 1 mole of glucose from pyruvate in liver you need: 2 NADH, -Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as amino acids and glycerol. -Under the control of glucagon lipids and or protiens may be converted to glucose. -Chemical by products known as ketone bodies are formed. the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand, Conversion of glucose to glycogen. Under dir. of insulin (hypoglycemic hormone). Glycogen stored mainly in liver and muscle., the formation of glycogen from carbohydrates, Glycogen formation when glucose supplies exceed need for atp synthesis., stimulated by insulin; create glycogen for storage, the synthesis of glucose storage polymer. Occurs in cytosol of cells. Start by converting G-6-P to G-1-P. Net reaction: add UTP to G-1-P to create monomers that are then polymerized. Controlling enzyme is glycogen synthase. Energy expenditure: 1 ATP per UDP-glucose., Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage. conversion of glycogen to glucose when blood sugar is low, steps: glycogen(n) glycogen (n-1) + Glucose 1-P (Phosphorylase) 2. When you've gotten down to 4 residues away from the branch point, the branching enzyme(transferase) will transfer three residues to another branch and hydrolyze the remaining residue (glucosidase), giving a free glucose, source of glucose from cell stores; liver stores can contribute to serum levels. Occurs in cytosol. Net reaction: break down alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages to G-1-P. Controlling enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. Yield about 38 ATP/glucose a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP, in cellular respiration, series of a Continue reading >>

Nasm Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nasm Chapter 4 Flashcards | Quizlet

The formation of glucose from non-carb sources, such as amino acids is called Which energy system creates ATP from a phosphocreatine molecule? What energy system occurs without the presence of oxygen? The first step in the oxidation of fat is called A respiratory quotient of 0.7 indicates that fat is supplying ___ percent of the fuel for metabolism All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise The material or substance on which an enzyme acts. Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar. A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy id needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated The chemical or substrate form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds The formation of glucose from nonc Continue reading >>

A And P Ii Chapter 25 Review

A And P Ii Chapter 25 Review

results in the net gain of 2 ATP molecules. Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for vision and for healthy skin? Two hours ago, a student ate enchiladas, rice and beans for lunch. Which of the following is true of this student's metabolism The primary hormone regulating the student's metabolism at this time is insulin. Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for DNA synthesis, normal blood cell production and the prevention of neural tube defects? conversion of one C6H12O6 to two pyruvic acid molecules Which of the following is an effect of starvation? The most frequently used "energy currency" molecule of the cell is a series of reactions that transfers energy from FADH2 and NADH to ATP The sum of all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body is How is excess glucose stored in liver and muscle cells synthesis of triglycerides from glucose and fatty acids When glucose levels are low, glucagon and cortisol can stimulate production of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources by a process called the process by which the glycogen present in the liver is transformed into glucose, to be released into the blood a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids what is the role of oxygen in aerobic cellular respiration (metabolism) keeps electron transport chain going so ATP can continuously be made Under what conditions does pyruvic acid form lactic acid This commonly occurs in muscle tissue that is trying to use oxygen faster than it's coming in. Note that a ketone group has been coverted into an alcohol group. Pyruvic acid picks up two additional hydrogen atoms to become lactic acid, so this is a reduction reaction. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 2 (chap 4, 5, 6)

Nutrition Exam 2 (chap 4, 5, 6)

Which of the following artificial sweeteners contains a warning for those with PKU? The DRI recommendation for fiber intake is: Which of the following protein foods also provides a significant amount of carbohydrate to the diet? Which sugar can partially be absorbed in the mouth? ________ is a polysaccharide, but not a dietary source of carbohydrate. Which of the following statements about diabetes is true? In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce insulin. When blood glucose levels fall, which hormone is secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to break down its glycogen? Diets rich in fiber may provide all of the following health benefits, except: Which of the following food items is not a source of soluble fiber? Some studies have shown that selecting foods with a low glycemic index may improve all of the following, except: By following the USDA Food Pattern and making careful food selections, a typical adult can obtain all the needed nutrients within an allowance of about ________ kcalories. Which of the following statements regarding lactose intolerance is false? Total elimination of milk products is necessary for those who are lactose intolerant. All of the following locations in the body store glycogen, except: Which of the following is an herbal product that has recently been granted the status of "generally recognized as safe" and will be used as an alternative sweetener in the United States? Which location along the GI tract is responsible for most of the work of carbohydrate digestion? Which of the following beverages may be helpful in protecting against dental caries? Which of the following statements regarding glucose is incorrect? Glucose is one of the two sugars in every disaccharide except maltose. During which period in life is lactase a Continue reading >>

Ch.4 Sutdy Prep Flashcards | Quizlet

Ch.4 Sutdy Prep Flashcards | Quizlet

all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise the material or substance on which an enzyme acts organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are important source of energy a simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells.When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells one of the three main classes of food and a source of energy in the body. They help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food,there are two types, saturated and unsaturated the chemical or substrate form in which most fat exist in food a well as the body amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biologic compounds formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids a high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed an anaerobic means of producing ATP is through the chemical breakdown of glucose, a process referred to as what? Most fitness workouts will place a greater stress on this system do the typical range of reps being 8-12 1. aerobic glycosis 2. the krebs cycle 3. the electron transport chain (ETC) the breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are avail Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 Nasm Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 4 Nasm Flashcards | Quizlet

all the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself the main sources of chemical energy for most organisms are refers to the examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise the material or substance on which an enzyme acts provide the body with a source of fuel and energy required for all daily activities including exercise the primary end product after the digestion of carbohydrates is the formation of a simple sugar manufactured by the body form carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel the storage form of carbohydrates is called the complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells one of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. they also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated the chemical or substrate form in which most fat exist in food as well as in the body is called When calories are consumed but not immediately needed by cells or tissues they are converted to..... the main sources of chemical energy for most organisms are amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur and that have several essential biological compounds one of the primary sources of immediate energy for cellular metabolism is stored in the chemical bonds of a molecule called the formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources , such as amino acids Used as an assist in a negative energy balance(low Continue reading >>

Fshn 265- Exam 3 Flashcards | Quizlet

Fshn 265- Exam 3 Flashcards | Quizlet

Which metabolic process refers to the breakdown of glycogen to glucose Excess carbohydrates in the diet are first stored as Fatty acids are cleaved from the glycerol backbone during digestion to yield free fatty acids in a process called The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as glucogenic amino acids, is called The process of converting excess glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscle is referred to as The process in which glucose is broken down to produce energy is called is the process that converts excess glucose or amino acids into fatty acids to be stored as triglycerides in the adipose cells. carbohydrate metabolism during the postabsorptive state Muscle glycogen stores are depleted early in the postabsorptive state. Glycogen stores are used during short periods of fasting overnight or between meals. These stores are depleted early when fasting becomes prolonged. protein metabolism during the postabsorptive state Amino acids are used to produce glucose through gluconeogenesis during the postabsorptive state. lipid metabolism during the postabsorptive state F.A. rapidly broken down from adipose tissues and converted to ketone bodies glycolosis-acetyl coa-TCA cycle-Electron Transport Chain-Oxidative Phosporylation benefit endurance athletes. replaces water and electrolytes. Glucose facilitates electrolyte absorption. not idea! does not restore electrolytes and glycogen stores measure calories in foods in terms of heat. burn hotter=more calories what keeps us alive, and heart pumping. depends on many factors; age, gender, body size, genes, ethnicity, nutritional state energy to digest food. protein has highest thermic effect because it require ATP to get absorbed. Obese individuals have a lower thermic effect due to less muscle mass. thermal Continue reading >>

Nasm Chapter 4- Exercise Metabolism And Bioenergetics

Nasm Chapter 4- Exercise Metabolism And Bioenergetics

A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed. Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body. The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFAs) to convert FFAs into acyl-CoA molecules, which then are available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to the production of additional ATP. Three main pathways used by the kinetic chain to produce ATP. 1. Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which include starches, cellulose, and sugars, and are an important source of energy. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar. 2. Neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (such as sugars, starches, and celluloses), which make up a large portion of animal foods. A condition of balance between opposed forces, influences, or actions. excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) The state in which the body's metabolism is elevated after exercise. The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise. One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy in the body. Fats help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy. They also serve as energy stores for the body. In food, there are two types of fats, saturated and unsaturated. The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids. A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein, which serves as the body's main source of fuel. The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells. When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cel Continue reading >>

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