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Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Test One Drop To Stop ​diabetic Ketoacidosis

Test One Drop To Stop ​diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening condition which often develops quickly when the signs and symptoms of Type 1 diabetes have been overlooked or mistaken for other illnesses. A simple glucose test can detect early onset Type 1 diabetes and stop diabetic ketoacidosis before it kills! Progressing symptoms of undiagnosed Type 1 diabetes often imitate flu, strep, stomach virus, urinary tract infections, growth spurts and other common illnesses. When left untreated, Type 1 diabetes can develop into a life-threatening complication called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If you or a loved one have a combination of the following symptoms, immediately request medical personnel Test One Drop of blood or urine for glucose (sugar) levels. A simple, inexpensive glucose test–performed in seconds–can save lives. These symptoms can be an indication of Type 1 diabetes. They are listed in possible order of progression, but your experience may vary. excessive thirst frequent urination bedwetting​ increased appetite abdominal pain irritability or mood changes headaches vision changes/blurriness itchy skin or genitals vaginal yeast infection thrush ​slow healing wounds ​recurrent infections sudden weight loss flushed, hot, dry skin muscle or leg cramps fruity/acetone scented breath nausea and vomiting* weakness or fatigue* shortness of breath* labored breathing* drowsiness or lethargy* confusion* stupor* unconsciousness* Anyone of any age, race, family medical history, socio-economic level, body type, general health condition, life-style, etc. can be diagnosed with an autoimmune disease called Type 1 diabetes. Despite the fact that it is also known as "juvenile diabetes", Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in people of all ages, both children and adults. In fact, according to the U Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults

For years, distinguishing between the various types of diabetes was pretty straightforward: “Juvenile diabetes,” an autoimmune disease, was diagnosed primarily in children and teenagers when their own body’s immune system destroyed the insulin-producing (beta) cells in their pancreas. “Adult-onset diabetes” occurred in adults and was generally associated with insulin resistance and often with overweight. And “gestational diabetes” occurred in pregnant women and disappeared once the pregnancy was over. In the past 25 years, however, determining what type of diabetes a person has has become more of a challenge. In large part, that’s because more and more children and teenagers are now being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes — the type that occurred predominantly in adults in generations past. Most of these children and teens are overweight. At the same time, it’s becoming clearer that Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age and sometimes occurs in people who are overweight. In addition, another type of diabetes, called latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, or LADA, that shares some characteristics with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, has been recognized. Muddying the water further is the realization that diabetic ketoacidosis, an acute, life-threatening complication of diabetes that is caused by a lack of insulin, can occur in people with Type 2 diabetes — not just in people with Type 1, as was previously thought. And while gestational diabetes is still diagnosed only in pregnant women, it is sometimes discovered that what is thought to be gestational diabetes is really Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes that happens to start during pregnancy. The incidence of diabetes has increased so greatly around the world in the past 25 years that health organizations and med Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

History The most common symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, along with lassitude, nausea, and blurred vision, all of which result from the hyperglycemia itself. Polyuria is caused by osmotic diuresis secondary to hyperglycemia. Severe nocturnal enuresis secondary to polyuria can be an indication of onset of diabetes in young children. Thirst is a response to the hyperosmolar state and dehydration. Fatigue and weakness may be caused by muscle wasting from the catabolic state of insulin deficiency, hypovolemia, and hypokalemia. Muscle cramps are caused by electrolyte imbalance. Blurred vision results from the effect of the hyperosmolar state on the lens and vitreous humor. Glucose and its metabolites cause osmotic swelling of the lens, altering its normal focal length. Symptoms at the time of the first clinical presentation can usually be traced back several days to several weeks. However, beta-cell destruction may have started months, or even years, before the onset of clinical symptoms. The onset of symptomatic disease may be sudden. It is not unusual for patients with type 1 DM to present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which may occur de novo or secondary to the stress of illness or surgery. An explosive onset of symptoms in a young lean patient with ketoacidosis always has been considered diagnostic of type 1 DM. Over time, patients with new-onset type 1 DM will lose weight, despite normal or increased appetite, because of depletion of water and a catabolic state with reduced glycogen, proteins, and triglycerides. Weight loss may not occur if treatment is initiated promptly after the onset of the disease. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of type 1 DM are as follows: Neuropathy affects up to 50% of patients with type 1 D Continue reading >>

Behavioral Problems And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Self And Parent Reports

Behavioral Problems And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Self And Parent Reports

Behavioral Problems and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Self and Parent Reports 1. Introduction Children and adolescents with chronic diseases are at higher risk for mental health problems. Especially in adolescence, which involves a multitude of physical, cognitive and emotional developmental changes, a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) that requires daily, careful attention, may influence social and emotional functioning. Adolescents with T1DM must deal with disease-specific stressors, in addition to age-specific stressors (Reid, Dubow, Carey, & Dura, 1994). Stress, in itself, may dysregulate diabetes through psycho-physiological processes or associated changes in self-management behaviors (Snoek, 2000). Therefore, diabetic treatment guidelines include metabolic goals, as well as facilitation of normal social and emotional development (Grey & Boland, 1996). Problems in social-emotional functioning are reflected in the occurrence of internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. Diabetes has been found to form a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in adolescence, especially for internalizing behavior problems like depression Kovacs, Obrosky, Goldston & Drash, 1997; Northam, Matthews, Anderson, Cameron & Werther, 2005). Several studies have found that diabetes and depression frequently co-occur in adolescence Anderson, Freedland, Clouse & Lustman, 2001; Lin et al., 2004; Hood et al., 2006; Lawrence et al., 2006; McGrady & Hood, 2010, although this is not always the case (DeWit, 2007). Externalizing problems may also be important among adolescents with T1DM. Externalizing behavior problems have been found to result in poorer glycemic control (Cohen, Lumley, Naar-King, Partridge & Cakan, 2004), and diagnoses of Continue reading >>

Diabetes (type 1), Part 1 — Introduction, Incidence, Symptoms And Complications

Diabetes (type 1), Part 1 — Introduction, Incidence, Symptoms And Complications

What is Type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is also known as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus". Although type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, most often it is diagnosed prior to the age of 30, as opposed to type 2 diabetes, which is most commonly diagnosed in adulthood. In type 1 diabetes, the onset of symptoms is usually rapid and severe. Control of type 1 diabetes is achieved by the use of insulin injections for the rest of the person's life. The exact cause is not known, and there is no cure for it. Normally, the beta cells (located in the head of the pancreas) secrete insulin, which helps the body metabolize the glucose (sugar) in the blood. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels appropriately. Without adequate insulin, glucose is not used by the cells but instead builds up in the bloodstream, leading to very elevated glucose levels despite the high levels of glucose, the body is unable to use the glucose for energy, resulting in increased hunger the elevated glucose levels also cause the kidneys to produce large volumes of urine, which results in increased thirst While the early course of diabetes is characterized by insufficient levels on insulin, within about five years of diagnosis, the insulin-producing beta cells are completely destroyed, and produce no insulin at all. Incidence and prevalence Overall incidence is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 individuals annually, and increasing. About three children out of 1,000 will develop type 1 diabetes by age 20. Whites seem to be affected more often than blacks, who have the lowest overall incidence of type 1 diabetes among major ethnic groups. Male-to-female ratio is split evenly. Diagnosis of type 1 d Continue reading >>

Prospective Assessment Of Hypoglycemia Symptoms In Children And Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

Prospective Assessment Of Hypoglycemia Symptoms In Children And Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

Abstract PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of symptoms of hypoglycemia in children and in adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Adults with diabetes and parents of children with diabetes who were participants were asked to call a phone system to report episodes of hypoglycemia (presence of symptoms and a blood glucose <4.0 mmol/L). For each episode, blood glucose reading and a scoring of 28 symptoms on a 7-point scale (1 = not present, 7 = very intense) were collected. RESULTS: Sixty six children (49.2% males, mean age = 12.1±2.4 years, mean age at diagnosis = 7.5±2.9 years) and 53 adults (41.2% males, mean age 38.7±14.5 years, mean age at diagnosis = 17.5±12.9 years) with type 1 diabetes participated. The most common symptoms in adults were hunger, sweating, trembling and weakness. The most common symptoms in children were weakness, trembling and hunger. The 2 most discriminating variables between children and adults were sleepiness and tiredness, which were more common in children (p<0.01). In a comparative factor analysis, 3 factors emerged: factor 1, autonomic and neuroglycopenic; factor 2, behavioural; and factor 3, general malaise. Factors 2 and 3 were significantly more common or intense in children than in adults; MANOVA: F(1, 113) = 6.72, p<0.05 and F(1, 113) = 4.64, p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms relating to behaviour and general malaise are more common in children than in adults with type 1 diabetes. The results of this study may assist providers in educating caregivers of children and patients with diabetes how to better recognize episodes of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is required by the body to use glucose, the simple sugar that most foods are broken down into by our digestive system. Without insulin, the body starves to death. It's important to note that everyone is insulin-dependent. People without diabetes make insulin in their pancreas. People with Type 1 diabetes must inject insulin. According to the National Institutes of Health, an estimated 850,000 to 1.7 million Americans have Type 1 diabetes. Of those, about 125,000 are kids 19 and under. An additional 30,000 Americans develop Type 1 diabetes every year, 13,000 of whom are children. Type 2 diabetes is much more prevalent, with an estimated 16 million Americans having Type 2. Millions of people with type 2 diabetes have not yet been diagnosed. Diabetes Develops Gradually The process of developing diabetes is gradual. Studies performed by the Joslin Clinic1 have shown changes as much as nine years before the actual presentation of diabetes symptoms. The development of Type 1 diabetes can be broken down into five stages: Genetic predisposition Environmental trigger Active autoimmunity Progressive beta-cell destruction Presentation of the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes People with Type 1 diabetes have a genetic pre-disposition to the disease, but one or more environmental insults is required to trigger disease. This fact can be derived from studies of identical twins with Type 1 diabetes. When one twin has Type 1 diabetes, the other twin gets diabetes only half the time. If the cause of Type 1 diabetes were purely genetic, both identical twins would always have Type 1 diabetes. One environmental trigger is thought to be the Coxsackie B virus. Researchers at UCL Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Most pediatric patients with diabetes have type 1 and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin. [1] The image below depicts the effects of insulin deficiency. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Blood glucose Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following [2] : Glycated hemoglobin Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring. An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus. [3] See Workup for more detail. Management Glycemic control The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years. [4] Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Insulin therapy All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of b Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Type 1 is a chronic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and disruption in metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It occurs because of little or no insulin being produced by the pancreas. It occurs in children or young adults, usually before the age of 30. It typically has an abrupt onset, with most individuals having a thin or normal body weight at diagnosis. Type 1 Diabetes is managed by diet, exercise, and insulin injections. It can result in serious vascular complications and neuropathies and can be a major cause of cardiovascular disease and strokes. It is also the leading cause of end-stage renal (kidney) disease, non-traumatic amputations in the lower extremity, and new cases of blindness. Autoimmune, environmental, and genetic causes may put individuals at risk of developing Type 1 DM. ~5% of all Diabetes cases are Type 1 DM 29.1 million Americans had Diabetes (2012) 1.25 million Americans had Type 1 DM (2012) 208,000 Americans under the age of 20 estimated to have Diabetes, which is 0.25% of the population Polyuria (increased urination) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Polyphagia (Increased appetite)~ Glycosuria (glucose in urine) Weight loss despite polyphagia~ Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose) Ketonuria (ketones in urine) Fruity smelling breath Fatigue Generalized weakness Blurred vision Irritability Recurring skin, gum, bladder, vaginal, or other infections Numbness or tingling in hands or feet Cuts, scrapes, or bruises that are difficult or slow to heal Periarthritis (especially shoulder)~ Hand stiffness ~ = Occurs primarily in Type 1 Diabetes Hypoglycemia Hypertension Dislipidemia Cardiovascular Disease Blindness/Eye problems Kidney Disease Increased risk for cognitive decline/dementia (including Al Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Introduction Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high. The hormone insulin – produced by the pancreas – is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 – where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin Type 2 – where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body’s cells don't react to insulin This topic is about type 1 diabetes. Read more about type 2 diabetes Another type of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some pregnant women and tends to disappear following birth. It's very important for diabetes to be diagnosed as soon as possible, because it will get progressively worse if left untreated. You should therefore visit your GP if you have symptoms, which include feeling thirsty, passing urine more often than usual and feeling tired all the time (see the list below for more diabetes symptoms). Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it's the most common type of childhood diabetes. This is why it's sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) doesn't produce any insulin – the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. This is why it's also sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can, over time, seriously damage the body's organs. In type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop l Continue reading >>

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Management Of Type 1 Diabetes In Older Adults

Abstract In Brief Older adults with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for severe hypoglycemia and may have serious comorbid conditions. Problems with cognition, mobility, dexterity, vision, hearing, depression, and chronic pain interfere with the ability to follow complex insulin regimens. With the development of geriatric syndromes, unpredictable eating, and frailty, treatment regimens must be modified with the goal of minimizing hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia and maximizing quality of life. Challenges in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Older Adults There is a paucity of data related to glycemic management and control of type 1 diabetes later in life. The Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Exchange clinic registry reported characteristics of older adults with type 1 diabetes who are followed in diabetes centers across the United States.17 Of those ages 50 to < 65 years (n = 2,066), mean A1C was 7.7% (27% had an A1C < 7.0%, 46% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 11% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%), and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.5 times daily. Of those ≥ 65 years of age (n = 683), mean A1C was 7.4% (34% had an A1C < 7.0%, 52% had an A1C < 7.5%, and 8% had an A1C ≥ 9.0%) and mean self-reported blood glucose testing was 5.6 times daily. Greater frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was associated with lower A1C levels in both those who used an insulin pump and those who administered insulin via injections.18 Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was lower with increasing age and was not associated with duration of diabetes.19 DKA was more likely in those with higher A1C levels and lower socioeconomic status. No relationship was found between DKA and pump versus injection use. Longstanding diabetes in older adults has been associated with increased risks of severe hypo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes Symptoms, (type 1 And Type 2)

Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin, or an inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes. Symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include increased urine output, excessive thirst, weight loss, hunger, fatigue, skin problems slow healing wounds, yeast infections, and tingling or numbness in the feet or toes. Some of the risk factors for getting diabetes include being overweight or obese, leading a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and low levels of the "good" cholesterol (HDL) and elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. If you think you may have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health-care professional. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by impaired ability of the body to produce or respond to insulin and thereby maintain proper levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, though these outcomes are not due to the immediate effects of the disorder. They are instead related to the diseases that develop as a result of chronic diabetes mellitus. These include diseases of large blood vessels (macrovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) and small blood vessels (microvascular disease, including retinal and renal vascular disease), as well as diseases of the nerves. Causes and types Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells, which are located within clusters of cells in the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Insulin’s role in the body is to trigger cells to take up glucose so that the cells can use this energy-yielding sugar. Patients with diabetes may have dysfunctional beta cells, resulting in decreased insulin secretion, or their muscle and adipose cells may be resistant to the effects of insulin, resulting in a decreased ability of these cells to take up and metabolize glucose. In both cases, the levels of glucose in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened wi Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects Women: Symptoms, Risks, And More

How Diabetes Affects Women: Symptoms, Risks, And More

Diabetes describes a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar due to problems processing or producing insulin. Diabetes can affect anyone, regardless of age, race, gender, or lifestyle. Between 1971 and 2000, the death rate for men with diabetes fell, according to a study in Annals of Internal Medicine. This was a major coup, reflecting the many advances in diabetes treatment. However, according to the study, the death rate for women with diabetes showed no signs of improvement. Additionally, the difference in death rates between women who had diabetes and those who didn’t more than doubled. This study of diabetes in men and women presented several possible reasons for the gender differences. Reasons included: Women often receive less aggressive treatment for cardiovascular risk factors and conditions related to diabetes. The complications of diabetes in women are more difficult to diagnose. Women often have different kinds of heart disease than men. Hormones and inflammation act differently in women. The findings emphasize how diabetes affects women and men differently. Although the death rate was higher among women previously, there has been a shift in gender distribution of type two diabetes showing higher rates among men. The most current reported stats (in 2012) found that 13.4 million women and 15.5 million men have been diagnosed with diabetes in the United States alone. According to the global reports from the World Health Organization from 2014, there was an estimated 422 million adults living with diabetes. This is up from 108 million that was reported in 1980. If you’re a woman with diabetes, you’ll experience many of the same symptoms as a man. However, some symptoms are unique to women. Understanding both will help you identi Continue reading >>

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