Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes
Because our research informs our treatment, our diabetes team is known for our innovative treatments and science-driven approach. Children’s Hospital Boston is home to the world’s most extensive pediatric hospital research enterprise, and we partner with elite health care and biotech organizations around the globe. But as specialists in family-centered care, our physicians never forget that your child is precious, and not just a patient. In dealing with your child’s diabetes, you probably want to know the basics about what diabetes is, and how type 1 diabetes differs from other forms of the disease. What is diabetes? Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a lifelong condition that occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, or when the body doesn’t respond properly to the insulin it makes. There are many forms of diabetes mellitus, several of which have undergone name changes as the disease has become better understood. type 1 diabetes: Formerly known as “juvenile” or “insulin-dependent” diabetes,type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system’s failure to recognize the beta cells as belonging to the body, so it attacks and destroys them. This is why type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease. Children with type 1 diabetes must take insulin injections every day. type 2 diabetes: Formerly known as “adult onset” or “non-insulin dependent” diabetes, type 2 diabetes typically occurs in people who are overweight, physically inactive and over age 40, although more and more children are developing type 2 diabetes, possibly because of childhood obesity. Some children need insulin; others can control their diabetes with healthful eating and exercise, or oral medicines (hypoglycemic agents). MODY (maturity onset diabetes of youth): a form of dia Continue reading >>
Early Symptoms Of Diabetes
What are the symptoms of diabetes? Although the signs of diabetes can begin to show early, sometimes it takes a person a while to recognize the symptoms. This often makes it seem like signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to your body, rather than simply brushing them off. To that end, here are some type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms that you may want to watch out for: If you’re experiencing frequent urination your body might be telling you that your kidneys are trying to expel excess sugar in your blood. The resulting dehydration may then cause extreme thirst. Along the same lines, the lack of available fluids may also give you dry mouth and itchy skin. If you experience increased hunger or unexpected weight loss it could be because your body isn’t able to get adequate energy from the food you eat. High blood sugar levels can affect blood flow and cause nerve damage, which makes healing difficult. So having slow-healing cuts/sores is also a potential sign of diabetes. Yeast infections may occur in men and women who have diabetes as a result of yeast feeding on glucose. Other signs of diabetes Pay attention if you find yourself feeling drowsy or lethargic; pain or numbness in your extremities; vision changes; fruity or sweet-smelling breath which is one of the symptoms of high ketones; and experiencing nausea or vomiting—as these are additional signs that something is not right. If there’s any question, see your doctor immediately to ensure that your blood sugar levels are safe and rule out diabetes. So what are the low blood sugar symptoms you should look out for? It’s important to realize that the signs of… Polyuria occurs when your body urinates more frequently—and often in larger amounts—than Continue reading >>
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are lifelong conditions. You can minimise the long-term risks and complications for your child. diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high that's because the body is not using the glucose properly in type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin in type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to use the insulin effectively due to resistance to insulin both forms of diabetes are lifelong conditions - once diagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your child will always have it you can minimise the long term risks and complications for your child What is diabetes? Diabetes is a condition where the level of glucose (also known as sugar) in the blood is too high. That's because the body is not using the glucose properly. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to allow glucose from food to move from the blood into cells in the body where it can be used for fuel for energy. Insulin is produced by the pancreas. Diabetes occurs when the insulin making cells in the pancreas are unable to make enough insulin or when there is resistance to the effects of insulin. You might find it helpful to watch a Diabetes UK animation (8 minutes 44 seconds) about diabetes and the body. © Diabetes UK. This video has been reproduced from the Diabetes UK website with the kind permission of Diabetes UK, the charity for people in the UK with diabetes. What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? In type 1 diabetes, the main problem is that the insulin making cells in the pancreas are destroyed and not able to make enough insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the main problem is that the body is not able to u Continue reading >>
6 Telltale Diabetes Symptoms In Children
Diabetes is often thought of as an adult disease, as it can be caused by diet and lifestyle choices (eating habits and alcohol consumption). However, a 3-year old in the U.S. was recently diagnosed as one of the youngest ever to be diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes (Adult Onset), while children can be struck early with the inability to produce the hormone that helps process sugars (Type 1 or Juvenile Diabetes). A child with diabetes can be fatal if you’re not aware of the signs and they aren’t given the treatment they need. It’s important to know the signs so you can act quickly act, so here are 6 signals that your child may be battling the disease, which can be present in both types of diabetes… 1. Frequent Urination It can be hard to tell if your toddler is urinating more than often, but if you notice your youngster wetting their shorts (or bed) more often or complaining about needing to use the bathroom more, it could be a cause for concern. KindsHealth.org notes that more frequent urination is caused by the response of your child’s kidneys to higher levels of glucose (sugars) that aren’t being broken down to be used by their body. The kidneys are attempting to flush out the excess unprocessed sugars through the urine. 2. Excessive Thirst The increase of urination will undoubtedly cause an increase in thirst as your child’s body attempts to stay hydrated. It’s not just getting thirstier at intervals—the thirst can be continuous, according to experts. The urge to drink fluids all the time also creates more need to urinate, so it can become obvious as a cycle perpetuates itself, notes the Mayo Clinic. If your child is always whining for another glass of juice or water, it may be more than their love of those drinks—it could be they’re trying to quenc Continue reading >>
What Causes Diabetes?
Little Known Factors That Lead To Diabetes What are some of the lifestyle, genetics and other not-so-obvious factors that can trigger diabetes? What can you do to prevent this condition? Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It affects over 29.1 million people in the U.S. – 9.3 percent of the population in the U.S. Another 86 million Americans have prediabetes and aren’t even aware of it. The cause of diabetes is the absence or insufficient production of the hormone insulin, which lowers blood sugar in the body. Two types of diabetes There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2, which are also known as insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common: it affects only 1 in 250 Americans and only occurs in individuals younger than age 20. It has no known cure. A majority of type 2 diabetes cases can be prevented or cured. Signs and symptoms Among the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Increased urine Excessive thirst Weight loss Hunger Fatigue Skin problems Slow-healing wounds Yeast infections Tingling or numbness in feet or toes Various factors Research has proven that there are certain lifestyle and genetic factors that lead to diabetes. Among them are: Leading a non-active lifestyle A family history of diabetes High blood pressure (hypertension) Low levels of the good cholesterol (HDL) Elevated levels of triglycerides (a type of fat) in the blood Increasing age Polycystic ovary syndrome Impaired glucose tolerance Insulin resistance Gestational diabetes during a pregnancy Some ethnic backgrounds (African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, Native Americans and Alaska natives) are at greater risk of diabetes. Get t Continue reading >>
Could Your Child's Excessive Thirst Be A Diabetes Symptom?
Could you child's excessive thirst, or other symptoms be a sign of diabetes? What are the symptoms you need to know as a parent and when should you call your pediatrician? Diabetes in Children Parents often worry about diabetes, but most are really concerned about type 1 diabetes—the kind that typically starts in childhood and requires treatment with insulin shots. Type I diabetes, however, is actually the least common type of diabetes, affecting only five percent of people with the disease. Type 2 diabetes, which used to be thought of as "adult-onset" diabetes, is much more common. In fact, with the increase in childhood obesity—a major risk factor for the disease—pediatricians now actively look for type 2 diabetes in teenagers and even preteens. Diabetes Symptoms in Children Many parents bring their children for an evaluation for diabetes because they have frequent urination and increased thirst. The only problem is that many children, especially toddlers and preschoolers will ask for and drink as much juice as you let them have, even if they aren't necessarily thirsty. And if they drink a lot of juice, they are going to have to urinate a lot. That's why kids who go to their pediatrician with just those symptoms usually don't end up having diabetes. This Symptoms of Diabetes quiz can help you determine whether a doctor visit could be necessary. Type I Diabetes Symptoms The symptoms of type 1 diabetes, which typically develop over a short period of time (days to weeks) often include: Frequent urination (polyuria) Being very thirsty or drinking a lot (polydipsia) The chances increase if you add other diabetes symptoms, such as: Eating a lot or extreme hunger (polyphagia) Unusual weight loss Extreme fatigue Irritability Blurred vision Weight loss is an especially i Continue reading >>
How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Children?
Years ago, it was rare to hear about a child with type 2 diabetes. Doctors used to think kids only got type 1. It was even called juvenile diabetes for a long time. Not anymore. Now, according to the CDC, more than 208,000 people younger than 20 have this disease. That number includes both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here's what you need to know if your child is diagnosed. You've probably heard diabetes and high blood sugar mentioned together. Here's what happens. Your digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into a type of sugar called glucose. Your pancreas creates a hormone, known as insulin, that moves glucose from your blood into your cells, where it’s used for fuel. In type 2 diabetes, the cells in your child's body don’t respond to the insulin, and glucose builds up in her bloodstream. This is called insulin resistance. Eventually, the sugar levels in her body get too high for it to handle. That could lead to other conditions in the future, like heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes is most likely to affect kids who are: Girls Overweight Have a family history of diabetes American Indian, African-American, Asian, or Hispanic/Latino Have a problem called insulin resistance The single biggest cause of type 2 diabetes in children is extra weight. In the U.S., nearly 1 out of every 3 children is overweight. Once a child gets too heavy, she’s twice as likely to get diabetes. One or more of these things may contribute to extra weight or obesity: Unhealthy eating Family members (alive or dead) who've been overweight Rarely, a hormone problem or other medical condition As with adults, type 2 diabetes is more likely to affect children who carry extra weight around the middle. At first, there may be no symptoms. Over time, you may notice: Hun Continue reading >>
Could Your Child Have Diabetes?
More than 15,000 children are diagnosed with type 1 every year. Make sure you know the telltale signs -- they're all too easy to dismiss. When Chloe Powell started begging for one more drink of water every night, her father, Charles, thought his then 7-year-old was using a common bedtime stall tactic. "I was irritated that she wouldn't go to sleep," admits Dr. Powell, who's a family physician in Dallas. With all she was drinking, he wasn't surprised when she began wetting the bed. But when Chloe couldn't make it through a conversation without having to use the bathroom, he became concerned. "I figured she had a urinary-tract infection, and she'd take some antibiotics and feel better," says Dr. Powell. He wasn't at all prepared for what his daughter's urine test showed: a dangerously high level of sugar that was a clear indicator of type 1 diabetes. In an instant, Chloe, now 10, went from being a kid who never thought twice about the foods she ate or the energy she burned to one who'd face a lifetime of carbohydrate counting, finger pricks, and insulin injections. A Disease on the Rise Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body's immune system to mistakenly destroy healthy cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin. (Type 2, on the other hand, occurs when the body doesn't respond to the insulin that's being made.) Insulin ensures that sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream gets into the body's cells where it's needed for energy; without insulin, sugar builds up in the blood, which can be deadly. It's important to begin insulin therapy as soon as possible because high blood-sugar levels can cause permanent vision and nerve problems as well as damage to blood vessels, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease. Since the 198 Continue reading >>
Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Practice Essentials Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Most pediatric patients with diabetes have type 1 and a lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin.  The image below depicts the effects of insulin deficiency. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children include the following: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis Blood glucose Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control. Diagnostic criteria by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) include the following  : Glycated hemoglobin Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring. An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus.  See Workup for more detail. Management Glycemic control The ADA recommends using patient age as one consideration in the establishment of glycemic goals, with different targets for preprandial, bedtime/overnight, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients aged 0-6, 6-12, and 13-19 years.  Benefits of tight glycemic control include not only continued reductions in the rates of microvascular complications but also significant differences in cardiovascular events and overall mortality. Insulin therapy All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of b Continue reading >>
My Daughter Has Type 1 Diabetes And We Almost Missed All The Symptoms
Editor’s note: This post is not intended as medical advice. Always consult a medical professional or physician before treatment of any kind. The strange vomiting started during another overcast day in Sweden. With three kids, I had weathered plenty of stomach viruses. But something was different this time. My two-year-old daughter was smiling and laughing two seconds earlier, but what she threw up looks like a fully formed marshmallow, and her breath smells like cantaloupe. Could this be some rare virus unique to Scandinavia? Surely, if there were such a thing, I would have heard about it from one of the mothers in our community of ex-pats. I have been known to overreact when it comes to my children’s health. “Waiting it out” is not in my vocabulary. Why then am I not rushing to the emergency room? Maybe I’m skeptical about what kind of care we’ll get under socialized medicine. Or maybe I know deep down that this time it isn’t my overactive imagination but a potentially serious illness. I am paralyzed by my own thoughts: Will the hospital staff speak English? Will I be waiting for hours only to be told to go home and give her Pedialyte? Do they even have Pedialyte in Sweden? My mother calls long distance from the States. Since she has long functioned as my “personal trainer” in irrational anxiety, I try to hide the truth from her. “What’s wrong with Alana?” she asks, panic rippling through her voice. “It’s nothing. She just threw up some milk.” “What’s going on? Is she okay?” She’s escalating. “It’s not so bad,” I hear myself lie. “It smells kind of sweet.” “What did she eat? Does she have a fever? Was she exposed to any other sick kids? I knew you shouldn’t move over there. Do you even have a doctor you can call? What Continue reading >>
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes?
People with type 2 diabetes often appear symptom-free in the early stages. That's the reason that as many as 30% of people with type 2 diabetes are unaware of their disease. When symptoms do appear, they may come on gradually and be very subtle. At the time of diagnoses many people have some of the following symptoms: Feeling tired Being unusually thirsty Passing large volumes of urine, especially during the night Having frequent infections Having sores that don't heal Having blurred eyesight People with type 2 diabetes often share certain characteristics and related problems. The most common ones are: Weight A person with type 2 diabetes is usually overweight or obese. One way to determine obesity is to calculate a person's BMI (Body Mass Index), which is a number that is calculated based on a person's weight and height. If a child or teen's BMI is greater than the 85 th percentile for their gender and age (meaning that their score is within the top fifteen percent) they are considered overweight. If the BMI is greater than the 95th percentile (or within the top five percent) for gender and age, the child or teen is considered obese. In terms of their BMI score, an adult with a BMI higher than 25 is overweight and an adult with a BMI higher than 30 is obese. The Centers for Disease Control has BMI charts to help you. Lipids/Cholesterol Insulin resistance – which is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes - tends to have a negative affect on a person's lipid (cholesterol) levels. If untreated over several years, high "bad" cholesterol and low "good" cholesterol increase the risk for cardiovascular (heart) problems. For a person less than 20 years of age, the desired fasting lipid levels are: LDL (bad) cholesterol should normally be less than 130 mg/dL. If someone Continue reading >>
How To Recognize The Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children
5 0 For Ellen, the first sign was the night wakings. Her 10-year-old son, who always slept soundly until then, was suddenly up and down during the night. Three to four times a night, she would hear him fumbling for the light switch in the bathroom, and then listen as the toilet would flush. Other times, she would hear him filling a glass of water from the sink and guzzling it down. The first two nights, she wrote it off to the normal anxieties of boyhood. Everyone has trouble sleeping now and then, right? And he’d probably been eating too much pizza or chips at the homes of friends. All that salt would make anyone thirsty. Normal stuff. When the night wakings went on a third night, however, Ellen, a single mother of two in the U.S., stopped making excuses and got busy Googling. Symptom searches all came up with one word: “diabetes.” No way, she thought. No one in our family has diabetes. She called her pediatrician, who told her to bring her son in. Two hours and one blood glucose test later, Ellen and her son were on the way to the ER. This family’s experience, while unique to them in the details, will be played out in different ways 70,000 times across the world this year, according to the International Diabetes Federation. More than 70,000 mothers, fathers or caregivers will think no way, but will ultimately accept that their child’s symptoms do, in fact, signal Type 1 diabetes. While excessive thirst and frequent urination are common symptoms, there are many others that signal Type 1 diabetes in children. Here are some of the others: Increased appetite. A child who is normally easily sated will be hungry constantly. Unexplained weight loss. Even though the child seems to be eating all the time, he or she is dropping pounds. Sugar in urine. Two hundred year Continue reading >>
What Are The Common Symptoms Of Diabetes?
If you have any of the following diabetes symptoms, see your doctor about getting your blood sugar tested: Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night Are very thirsty Lose weight without trying Are very hungry Have blurry vision Have numb or tingling hands or feet Feel very tired Have very dry skin Have sores that heal slowly Have more infections than usual People who have type 1 diabetes may also have nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months and can be severe. Type 1 diabetes usually starts when you’re a child, teen, or young adult but can happen at any age. Type 2 diabetes symptoms often develop over several years and can go on for a long time without being noticed (sometimes there aren’t any noticeable symptoms at all). Type 2 diabetes usually starts when you’re an adult, though more and more children, teens, and young adults are developing it. Because symptoms are hard to spot, it’s important to know the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and visit your doctor if you have any of them. Disclaimer: I am the co-founder of DeeveHealth. DeeveHealth is a mobile platform to prevent Type 2 diabetes. Based on the scientific behavior of human and science of prevention using data points. For more information check out our web-site Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes In Children
For decades, type 2 diabetes was considered an adults-only condition. In fact, type 2 diabetes was once called adult-onset diabetes. But what was once a disease mainly faced by adults is becoming more common in children. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose). Over 5,000 people under the age of 20 were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2008 and 2009. Until 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes accounted for less than 3% of all newly diagnosed diabetes cases in adolescents; it now comprises 45% of all such cases. It’s more common in those aged 10-19 and in non-Caucasian populations, including African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Being overweight is closely tied to the development of type 2 diabetes. Overweight children have an increased likelihood of insulin resistance. As the body struggles to regulate insulin, high blood sugar leads to a number of potentially serious health problems. In the past 30 years, obesity in children has doubled and obesity in adolescents has quadrupled, according to the CDC. Genetics may also play a role. For instance, the risk of type 2 diabetes increases if one parent or both parents has the condition. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes are not always easy to spot. In most cases, the disease develops gradually, making the symptoms hard to detect. Many people do not feel any symptoms. In other cases, children may not show any obvious signs. If you believe your child has diabetes, keep an eye out for these signs: Excessive fatigue: If your child seems extraordinarily tired or sleepy, their body may not have enough sugar to properly fuel their normal body functions. Excessive thirst: Children who have excessive thirst may have high blood sugar levels. Frequent Continue reading >>
Diabetes In Children: What To Expect
If your child is diagnosed with diabetes, you may feel overwhelmed, angry and worried about the future. A diabetes care team can help with the challenges that lie ahead. Most children who develop diabetes will have type 1 diabetes, which is where the body is unable to produce insulin. This means they will need regular insulin injections. A small but increasing number of children in the UK are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which can be associated with being overweight. Type 1 diabetes, which this page focuses on, is not caused by being overweight. It's perfectly normal to feel upset or worried when your child is diagnosed with diabetes. But having the condition doesn't have to take away your child's freedom, or end your usual family life. What it does mean is that you have to carefully manage your child's condition as part of daily life. Professor Peter Hindmarsh of the University College Hospital in London explains what you should expect if your child is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. You and your child should be introduced to a specialist diabetes care team within one working day of diagnosis. Your child will be offered care from this team, either as a hospital in-patient, or delivered in your own home. This will depend on your preferences and your child's needs. If your child is admitted to hospital, there should be facilities for you to stay at the hospital too. "The first few days with your care team is the starting point of your education about diabetes," says Professor Hindmarsh. "You'll learn all about the condition, from blood glucose testing and giving insulin to your child, to food and exercise." Your care team can include, among others: a consultant paediatrician who specialises in diabetes a children's diabetes specialist nurse a dietitian who is fa Continue reading >>