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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms

Type 1 diabetes develops gradually, but the symptoms may seem to come on suddenly. If you notice that you or your child have several of the symptoms listed below, make an appointment to see the doctor. Here’s why symptoms seem to develop suddenly: something triggers the development of type 1 diabetes (researchers think it’s a viral infection—read this article on what causes type 1 diabetes, and the body loses its ability to make insulin. However, at that point, there’s still insulin in the body so glucose levels are still normal. Over time, a decreasing amount of insulin is made in the body, but that can take years. When there’s no more insulin in the body, blood glucose levels rise quickly, and these symptoms can rapidly develop: Extreme weakness and/or tiredness Extreme thirst—dehydration Increased urination Abdominal pain Nausea and/or vomiting Blurry vision Wounds that don’t heal well Irritability or quick mood changes Changes to (or loss of) menstruation There are also signs of type 1 diabetes. Signs are different from symptoms in that they can be measured objectively; symptoms are experienced and reported by the patient. Signs of type 1 diabetes include: Weight loss—despite eating more Rapid heart rate Reduced blood pressure (falling below 90/60) Low body temperature (below 97º F) There is an overall lack of public awareness of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Making yourself aware of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes is a great way to be proactive about your health and the health of your family members. If you notice any of these signs or symptoms, it’s possible that you have (or your child has) type 1 diabetes. A doctor can make that diagnosis by checking blood glucose levels. Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Signs And Symptoms

Diabetes Mellitus Signs And Symptoms

There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes: About 5 to 10 percent of those with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. It's an autoimmune disease, meaning the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Patients with type 1 diabetes have very little or no insulin, and must take insulin everyday. Although the condition can appear at any age, typically it's diagnosed in children and young adults, which is why it was previously called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes: Accounting for 90 to 95 percent of those with diabetes, type 2 is the most common form. Usually, it's diagnosed in adults over age 40 and 80 percent of those with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Because of the increase in obesity, type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed at younger ages, including in children. Initially in type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but the insulin doesn't function properly, leading to a condition called insulin resistance. Eventually, most people with type 2 diabetes suffer from decreased insulin production. Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. It occurs more often in African Americans, Native Americans, Latinos and people with a family history of diabetes. Typically, it disappears after delivery, although the condition is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. If you think that you have diabetes, visit your doctor immediately for a definite diagnosis. Common symptoms include the following: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Extreme hunger Sudden vision changes Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Feeling very tired much of the time Very dry skin Sores that are slow to heal More infections than usual Some people may experience o Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Southern Cross Medical Library Southern Cross Medical Library information is necessarily of a general nature. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page. Diabetes is diagnosed when a person has too much glucose (sugar) in the blood, as a result of the body having insufficient insulin or resisting the effects of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is a life-long variation of the disease that typically takes hold in childhood or adolescence, and is the result of the body’s immune system destroying the pancreas where insulin is made. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes can appear suddenly. The condition can cause serious health complications over time but can be managed with insulin replacement therapy and lifestyle changes. General information Diabetes mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes) is a group of diseases characterised by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time. This page deals with type 1 diabetes. Other diabetes variations include: Type 2 diabetes – associated with a person being overweight Gestational diabetes – where a mother cannot produce enough insulin during pregnancy Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5-8% of people with diabetes, while type 2 diabetes is much more common, accounting for 85–90% of diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes used to be known as juvenile diabetes and most often occurs in childhood, but it can also develop in adults. The condition may affect around one in every 5000 New Zealanders under the age of 15. Type 1 diabetes is more common in New Zealand Europeans than other ethnic groups. Causes Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, it is generally considered to be an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks Continue reading >>

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Abstract In Brief Older adults with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for severe hypoglycemia and may have serious comorbid conditions. Problems with cognition, mobility, dexterity, vision, hearing, depression, and chronic pain interfere with the ability to follow complex insulin regimens. With the development of geriatric syndromes, unpredictable eating, and frailty, treatment regimens must be modified with the goal of minimizing hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia and maximizing quality of life. Challenges in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Older Adults There is a paucity of data related to glycemic management and control of type 1 diabetes later in life. The Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Exchange clinic registry reported characteristics of older adults with type 1 diabetes who are followed in diabetes centers across the United States.17 Of those ages 50 to < 65 years (n = 2,066), mean A1C was 7.7% (27% had an A1C < 7.0%, 46% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 11% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%), and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.5 times daily. Of those ≥ 65 years of age (n = 683), mean A1C was 7.4% (34% had an A1C < 7.0%, 52% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 8% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%) and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.6 times daily. Greater frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was associated with lower A1C levels in both those who used an insulin pump and those who administered insulin via injections.18 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was lower with increasing age and was not associated with duration of diabetes.19 DKA was more likely in those with higher A1C levels and lower socioeconomic status. No relationship was found between DKA and pump versus injection use. Longstanding diabetes in older adults has been associated with increased risks of severe hypo Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus — IDDM — or juvenile diabetes) occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin because the cells that produce insulin have been destroyed by the immune system. Without insulin, sugar is not able to move into the cells. Sugar therefore remains in the blood, leading to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 is the most common type of diabetes found in children and young adults. It is now believed that diabetes develops gradually, over many months or even years. The immune system destroys more and more insulin-producing (beta) cells in the pancreas over time, until the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is made. Who gets type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is seen most often in children and young adults, although the disease can occur at any age. People with Type 1 disease are often thin to normal weight and often lose weight prior to diagnosis. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes: Any combination of the following factors may put people at a higher risk for type 1 diabetes: Self-allergy (autoimmunity): The immune system usually protects us from disease, but in the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system turns against the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin (beta cells). If you have any type of autoimmune disease, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Doctors can test for diabetes antibodies, specifically one called GAD65. Measuring this antibody early in the disease can help your medical team determine if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Genes: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have inherited genes putting them at risk. Over 50% of those diagnosed with type 1 diabetes also have a close relative with Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Symptoms And Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes: Symptoms And Treatment

MORE Type I diabetes is a disease where the pancreas stops producing insulin, a hormone that signals the body's cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream and convert it into energy. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease, occurring when the body's own immune system destroys the islet cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. The disease had formerly been called "juvenile diabetes" and "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," but the American Diabetes Association and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) recommended it be referred to only as Type I diabetes in 1997. Type I diabetes, which accounts for about 5 percent of all cases of diabetes, according to the ADA, is typically diagnosed in younger individuals. In some adults, the body simply doesn't produce enough insulin, which is known as Type 2 diabetes, a far more common disease. Symptoms & tests The inability to produce insulin can have a number of symptoms. A lack of sugar in the blood cells can result in hunger, as well as fatigue. Weight loss is also a frequent symptom of Type I diabetes, as tissue will shrink without sugar being stored in it. Additionally, the imbalance in sugar leads to the flow of fluid from the cells into the rest of the body. Thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision and tingling in the body's extremities can all result from this situation. "What we see in children is that they start being hungry and thirsty, and they're urinating a lot," said Dr. Spyros Mezitis, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. "They're feeling weak, they're losing weight." Some of these symptoms can become more extreme without treatment, resulting in blindness, amputation of limbs or kidney failure, among other complications. It remains unclear what trigge Continue reading >>

Prospective Assessment Of Hypoglycemia Symptoms In Children And Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

Prospective Assessment Of Hypoglycemia Symptoms In Children And Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

Abstract PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of symptoms of hypoglycemia in children and in adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Adults with diabetes and parents of children with diabetes who were participants were asked to call a phone system to report episodes of hypoglycemia (presence of symptoms and a blood glucose <4.0 mmol/L). For each episode, blood glucose reading and a scoring of 28 symptoms on a 7-point scale (1 = not present, 7 = very intense) were collected. RESULTS: Sixty six children (49.2% males, mean age = 12.1±2.4 years, mean age at diagnosis = 7.5±2.9 years) and 53 adults (41.2% males, mean age 38.7±14.5 years, mean age at diagnosis = 17.5±12.9 years) with type 1 diabetes participated. The most common symptoms in adults were hunger, sweating, trembling and weakness. The most common symptoms in children were weakness, trembling and hunger. The 2 most discriminating variables between children and adults were sleepiness and tiredness, which were more common in children (p<0.01). In a comparative factor analysis, 3 factors emerged: factor 1, autonomic and neuroglycopenic; factor 2, behavioural; and factor 3, general malaise. Factors 2 and 3 were significantly more common or intense in children than in adults; MANOVA: F(1, 113) = 6.72, p<0.05 and F(1, 113) = 4.64, p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms relating to behaviour and general malaise are more common in children than in adults with type 1 diabetes. The results of this study may assist providers in educating caregivers of children and patients with diabetes how to better recognize episodes of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. Continue reading >>

Clarifying Lada (type 1 Diabetes In Adults)

Clarifying Lada (type 1 Diabetes In Adults)

When I met fellow D-writer Catherine Price for coffee recently, I immediately gushed about everything we had in common: two brunette journalist-types living in the SF Bay Area, both diagnosed a few years ago with LADA (or so I thought). Catherine gave me a sideways look, and then began grilling me about the formal definition of LADA. I had to admit, it's pretty fuzzy. Today, I gratefully present you with the results of her investigation into this mysterious acronym: A Guest Post by Catherine Price, of ASweetLife Having had Type 1 diabetes for nearly ten years now, I can handle most diabetic terms and acronyms thrown my way. Hemoglobin A1c? Got it. Carb ratios? Insulin sensitivity? No problem. But one term has continued to confuse me: LADA. Short for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults, it's also known as Slow-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Type 1.5 Diabetes or, occasionally, Late-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood. Four names for the same thing? That's never a good sign. Until recently, the most common definition I'd heard for LADA was that it was a Type 1-like form of diabetes diagnosed in adulthood. But I didn't understand the details. Does being diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes as an adult automatically mean you have LADA? Is there a difference between LADA and the classical definition of Type 1? To answer these questions, I spoke with Marie Nierras, the program officer of the genetics programs at Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. She cut right to the chase. "There is a lot of confusion about LADA," she told me, "but Type 1 diabetes and LADA are not the same thing." Here, to get us started, is how JDRF's Adults With Type 1 toolkit defines LADA: "Type 1 diabetes diagnosed in adults over 30 may be Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), sometimes known as Type 1.5 Continue reading >>

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes: What’s The Difference?

If your child or someone you know has been recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may be wondering how the disease differs from type 2 diabetes — the form people tend to know more about. What causes type 1 versus type 2 diabetes? Are the symptoms the same? And how is each treated? Here to clear up the confusion with an overview of key differences — and similarities — between these two types of diabetes are experts Julie Settles, M.S.N., A.C.N.P.-B.C., C.E.N., a clinical research scientist at Lilly Diabetes, and Rosemary Briars, N.D., P.N.P.-B.C., C.D.E., C.C.D.C., clinical director and program co-director of the Chicago Children’s Diabetes Center at La Rabida Children’s Hospital. Causes Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, as it’s formally known in medical terms, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person develops high blood glucose (blood sugar). The underlying health factors causing the high blood sugar will determine whether someone is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which “the body’s immune system starts to make antibodies that are targeted directly at the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (islet cells),” explains Briars. Over time, the immune system “gradually destroys the islet cells, so insulin is no longer made and the person has to take insulin every day, from then on,” she says. As for why this happens, Settles notes, “The immune system normally fights off viruses and bacteria that we do not want in our body, but when it causes diabetes, it is because something has gone wrong and now the body attacks its own cells.” Triggering this autoimmune response is a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that researchers are still trying to fully understand. O Continue reading >>

The Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes (it Starts Earlier Than We Thought)

The Stages Of Type 1 Diabetes (it Starts Earlier Than We Thought)

My daughter Bisi was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes three years ago at the age of six. The first night after she was diagnosed, once she finally fell asleep in her hospital bed, tossing and turning despite the IV in her arm, I remember standing outside in the hall with my husband and a couple of medical residents, talking with them about her diagnosis. “Could this have been coming on for a while?” we asked them. I described how for a couple of years, Bisi had been almost unbearably cranky when she was hungry—to the point where I’d asked her pediatrician more than once if something might be wrong. No, the residents told us. Type 1 diabetes comes on very suddenly, in a matter of weeks, as the body’s beta cells suddenly die out under attack from the immune system. Every doctor or nurse we spoke with during the three days in the hospital (except for one, who said that our instincts were probably right), echoed what the two residents, fresh from medical school, told us. But it turns out they were wrong. JDRF and the American Diabetes Association, supported by other organizations in the field, recently put forth a new staging system for type 1 diabetes, where full-blown disease, like what landed Bisi in the hospital, is characterized as stage 3, part of an extended auto-immune process that often starts in infancy. This fall, Dr. Richard Insel, JDRF’s Chief Scientific Officer, explained the classification system to a group of reporters, talking through the importance of early diagnosis, and the hope that diagnosing the disease at an earlier stage could lead to breakthroughs in stopping the beta-cell destruction process—essentially, stopping the disease before it starts. Insel explained that stage 1 is when people test positive for multiple pancreatic islet auto-a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - Your.md

Type 1 Diabetes - Your.md

Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar level to become too high. It is also known as diabetes mellitus. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is often referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes. It is also sometimes known as juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes because it often develops before the age of 40, usually during the teenage years. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) does not produce any insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can seriously damage the body's organs. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin injections for life. You must also make sure that your blood glucose levels stay balanced by eating a healthy diet, taking regular exercise and having regular blood tests. In type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react to it. This is known as insulin resistance. This topic focuses on type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes . Read more about symptoms of type 1 diabetes . Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body is unable to produce insulin. Insulin usually moves glucose out of your blood and into your cells, where it is converted to energy. However, in type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin to move glucose out of your bloodstream and into your cells. Without insulin, the body breaks down its own fat and muscle (leading to weight loss). In type 1 diabetes this can lead to a serious short- term condition where the bloodstream becomes acidic along with dangerous dehydration ( diabetic ketoacidosis ). Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, where your immune system (the body's natural defence against infectio Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms: Adults Diagnosed With The Wrong Type, With ‘life-threatening Effects'

Diabetes Symptoms: Adults Diagnosed With The Wrong Type, With ‘life-threatening Effects'

Adults are just as likely to develop type 1 diabetes as children, according to researchers at the University of Exeter. There is a misconception among some doctors that type 1 diabetes can only be diagnosed in childhood, they said. Adults that are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, when they actually have type 1, face “life-threatening” consequences, they added. Doctors were urged by charity Diabetes UK to not rule out type 1 diabetes after the age of 30. Type 1 diabetes patients need insulin injections to control blood sugar levels, as their immune system destroys the cells which makes the hormone. Diet changes and medication may be enough to control the condition in type 2 diabetes patients, though. If type 1 patients don’t receive enough insulin, they could suffer drowsiness, blurred vision and extreme thirst. It can also lead to diabetic ketoacidosis - a serious condition where the body begins to break down fat and muscle as an alternative energy source. Ketoacidosis can cause vomiting, a build-up of acids in blood, and even death. More than 40 per cent of type 1 cases occurred in people over 30, the researchers revealed. Type 2 accounts for 96 per cent of all diabetes cases diagnosed between 31 and 60 year old patients. One in nine adults with onset type 1 diabetes were hospitalised with the lethal condition, diabetic ketoacidosis, because they weren’t given insulin. “Diabetes textbooks for doctors say that type 1 diabetes is a childhood illness. But our study shows that it is prevalent throughout life,” said researcher Dr Richard Oram. “The assumption among many doctors is that adults presenting with the symptoms of diabetes will have type 2, but this misconception can lead to misdiagnosis with potentially serious consequences. “The Prime Minister is Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes Mellitus: An Overview

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that prevents your body from properly using the energy from the food you eat. Diabetes occurs in one of the following situations: The pancreas (an organ behind your stomach) produces little insulin or no insulin at all. (Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas, which helps the body use sugar for energy.) -Or- The pancreas makes insulin, but the insulin made does not work as it should. This condition is called insulin resistance. To better understand diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy (a process called metabolism). Your body is made up of millions of cells. To make energy, the cells need food in a very simple form. When you eat or drink, much of your food is broken down into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose provides the energy your body needs for daily activities. The blood vessels and blood are the highways that transport sugar from where it is either taken in (the stomach) or manufactured (in the liver) to the cells where it is used (muscles) or where it is stored (fat). Sugar cannot go into the cells by itself. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, which serves as the helper, or the "key," that lets sugar into the cells for use as energy. When sugar leaves the bloodstream and enters the cells, the blood sugar level is lowered. Without insulin, or the "key," sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes sugar to rise. Too much sugar in the blood is called "hyperglycemia" (high blood sugar) or diabetes. What are the types of diabetes? There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2: Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) (cont.)

Diabetes (mellitus, Type 1 And Type 2) (cont.)

A A A Type 1 diabetes (T1D): The body stops producing insulin or produces too little insulin to regulate blood glucose level. Type 1 diabetes affects about 10% of all people with diabetes in the United States. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. It used to be referred to as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin deficiency can occur at any age due to destruction of the pancreas by alcohol, disease, or removal by surgery. Type 1 diabetes also results from progressive failure of the pancreatic beta cells, the only cell type that produces significant amounts of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes require daily insulin treatment to sustain life. Type 2 diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes insulin, the body of someone with type 2 diabetes is partially or completely incapable of responding to insulin. This is often referred to as insulin resistance. The pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by secreting more and more insulin. People with insulin resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough insulin to cope with their body's demands. At least 90% of adult individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed during adulthood, usually after age 45 years. It was once called adult-onset diabetes mellitus, or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These names are no longer used because type 2 diabetes does occur in young people, and some people with type 2 diabetes require insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is usually controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise, and/or oral medications. However, more than half of all people with type 2 diabetes require insulin to control their blood sugar levels at some point during the course of their i Continue reading >>

Type 1.5 Diabetes: An Overview

Type 1.5 Diabetes: An Overview

Type 1.5 Diabetes (T1.5D) is also known as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults (LADA). LADA is considered by some experts to be a slowly progressive form of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) while other experts in the field consider it a separate form of Diabetes. LADA or T1.5D is sometimes thought of as T1D that is diagnosed in adults over the age of 30—T1D is commonly diagnosed in children and younger adults. T1.5D is often found along with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D): up to 25% of individuals with T1.5D also have characteristics of T2D.1 This is sometimes called “double diabetes”. Individuals with T1.5D are all eventually dependent on insulin for treatment, and have a very high risk of requiring insulin within months or years (up to six years) after the initial diagnosis. This is in contrast to people with T1D—these people tend to need insulin within days or weeks of diagnosis.2 Individuals diagnosed with T2D relatively rarely require insulin treatment. Current recommendations are to treat individuals with T1.5D immediately with insulin, though this is not universally accepted (see below). The Causes of T1.5D Just as with other forms of diabetes, we don’t truly understand the underlying cause(s) of T1.5D. There are autoimmune components in Types 1, 1.5 and 2 diabetes with some overlap in the types of antibodies formed, so it is clear that as in T1D, the immune system has become “confused” and begins to act against the beta cells of the pancreas—the source of the insulin needed to control blood sugars. Both T1D and T1.5D have antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or anti-GAD antibodies. As with T1D, individuals with T1.5D tend not to be obese, whereas in T2D, most individuals are overweight or obese. Genetics and Environmental Susceptibility Individuals with T1.5D Continue reading >>

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