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Syndromes Of Ketosis-prone Diabetes Mellitus

Syndromes Of Ketosis-prone Diabetes Mellitus

Syndromes Of Ketosis-prone Diabetes Mellitus

INTRODUCTION Since the mid-1990s, increasing attention has been focused on a heterogeneous condition characterized by presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients who do not necessarily fit the typical characteristics of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Earlier reports used the terms "atypical diabetes," "Flatbush diabetes," "diabetes type 1B," and "ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus" to describe subsets of this condition, and it was noted that in some instances patients presented with DKA as the first manifestation of diabetes and evolved to insulin independence [1]. While initially these reports suggested that the condition, now termed ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD), might be limited to persons of non-Caucasian ethnicity, its prevalence appears to be increasing in a wide range of ethnic groups worldwide [2-5]. The classification, pathophysiology, natural history, and management of KPD will be reviewed here. Patients with islet autoantibodies who do not present with ketosis, including those termed "latent autoimmune diabetes in adults" (LADA), "type 1.5 diabetes" [6,7], and "slowly progressing type 1 diabetes" [8] are discussed elsewhere. (See "Classification of diabetes mellitus and genetic diabetic syndromes".) CLASSIFICATION OF KPD The goal of new classification schemes is to enable clinicians to predict which patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) require temporary insulin treatment versus life-long insulin therapy. They also highlight subgroups for genetic and pathogenetic studies. Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) comprises a group of diabetes syndromes characterized by severe beta cell dysfunction (manifested by presentation with DKA or unprovoked ketosis) and a variable clinical course. These syndromes do not fit the traditional categories of diabetes d Continue reading >>

Ketosis-onset Diabetes And Ketosis-prone Diabetes: Same Or Not?

Ketosis-onset Diabetes And Ketosis-prone Diabetes: Same Or Not?

Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not? Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Harbin Medical University, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150086, China Received 1 March 2013; Revised 3 April 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013 Copyright 2013 Beiyan Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and -cell functions of 4 subgroups (A classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. -cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (except A subgroup of ketosis prone group), male patients were more than female ones. The age of the majority of patients in ketosis prone group was older than that of ketosis-onset group, except A subgroup of ketosis prone group. The durations from the patient first time ketosis or DKA onset to admitting to the hospital have significant difference, which were much longer for the ketosis prone group except the A+ + subgroup. BMI has no significant difference among subgroups. FPG of ketosis prone group was lower than that of A + subgroup and A+ + subgroup in ketosis-onset group. A subgroup and A+ + subgroup of ketosis prone group have lower HbA1c than ketosis-onset group. Conclusions. Ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes do not absolutely Continue reading >>

The Influencing Factors Associated With Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Syndrome Of Diabetes Mellitus :: Science Publishing Group

The Influencing Factors Associated With Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Syndrome Of Diabetes Mellitus :: Science Publishing Group

Wang, X., & Tan, H. (2015). Male predominance in ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Biomedical Reports, 3(4), 439-442. doi:10.3892/br.2015.461 Maldonado, M., Hampe, C. S., Gaur, L. K., DAmico, S., Iyer, D., Hammerle, L. P., Balasubramanyam, A. (2003). Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Dissection of a Heterogeneous Syndrome Using an Immunogenetic and -Cell Functional Classification, Prospective Analysis, and Clinical Outcomes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(11), 5090-5098. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-030180 Vaibhav, A., Mathai, M., & Gorman, S. (2013). Atypical diabetes in children: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. Case Reports, 2013(jan08 1), bcr2012007704-bcr2012007704. doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-007704 Matsui, J., Tamasawa, N., Tanabe, J., Kasai, N., Murakami, H., Matsuki, K., & Suda, T. (2005). Clinical characteristics of Japanese youth-onset type 2 diabetes with ketonuria. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 70(3), 235-238. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2005.03.037 Seok, H., Jung, C. H., Kim, S. W., Lee, M. J., Lee, W. J., Kim, J. H., & Lee, B. (2013). Clinical characteristics and insulin independence of Koreans with new-onset type 2 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 29(6), 507-513. doi:10.1002/dmrr.2421 Ekpebegh, C., Longo-Mbenza, B., & Blanco-Blanco, E. (2014). OP9 Islet immunity and beta cell reserve of indigenous Black South Africans with ketoacidosis at initial diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 103, S11. doi:10.1016/s0168-8227(14)70036-1 Pitteloud, N., & Philippe, J. (2000). Characteristics of Caucasian type 2 diabetic patients during ketoacidosis and at follow-up. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 130(16), 576-582. Umpierrez, G. E., Smiley, D., Robalino, G., Peng, L., Gosmanov, A. R., & Kita Continue reading >>

Pathogenesis Of Ketosis Prone Diabetes Balasubramanyam, Ashok Baylor College Of Medicine, Houston, Tx, United States

Pathogenesis Of Ketosis Prone Diabetes Balasubramanyam, Ashok Baylor College Of Medicine, Houston, Tx, United States

Ketosis-prone Diabetes (KPD) is an emerging, widespread form of diabetes characterized by presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The most common form of KPD is a subgroup termed """"""""A-2+"""""""" KPD. Apart from their proneness to ketosis and non-immune mediated, severe beta cell dysfunction at the time of initial presentation, the clinical features of A-2+ KPD patients are very similar to those of """"""""typical"""""""" patients with type 2 diabetes - they are middle-aged, overweight or obese, have a high frequency of metabolic syndrome, and have residual beta cell functional reserve. The pathophysiology of this novel syndrome is unknown. Using a metabolomic approach in carefully phenotyped patients compared to lean and obese non-diabetic controls, we have found that clinically stable, new onset A-2+ KPD patients have lower concentrations of total fatty acids and acyl carnitines, higher concentrations of an acyl carnitine marker of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and markedly higher concentrations of glutamine / glutamate, together with higher ornithine, lower citrulline and arginine, and depressed levels of amino acids that enter the TCA cycle via anaplerosis. We hypothesize that A-2+ KPD patients have a high rate of disposal of fatty acids, marked by an increased shunt towards ketogenesis associated with impaired oxidative flux through the TCA cycle, and defects in transfering nitrogen from glutamine / glutamate to the urea cycle and carbon from glutamine / glutamate to the TCA cycle. Collectively, these defects could result in impaired TCA cycling and decreased ATP generation in mitochondria, leading to increased ketogenesis (in the liver) and impaired insulin secretion (in beta cells). We propose to test these hypotheses using stable isotope / mass spectrometric Continue reading >>

Update In Pulmonary Medicine | Annals Of Internal Medicine | American College Of Physicians

Update In Pulmonary Medicine | Annals Of Internal Medicine | American College Of Physicians

Several investigators have reported that more than half of African-American persons with new diagnoses of diabetic ketoacidosis have clinical, metabolic, and immunologic features of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. These patients are usually obese, have a strong family history of diabetes, have a low prevalence of autoimmune markers, and lack a genetic association with HLA. Their initial presentation is acute, with a few days to weeks of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss and lack of a precipitating cause of metabolic decompensation. At presentation, they have markedly impaired insulin secretion and insulin action, but intensified diabetic management results in significant improvement in -cell function and insulin sensitivity sufficient to allow discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of follow-up. On discontinuation of insulin therapy, the period of near-normoglycemic remission may last for a few months to several years. The absence of autoimmune markers and the presence of measurable insulin secretion have proven useful in predicting near-normoglycemic remission and long-term insulin dependence in adult patients with a history of diabetic ketoacidosis. This clinical presentation is commonly reported in African and African-American persons but is also observed in Hispanic persons and those from other minority ethnic groups. The underlying mechanisms for -cell dysfunction in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes are not known; however, preliminary evidence suggests an increased susceptibility to glucose desensitization. Continue reading >>

Omim Entry - # 612227 - Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-prone; Kpd

Omim Entry - # 612227 - Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-prone; Kpd

A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that susceptibility to ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus is conferred by homozygous mutation in the PAX4 gene ( 167413 ) on chromosome 7q32. One patient has been found to be heterozygous for mutation in PAX4. In addition to classic type 1 (see 222100 ) and type 2 (see 125853 ) diabetes mellitus, atypical presentations are seen, particularly in populations of African ancestry. Ketosis-prone diabetes, the most common atypical form, is characterized by an acute initial presentation with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis, as seen in classic type 1 diabetes, but after initiation of insulin therapy, prolonged remission is often possible with cessation of insulin therapy and maintenance of appropriate metabolic control. Metabolic studies show a markedly blunted insulin secretory response to glucose, partially reversible with the improvement of blood glucose control. Variable levels of insulin resistance are observed, especially in obese patients. Pancreatic beta-cell autoimmunity is a rare finding, and association with type 1 susceptibility HLA alleles is variable ( Sobngwi et al., 2002 ). Maldonado et al. (2003) studied 103 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), classifying them into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of autoimmune markers for type 1 diabetes (A+ or A-) and the presence or absence of beta-cell functional reserve (beta+ or beta-). There were 18 patients in the A+beta- group, 23 in the A-beta- group, 11 in the A+beta+ group, and 51 in the A-beta+ group. Collectively, the 2 beta- groups differed from the 2 beta+ groups in earlier onset and longer duration of diabetes, lower body mass index (BMI), less glycemic improvement, and persistent insulin requirement. HLA class II genotyping showed Continue reading >>

Male Predominance In Ketosisprone Diabetes Mellitus (review)

Male Predominance In Ketosisprone Diabetes Mellitus (review)

Male predominance in ketosisprone diabetes mellitus (Review) Affiliations: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China Published online on: May 8, 2015 Metrics: HTML 0 views | PDF 0 views Cited By (CrossRef): 0 citations The incidence of ketosisprone diabetes mellitus (KPDM) shows a higher prevalence in men. The clear male predominance of this syndrome and its underlying pathogenesis mechanisms are unclear. KPDM, once described as atypical diabetes mellitus, idiopathetic type1 diabetes (type1B diabetes) and flatbush diabetes, is an uncommon form of diabetes characterized by severe reversible insulin deficiency. KPDM was first described and mostly observed in males of AfricanAmerican descent and recently in Asian populations, including Japanese and Chinese. Patients with KPDM often present acutely with diabetic ketoacidosis without any immunological autoantibody to islet antigens of classic type1 diabetes but demonstrate clinical and metabolic features of type2 diabetes. Accumulating data indicated that genderrelated body fat distribution, hormonal and genetic factors are associated with the diabetic process and the human glucose homeostasis and metabolism. A controversial question is whether and to what degree those factors contribute to the phenomenon of male predominance in KPDM. The present review focuses on the role of gender hormones and other potential precipitating factors in explaining the male predominance in KPDM patients. Recent evidence indicates that ketosis-pronediabetes mellitus (KPDM), which was once described as atypicaldiabetes mellitus, idiopathetic type 1 diabetes (type 1B diabetes)or flatbush diabetes, shows a 2- or 3-fold higher prevalence in mencompared to women ( 1 5 Continue reading >>

Ketosis-prone Diabetes

Ketosis-prone Diabetes

Ketosis-prone diabetes or KPD is an intermediate form of diabetes that has some characteristics of type 1 and some of type 2 diabetes. However, it is distinct from latent autoimmune diabetes , a form of type 1 sometimes referred to as type 1.5. [1] KPD is readily diagnosible because it presents a single characteristic, ketoacidosis, which if present, confirms it as ketosis-prone diabetes. [2] KPD comes in four forms depending upon the presence or absence of -cell autoantibodies (A+ or A) and -cell functional reserve (+ or ). [3] ^ There is clearly a spectrum of clinical phenotypes among patients with islet autoantibodies who do not present with ketosis, including those termed latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) (30), type 1.5 diabetes (31,32,33), and slowly progressing type 1 diabetes (34). A similar spectrum exists in KPD that includes the very different phenotypes of A+ and A++ KPD. A+ KPD is synonymous with classic, early onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes; A++ KPD may overlap with LADA. However, there are differences between LADA, as recently defined by the Immunology of Diabetes Society, and A++ KPD patients; most importantly, the definition of LADA excludes patients who require insulin within the first 6 months after diagnosis, whereas the majority (90%) of A++ KPD patients present with DKA as the first manifestation of diabetes and therefore require insulin at the start. Continue reading >>

Hba1c As A Screening Tool For Ketosis In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Hba1c As A Screening Tool For Ketosis In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

HbA1c as a Screening tool for Ketosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Scientific Reports volume 6, Articlenumber:39687 (2016) Ketosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is overlooked due to atypical symptoms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for ketosis in T2DM patients. This retrospective study consisted of 253 T2DM patients with ketosis at Shanghai 10th Peoples Hospital during a period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. A control group consisted of 221 T2DM patients without ketosis randomly selected from inpatients during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c as an indicator for ketosis. Higher HbA1c levels were correlated with ketosis. In patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.832, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7540.911. The optimal threshold was 10.1% (87 mmol/mol). In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the AUC was 0.811 (95% CI: 0.7670.856), with an optimal threshold of 8.6% (70 mmol/mol). HbA1c is a potential screening tool for ketosis in patients with T2DM. Ketosis is much more likely with HbA1c values at 10.1% in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and HbA1c values at 8.6% in patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is defined as the A-+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) subgroup 1 . This subgroup is a major factor driving the increasing prevalence of KPD 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 . The term ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is often used to describe the A-+ patients who present with new onset diabetes, unprovoked diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) 8 , 9 and acidosis 10 , 11 , 12 . As a result, the prevalence of ke Continue reading >>

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes

Time to revise the classification of diabetes Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most serious hyperglycemic emergency in patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for >100,000 hospital admissions per year in the U.S. (1) and is present in 25–40% of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed diabetes (2) and in 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among adult patients with diabetes (3,4). DKA has long been considered a key clinical feature of type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder characterized by severe and irreversible insulin deficiency. In recent years, however, an increasing number of ketoacidosis cases without precipitating cause have also been reported in children, adolescents, and adult subjects with type 2 diabetes (5–7). These subjects are usually obese and have a strong family history of diabetes and a low prevalence of autoimmune markers. At presentation, they have impairment of both insulin secretion and insulin action, but aggressive diabetes management results in significant improvement in β-cell function and insulin sensitivity sufficient to allow discontinuation of insulin therapy within a few months of treatment (7–9). Upon discontinuation of insulin, the period of near-normoglycemic remission may last for a few months to several years (10–13). This clinical presentation has been reported primarily in Africans and African Americans (6,7,14–16) and also in other minority ethnic groups (12,17,18). This variant of type 2 diabetes has been referred to in the literature as idiopathic type 1 diabetes, atypical diabetes, Flatbush diabetes, diabetes type 1 (1/2) (somewhere between type 1 and type 2 diabetes), and more recently as ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (9). In this issue of Diabetes Care, Balasubramayam et al. (19) co Continue reading >>

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes

Ketosis-prone Type 2 Diabetes

The original schema for classifying diabetes mellitus (DM) consisted of 2 categories known as type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus . Type 1 diabetes was also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Patients with this type of diabetes were considered prone to develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) . Patients with type 1 diabetes were found to have an absolute insulin deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Patients with type 2 diabetics, or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, were not considered to be at risk for DKA. Type 2 diabetes is strongly associated with obesity and a family history of diabetes. These patients have peripheral insulin resistance with initially normal or elevated circulating levels of endogenous insulin. Since the mid-1990s, the number of patients who presented with DKA but did not require long-term insulin therapy has increased. Many such patients had conditions that resembled traditionally defined type 2 diabetes, in that they were obese and often had a family history of diabetes. Subsequent to these observations, new ways to classify diabetes were devised. The system of classification that most accurately predicts the need for insulin treatment 12 months after presentation with DKA is known as the A system. This system classifies diabetics into 4 groups as follows: A+- - Autoantibodies present, cell function absent A++ - Autoantibodies present, cell function present A-- - Autoantibodies absent, cell function absent A-+ - Autoantibodies absent, cell function present The commonest ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) subgroup in a longitudinal study was A-+ (54%), followed by A-- (20%) A+- (18%) and A++ (8%). [ 1 ] As noted above, in the A-+ subgroup of patients with KPD cell antibodies are absent and cell function is pres Continue reading >>

Syndromes Of Ketosis-prone Diabetes Mellitus.

Syndromes Of Ketosis-prone Diabetes Mellitus.

1. Endocr Rev. 2008 May;29(3):292-302. doi: 10.1210/er.2007-0026. Epub 2008 Feb 21. Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Balasubramanyam A(1), Nalini R, Hampe CS, Maldonado M. (1)Translational Metabolism Unit, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Baylor College of Medicine, Room 700B, One Baylor Plaza, and Endocrine Service, Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. [email protected] Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a widespread, emerging, heterogeneous syndromecharacterized by patients who present with diabetic ketoacidosis or unprovokedketosis but do not necessarily have the typical phenotype of autoimmune type 1diabetes. Multiple, severe forms of beta-cell dysfunction appear to underlie the pathophysiology of KPD. Until recently, the syndrome has lacked an accurate,clinically relevant and etiologically useful classification scheme. We haveutilized a large, longitudinally followed, heterogeneous, multiethnic cohort ofKPD patients to identify four clinically and pathophysiologically distinctsubgroups that are separable by the presence or absence of beta-cell autoimmunityand the presence or absence of beta-cell functional reserve. The resulting"Abeta" classification system of KPD has proven to be highly accurate andpredictive of such clinically important outcomes as glycemic control and insulin dependence, as well as an aid to biochemical and molecular investigations intonovel causes of beta-cell dysfunction. In this review, we describe the currentstate of knowledge in regard to the natural history, pathophysiology, andtreatment of the subgroups of KPD, with an emphasis on recent advances inunderstanding their immunological and genetic bases. Continue reading >>

Ketosis Prone Type 2 Diabetes - General Practice Notebook

Ketosis Prone Type 2 Diabetes - General Practice Notebook

Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes/atypical diabetes/flatbush diabetes is a widespread, emerging, heterogeneous syndrome characterised by patients who present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or unprovoked ketosis with hyperglycaemia but do not necessarily have the typical phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes is an uncommon form of diabetes characterized by severe reversible insulin deficiency atypical diabetes was originally described by Banerji et al as a unique form of diabetes among African-American patients who presented with DKA as their initial manifestation of diabetes (1) ketosis prone type 2 diabetes, though first described and mostly observed in males of African-American descent, has been identified in Asian populations, including Japanese and Chinese there is an increased male preponderance in this condition in a South African study, half the presentations of DKA were due to type 2 diabetes (2) at initial presentation, the patients with type 2 diabetes and DKA cannot be reliably separated from those with type 1 diabetes; however, they tend to be middle-aged, obese, hypertensive and may have markers of insulin resistance such as acanthosis nigricans (2) often a positive family history of type 2 diabetes mechanism underlying their presentation seems to be the combination of insensitivity to insulin and transient loss of ability to release adequate amounts of insulin in contrast to type 1 diabetes, patients with atypical diabetes undergo spontaneous remission and maintain long-term insulin independence (1,3) during admission the patients with type 2 diabetes gradually lose their insulin resistance patients with ketosis prone type 2 diabetes do not have the autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes and they have recovery of insulin secretion as evidenced by Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Classification

Diabetes Mellitus Classification

CLINICAL UPDATE Jorge de Faria Maraschin; Nádia Murussi; Vanessa Witter; Sandra Pinho Silveiro Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil ABSTRACT The right classification for diabetes mellitus (DM) allows a more adequate treatment and comprises four categories: type 1 DM, type 2 DM, other types, and gestational diabetes. In some cases, there might be a superposition of situations, especially with regard to the DM that initiates in the young adult or is initially presented with diabetic ketoacidosis intermediately to type 1 and 2 DM. Thus, additions to the classic classification system have been proposed as assessing the presence of autoimmunity (antibody) and b cell function (C-peptide) to precisely define the subtypes. The aim of this literature review was to analyze these diagnostic indexes performance in the DM classification and to describe subtypes with details. The antibodies against pancreas confirm autoimmunity, and the antibody against insulin is more accurate before 5 years old, while the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase is more accurate after 20 years old, a test which remains positive for a longer period. The measurement of C-peptide evaluates the pancreatic insulin reserve, and the most largely used methods of stimulation are the measurement after meals or after intravenous glucagon. C-peptide values < 1.5 ng/ml define a patient with absent pancreatic function and, above this value, patients with preserved function. When the presence of antibodies (A+) directed to the pancreas is combined to its insulin secretion capability (β+), it is possible to subdivide DMs classification in type 1A (A+β-) and 1B (A+β-); and type 2A (A+β+) and 2B (A-β+), which allows a more precise classification and treatment besides opening hor Continue reading >>

Related Words - Find Words Related To Another Word

Related Words - Find Words Related To Another Word

This tool helps you find words that are related to a specific word or phrase. Also check out ReverseDictionary.org and DescribingWords.io . Here are some words that are associated with ~term~. You can get the definitions of these ~term~ related words by clicking on them. Also check out describing words for ~term~ and find more words related to ~term~ using ReverseDictionary.org Our algorithm is scanning multiple databases for related words. Please be patient! :) Below is a list of words related to another word. You can click words for definitions. Sorry if there's a few unusual suggestions! The algorithm isn't perfect, but it does a pretty good job for common-ish words. Here's the list of words that are related to another word: As you've probably noticed, words related to "term" are listed above. Hopefully the generated list of term related words above suit your needs. P.S. There are some problems that I'm aware of, but can't currently fix (because they are out of the scope of this project). The main one is that individual words can have many different senses (meanings), so when you search for a word like mean, the engine doesn't know which definition you're referring to ("bullies are mean" vs. "what do you mean?", etc.), so consider that your search query for words like term may be a bit ambiguous to the engine in that sense, and the related terms that are returned may reflect this. You might also be wondering: What type of word is ~term~ ? Related Words runs on several different algorithms which compete to get their results higher in the list. One such algorithm uses word embedding to convert words into many dimensional vectors which represent their meanings. The vectors of the words in your query are compared to a huge database of of pre-computed vectors to find sim Continue reading >>

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