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Ssri Withdrawal Hypoglycemia

Antidepressants Cause 40,000 Deaths A Year - But They're Handed Out Like Candy

Antidepressants Cause 40,000 Deaths A Year - But They're Handed Out Like Candy

My recent article on the dangers of psychiatric drugs ignited a firestorm of controversy. Part of the outrage may have been caused by some general misunderstandings, which I hope to clear up here. This is particularly important at this time as it is abundantly clear that suicide rates rise as the economy worsens. The image of people jumping from windows after the stock market crash of 1929 graphically illustrates this risk. Many may not agree, but I have been studying the economy for over 30 years now and it seems crystal clear to me that the economy has yet to hit bottom, and this will only serve to increase the risk of depression. My Personal Experiences with Depression First of all, I would like to set the record straight as many were confused about my personal experiences with depression. They believed I had none, and therefore there is no way I could understand this disease. Well let me tell you, nothing could be further from the truth. Mental and emotional problems exact an extreme toll on family units and in some cases extended circles of friends. I've personally been a witness to the struggles of two people near and dear to me who suffered from deep chronic depression for a number of years that actually resulted in multiple suicide attempts. Suicide is a common complication of depression, and is one of the primary reasons why it must be taken seriously as it can become a terminal illness. Many also might be unaware that I was a full-time practicing physician for over 20 years before I determined that I could help more people by committing myself full time to this newsletter and web site, than treating patients one on one. Before making that choice however, I treated tens of thousands of people for all sorts of problems, and I've seen my fair share of depressed p Continue reading >>

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome After In Utero Exposure To Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In Term Infants

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome After In Utero Exposure To Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In Term Infants

Objective To compare the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonates exposed and not exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in utero. Design Cohort study. Setting Tertiary care center. Patients One hundred twenty term infants, of whom 60 had prolonged in utero exposure to SSRIs, including paroxetine hydrochloride, fluoxetine, citalopram hydrobromide, sertraline hydrochloride, and venlafaxine hydrochloride. Main Outcome Measures Neonatal abstinence syndrome was assessed with the Finnegan score as follows: score of 8 or above, severe; score of 4 to 7, mild; and score of 0 to 3, normal. All infants were followed up with a standardized protocol that included repeated Finnegan score assessments and cardiorespiratory monitoring until normalization of the Finnegan score. Results Of the 60 neonates exposed to SSRIs in utero, 8 showed severe and 10 showed mild symptoms of a neonatal abstinence syndrome. All nonexposed neonates had a normal Finnegan score. In neonates who developed severe symptoms, the maximum mean daily Finnegan scores were recorded within 2 days after birth, although maximum individual scores were recorded as long as 4 days after birth. Conclusions Neonatal abstinence syndrome occurs in 30% of neonates exposed to SSRIs in utero. These neonates should be monitored for at least 48 hours after birth. The long-term effects of prolonged exposure to SSRIs, particularly in neonates who develop severe symptoms, have yet to be determined. Depression is a common disease with a lifetime risk of 10% to 25% in women.1 Furthermore, pregnancy is a stressful state that may aggravate depression and increase the need for medical therapy. The widespread use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which cross Continue reading >>

What Is Prozac (fluoxetine)?

What Is Prozac (fluoxetine)?

Prozac is an antidepressant. It is mainly used to treat major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder. Also known by its generic name, fluoxetine, Prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Around 1 in 10 people in the United States (U.S.) are thought to use SSRI drugs, and 1 in 4 women in their 40s and 50s. Prozac first appeared in the U.S. in 1988 and it became one of the most widely prescribed antidepressants in the country. It remains popular, although newer drugs are now available, such as sertraline and citalopram. It is available as a liquid, tablet, capsule, and as a delayed-release, long-acting capsule. It is suitable for adults and it can be used in some cases for children over the age of 10 years. Here are some key points about Prozac. More detail is in the main article. Prozac, or fluoxetine, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a widely used antidepressant. It is considered safe and effective in treating depression, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bulimia. Adverse effects include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts in some younger people. It should not be used with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and some other drugs. Anyone who wishes to stop using Prozac should do so gradually, with a doctor's help, to prevent adverse reactions. Side effects Antidepressants, including Prozac, can have a number of possible adverse effects. The FDA requires Prozac to come with a black box warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in people younger than 25 years. It can lead to suicidal thoughts, or a worsening of these, in children and young adults. Other possible side effects include: decreased libido and sexual dysfunction anxiety and nervousness abnormal drea Continue reading >>

Dopamine Antagonist Withdrawal Syndrome – Carole’s Story

Dopamine Antagonist Withdrawal Syndrome – Carole’s Story

The last post outlined the horrors of dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome (DAWS). This week’s features the equally grim horror of dopamine antagonist withdrawal syndrome (DAAWS). The dopamine antagonists include the antipsychotic, anti-nausea, anti-itch and other groups of drugs. The antipsychotics were the first of the modern psychotropic drugs to be linked to severe withdrawal, but even so few doctors today are aware that there can cause dependence and withdrawal or how bad the problems can be. These drugs are linked to one of the most severe examples of tolerance and dependence leading to a debilitating legacy effect – tardive dyskinesia. My first brush with the fact that dopamine antagonists can cause withdrawal came when Carole came to see me in 1996. Carole’s story In the early 1970s, Carole, a 36 year old woman with no history of mental illness suffered a psychotic breakdown in stressful circumstances that would have led anyone to breakdown. The stress was discounted. She was diagnosed as having a paranoid psychosis, hospitalized for two weeks and treated with Stelazine (trifluoperazine) 10mg tds and an anticholinergic drug. Her Stelazine was reduced on discharged to 5mg tds and after 6 months to 5mg per day. Her doctor, however, having decided she had schizophrenia, decided to keep her on treatment indefinitely. A return of the illness or something else…? Despite being on a treatment that would slow her up and demotivate her, she went back to university, got a PhD degree and became a researcher. She complained of lethargy, weight gain and dysphoria and after 16 months when these complaints seemed to be falling on deaf ears, she stopped treatment. But stopping led to nausea, stiffness, pain, headaches and acute anxiety. When she restarted Stelazine, thes Continue reading >>

Herbe Aux Mille Vertus

Herbe Aux Mille Vertus

Amber, Amber Touch-and-Heal, Barbe de Saint-Jean, Chasse-diable, Demon Chaser, Fuga Daemonum, Goatweed, Hardhay, Herbe à la Brûlure, Herbe à Mille Trous, Herbe Aux Fées, Herbe Aux Mille Vertus, Herbe Aux Piqûres, Herbe de Saint Éloi, Herbe de la Saint-Jean, Herbe du Charpentier, Herbe Percée, Hierba de San Juan, Hypereikon, Hyperici Herba, Hypericum, Klamath Weed, Klamathaweed, Millepertuis, Millepertuis Perforé, Perforate St. John's Wort, Racecourse Weed, Rosin Rose, Saynt Johannes Wort, SJW, Tipton Weed. CAUTION: See separate listing for Succinate (Amber). Orally, St. John's wort is used for depression, dysthymia, heart palpitations, mood disturbances and other symptoms of menopause, somatization disorder, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Other uses include smoking cessation, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), burning mouth syndrome, headache, migraine headache, muscle pain, neuralgia, polyneuropathy, sciatica, and angioplasty. It is also used orally for secondary symptoms associated with depression such as fatigue, loss of appetite, insomnia, and anxiety. It is also used orally for cancer, glioma, vitiligo, herpes simplex, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, weight loss, as a diuretic, and for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Oily St. John's wort preparations are used orally for gastric indigestion. Topically, oily St. John's wort preparations are used for treating bruises and abrasions, inflammation and muscle pain, plaque psoriasis, first degree burns, wound healing, tooth extraction, bug bites, hemorrhoids, vitiligo, and neuralgia. In manufacturing, the hypericin-free extracts of St. John's wort are used in the making of alco Continue reading >>

Rasagiline-induced Severe Recurrent Hypoglycemia In A Young Woman Without Diabetes: A Case Report

Rasagiline-induced Severe Recurrent Hypoglycemia In A Young Woman Without Diabetes: A Case Report

Abstract We report a case of a patient with recurrent severe hypoglycemia after initiating the drug rasagiline (Azilect) for Parkinson disease. A 25-year-old Emirati woman who had been diagnosed with Parkinson disease due to a genetic mutation since the age of 18 years presented to our hospital. She had been treated with a rotigotine patch 2 mg per day along with carbidopa + levodopa + entacapone 25 mg/100 mg/200 mg (Stalevo) over these years. Recently, her Stalevo had been changed to rasagiline (a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor). Soon after this change, she started experiencing recurrent documented severe hypoglycemia requiring hospitalization. Her hypoglycemic symptoms completely disappeared after 5–7 days of drug withdrawal. Despite detailed evaluation, no other causal relationship was documented except for rasagiline. To the best of our knowledge, this case report documents an unknown association between rasagiline and hypoglycemia. Notes Not applicable. All data related to the case, including consent form and soft copies, are available upon request. FAB: followed the case, wrote the case history and reviewed the discussion and final draft. FR: wrote the introduction, discussion, and reviewed case report. AABH: wrote the case history. FA: reviewed the final case report. AB: shared in writing discussion, supervised the writing of the case, reviewed final case report. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. As per the Dubai Health Authority ethical and scientific committee, ethical approvals are not required for case reports. Continue reading >>

Adrenal Fatigue

Adrenal Fatigue

The body is uniquely designed to react to any danger or challenge. When it detects the need for 'flight-or-fight,’ the adrenal glands produce a cocktail of hormones that cause the muscles to tense and the heart rate to increase while blood is diverted from the digestive and other organs. After the event, the body and mind relax and harmony is restored. The adrenal glands are involved in multiple functions of the body: stress control metabolism blood sugar and cravings digestion and elimination thyroid reproductive hormones mood and chemical imbalances blood pressure and heart health immune system (allergies, infections, etc.) liver and detoxification centers The adrenal glands are primarily known for the production of our stress hormones Cortisol and Adrenaline, but they are literally a hormone factory that significantly affects the function of every tissue, organ and gland. They produce our anti-aging hormone DHEA, our reproductive hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone, as well as Aldosterone, a hormone that controls the sodium and potassium levels (electrolytes) in the body. If potassium levels become too high, aldosterone is secreted causing the kidneys to excrete more potassium and retain more sodium. Low sodium can also stimulate the secretion of aldosterone. A diet chronically high in potassium or low in sodium can stress the adrenals. Excess potassium is also a natural diuretic and causes some loss of sodium. There should be a balance between potassium and sodium. Please see your physician for an electrolyte blood test to establish your levels. The problem occurs when we are constantly in the 'flight or fight' mode and the adrenals produce too much Cortisol and Adrenaline. When this state of emergency is maintained for extended periods of time, the Continue reading >>

Antidepressants That Cause High Blood Sugar

Antidepressants That Cause High Blood Sugar

High blood sugar--abnormal, even dangerous levels of sugar in the blood--is known as hyperglycemia and is most often associated with the disease diabetes mellitus. However, different types of medications may also cause high blood sugar; this is sometimes known as medication-induced, or drug-induced, diabetes. Within the list of drugs are several medications that are used to treat depression. While only one medication is officially considered an "antidepressant," certain antipsychotics--which may also be used in the treatment of depression--may cause hyperglycemia as well. Video of the Day Fluoxetine is a commonly-used antidepressant; it belongs to a class called the “serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors,” and may also be known by one of its brand names, Prozac. It is used to treat both depression that occurs as a result of major depressive disorder and, in combination with the antipsychotic medication olanzepine, to treat the depression that may occur in patients with bipolar disorder. In addition to its effects on blood sugar levels, fluoxetine may Medline Plus reports that fluoxetine can cause nausea, lack of appetite, weight loss, nervousness, and changes in sex drive. The medical reference UpToDate reports that in patients with diabetes, fluoxetine affects blood sugar regulation in an interesting way. Patients who take fluoxetine may have more episodes of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar--but when they stop taking fluoxetine, instead of their blood sugar reaching normal levels, patients’ blood sugar level goes above normal. This is called hyperglycemia, and this observation suggests that fluoxetine is somehow impacting the blood sugar regulation mechanism of patients with diabetes. Because of this, a patient who is taking medication for his diabetes and is a Continue reading >>

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal abstinence syndrome is a condition that some babies experience when withdrawing from certain drugs that his mother has taken during pregnancy. When a woman is pregnant and takes one of these drugs, her unborn baby can become accustomed to the drug while in the uterus. Once born, the baby is still dependent on the drug; since the drug is no longer available, the baby experiences withdrawal symptoms. Which drugs are associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome? Neonatal abstinence syndrome was originally used to describe withdrawal from narcotics, or opioid drugs. However, this definition has been expanded to include withdrawal from illicit drugs, alcohol, and certain medications, including drugs for depression called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Many health care providers are beginning to refer to the neonatal abstinence syndrome condition as a drug dependency syndrome. The following drugs are frequently associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome: Fentanyl Heroin and methadone Meperidine (Demerol) Morphine Pentazocine Propoxyphene Barbiturates Caffeine Chlordiazepoxide Cocaine Amphetamines Diphenhydramine Ethanol Marijuana Nicotine Phencyclidine SSRIs (fluoxetine​, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram) What symptoms are associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome? Babies born with neonatal abstinence syndrome may appear normal at birth. Withdrawal symptoms usually arise in the first 24 to 48 hours of life, although sometimes the symptoms may not appear until five to 10 days after birth. In most cases, symptoms are mild and resolve within a week; however, they may last up to three weeks. Symptoms of withdrawal may include the following: Excessive, high pitched crying Tremor Sleep problems Tight muscle tone Seizures Increased startle reflex Continue reading >>

Mao Inhibitors: The Forgotten Antidepressant That Saved My Life

Mao Inhibitors: The Forgotten Antidepressant That Saved My Life

A science writer recounts his longtime struggle with panic disorder, which led to an unusual solution I had my first panic attack in 1972 when I was 20 years old and a student at the University of London. It took me 10 years to be diagnosed and another 15 years to find a medication that would help me. The medication is Nardil (phenelzine) and it is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor or MAOI, the oldest antidepressant. The drug is rarely used anymore and most people, including young doctors and medical students, don't know much about it. If you've heard the term MAOI, it is probably in conjunction with an ad for a drug such as Prozac (fluoxetine) and the warning "don't take this drug if you are on an MAO inhibitor." Nardil has saved me from a life of fear, shame, loneliness and isolation. It allows me to write, have relationships, play tennis and travel – things I could not do when my panic attacks were at their worst. Hardly anyone takes MAO inhibitors anymore because they have dietary restrictions and interactions with other drugs and because of the popularity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, antidepressants which can also be effective treatments for panic disorder. This class of drugs includes Prozac (fluoxetine) Zoloft (sertraline) Lexapro (escitalopram) and Paxil (paroxetine). However, Prozac, the first SSRI, was not approved for use until 1987 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). So even if I had been diagnosed properly in 1972, these drugs were not an option. I also had the misfortune of developing panic attacks before panic disorder was recognized as a distinct illness. In the late 1970s, researchers had seen enough cases like mine to realize they were dealing with an illness that did not fit the pattern of traditional anxiety. People h Continue reading >>

Many Psychiatric Symptoms Remit Upon Drug Withdrawal – Even Suicidal Impulses

Many Psychiatric Symptoms Remit Upon Drug Withdrawal – Even Suicidal Impulses

This is something I’ve posted before that bears repeating. It was written while I was still withdrawing off the final of the six drugs I came off of. I completed the psychiatric drug withdrawal a little over a year ago (it’s been 6 years as of 2016). I made some comments to bring it up to date upon reposting all written in this blue font. And for anyone dealing with suicidal feelings, whether on or off psych drugs see: Suicide prevention: alternative ways to approach folkss **warning — rapid or cold-turkey withdrawal can often inflame psychiatric symptoms (including feelings of hurting oneself) for some time. For safer withdrawal practices see here. Something that comes up quite often in discussions with my friends and readers who have been on meds and have come off of them is how many of the “psychiatric” symptoms they were being “treated” for disappear upon discontinuation of the medications. This is widely known and experienced among those of us who have decided to stop medicating ourselves. For me there are two most astonishing details. The first was when I discovered I was being given more and more Risperdal to medicate away the akathisia that the Risperdal was causing! Once off the Risperdal the akathisia was gone and so was most of what we’d called anxiety which led me to take massive doses of benzos. This is tragic and disgusting. I often have had considerably less anxiety in the midst of an awful withdrawal then I had when I was on the six drugs. I’m on one drug now and withdrawal from benzos is infamous for causing horrible rebound anxiety and yet it’s not terribly true for me. (this has changed the closer to zero I’ve gotten, though it seems to be a physiological response particularly to withdrawal from what I can gather in withdrawal ci Continue reading >>

Neonatal Adverse Events Associated With In Utero Ssri/snri Exposure

Neonatal Adverse Events Associated With In Utero Ssri/snri Exposure

Objectives 1. Highlight language in SSRI/SNRI class labeling a) PRECAUTIONS- Pregnancy non-teratogenic section b) DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION section 2. Provide rationale for proposing class labeling Terms Used for Neonatal SSRI/SNRI Syndromes - SRI Withdrawal - SRI Toxicity - Poor Neonatal Adaptation - Serotonergic Excess - Serotonergic CNS Adverse Effects - Serotonin Syndrome SSRI/SNRI Discontinuation Symptoms in Adults1 Dysequilibrium: dizziness, vertigo, ataxia GI: nausea, vomiting Flu-like: fatigue, lethargy, myalgia, chills Sensory disturbance: paresthesia, electric shock sensation Sleep disturbance: insomnia, vivid disturbing dreams Neuropsychiatric symptoms 1Schatzberg AF, et al. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: A hypothetical definition. J Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58 [suppl 7] 5-10. Similarities Between Neonatal AE & Adult Discontinuation Symptoms Neonatal “Withdrawal†Irritability, jitteriness, agitation, insomnia, poor feeding, crying AE onset: 10 to 36 hours Resolution: 1 to 14 days Adult Withdrawal Irritability, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, anorexia, GI distress AE onset: 24 to 72 hours Resolution: 1 to 14 days Similarities Between Neonatal AE & Toxicity in Adults Neonatal “Toxicity†Jitteriness, insomnia, hypertonia, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, convulsions, temperature dysregulation, autonomic instability, tachypnea Onset: immediate to several hours Resolution: hours to weeks May have high serum SSRI/SNRI levels Adult Toxicity Jitteriness, insomnia, hypertonia, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, akathisia, convulsions, temperature dysregulation, autonomic instability, tachypnea, cognitive symptoms Onset: highly variable Resolution: hours to several days May have high serum SSRI/SNRI levels Rationale for Proposing Class Labeling N Continue reading >>

Infants And Antidepressant Withdrawal

Infants And Antidepressant Withdrawal

Feb. 6, 2006 -- There is growing evidence that babies born to mothers who take antidepressants during pregnancy often experience symptoms of drug withdrawal shortly after birth. In a new study from Israel, about one out of three newborn infants exposed to antidepressants in the womb showed signs of neonatal drug withdrawal, which included high-pitched crying, tremors, and disturbed sleep. Researchers concluded that expectant moms who take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and their doctors should be warned about the potential risk. "Because maternal depression during pregnancy also entails a risk to the newborn, the risk-benefit ratio of continuing SSRI treatment should be assessed," Rachel Levinson-Castiel, MD, and colleagues wrote. The report comes less than a week after the publication of a major study finding that pregnant women who stop taking antidepressants run a high risk of relapsing into depression. And it comes just months after the FDA warned that a widely prescribed SSRI may be associated with an increased risk of birth defects in babies born to mothers who take the drug in their first trimester. The mixed messages from the research have left many pregnant women who suffer from depression wondering what to do. Diana Dell, MD, who is both an ob-gyn and a psychiatrist, says it is increasingly clear that abruptly stopping depression treatment carries significant risks for both mother and baby. Dell is an assistant professor of obstetrics and gynecology and psychiatry at Duke University in Durham, N.C. "Moms need to be well during pregnancy, and moderate to severe depression certainly has an impact on a developing fetus," she tells WebMD. "We also know that a woman's chance of being hospitalized for psychiatric reasons is greater dur Continue reading >>

Episode 172: Should Ssris And Snris Be Discontinued In The Setting Of Active Bleeding?

Episode 172: Should Ssris And Snris Be Discontinued In The Setting Of Active Bleeding?

In this episode, I’ll discuss whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) should be discontinued in the setting of active bleeding. I am excited to announce that I have teamed up with the Wegman’s School of Pharmacy St. John Fisher College to offer ACPE Continuing Education credit for listeners of The Elective Rotation podcast! Starting with the February 2017 episodes, I have bundled them into a 1 hour ACPE CE program. You can register by clicking here. If enough participants register, I will publish additional CE programs based on other podcast episodes. Shout out to “Pharmacy Jen” for suggesting this episode topic. Serotonin is often thought of in the context of depression and as a neurotransmitter. However, serotonin and serotonin receptors are present throughout the body in myocardium, blood vessels, GI tract, platelets, smooth muscle, and elsewhere. There are 7 different classes of serotonin receptors, 5-HT1 through 5-HT7. Many receptor classes have several subtypes. Medications are classified as active against specific serotonin receptors based on relative ability to affect a receptor. Remember the irritable bowel syndrome treatment tegaserod? Tegaserod is a serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist. While tegaserod had marginal effects on irritable bowel syndrome, it had significant effects on GI motility and the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. It was being used off label frequently in diabetic patients for pro-motility effects. Unfortunately, the 5-HT4 receptor is also present in myocardium. Tegaserod was soon found to have elevated risk of myocardial infarction and was withdrawn from the market. It is now available only under a special access program. This example serves as a powerful remi Continue reading >>

6 Conditions That Feel Like Clinical Depression But Aren't

6 Conditions That Feel Like Clinical Depression But Aren't

If a person went to his primary care physician and complained of symptoms of fatigue, guilt, worthlessness, irritability, insomnia, decreased appetite, loss of interest in regular activities, persistent sadness, anxiety, and thoughts of suicide, I am pretty sure he would leave that office with a diagnosis of Major Depression Disorder (MDD) and a prescription for sertraline (Zoloft), fluoxetine (Prozac), or another popular Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI). After all, the guy has just cataloged the classic symptoms of clinical depression. However, those same symptoms belong to a variety of other conditions, as well, that require treatments other than antidepressants and psychotherapy, the two pillars of conventional psychiatric recovery today. They may certainly look and feel like clinical depression to the outsider, but they may require just a small tweak in diet or hormones. Here are six conditions that fall under that category. 1. Vitamin D Deficiency A good doctor will order blood work to see if a patient is low on vitamin D before sending him off with a prescription for fluoxetine (Prozac) because so many of us are lacking adequate amounts of this critical vitamin. In fact, according to a 2009 study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, as many as three-quarters of U.S. teens and adults are deficient. Last year Canadian researchers performed a systematic review and analysis of 14 studies that revealed a close association between vitamin D levels and depression. Researchers found that low levels of vitamin D corresponded to depression and increased odds for depression. The best source of vitamin D is sunshine, but for those of us with family histories of skin cancer, we have to get it in small doses because sunscreens prohibit the body from maki Continue reading >>

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