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Societal Impact Of Diabetes

Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes Type 2

Family members were often involved in the lifestyle changes that people made after they were diagnosed with diabetes. Many people said that their spouses, partners and children were essential in helping them, and motivating them to keep their diabetes under control. Often the whole family made changes to their diet, and several people thought there had been benefits from doing this. Some involved their younger children or grandchildren when they were doing their blood glucose tests, taking their medication or injections, so that managing diabetes became a natural part of family life. However when people were in denial about their diabetes, it was difficult for families to know what to do. Parents said they educated their children about their diet and lifestyle, and encouraged them to eat healthily and to take more exercise, hoping that it might reduce their chance of getting diabetes. Some were keen to ensure that any sign of diabetes in their children would be picked up quickly. One father encouraged his children to be tested regularly because he believed getting diagnosed early had minimised the impact diabetes had on his health. Social Life Diabetes had little effect on most people's social life. Many had learnt to manage their diabetes so that it didn't affect their ability to eat out in restaurants, at friends' houses, or in social gatherings. Some people said they only had small amounts of food and were careful to avoid sweet or spicy foods (as these are often high in sugar, salt and fat. Spices are not on their own bad for you). Others said that they only ate out occasionally so they felt the odd indulgence was okay. A few people found other's reactions and lack of understanding difficult, which made it harder to keep within their diabetic guidelines and they suf Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes Comes At A High Cost For Patients Around The World

Type 2 Diabetes Comes At A High Cost For Patients Around The World

Diabetes is not just a physically debilitating disease. It’s also an economic burden for people around the world. Researchers from the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England, conducted a review of the economic impact of type 2 diabetes. Their assessment shows that diabetes puts severe economic strain on many countries and negatively affects people’s employment opportunities and wages. "Our results show a considerable impact of diabetes in terms of costs to society, health systems, individuals, and employers,” said lead researcher Till Seuring, of UEA's Norwich Medical School, in a press release. From both a humanitarian and an economic standpoint, the review suggests that eliminating diabetes is in everyone’s best interest. Get the Basics: Diabetes by the Numbers » An Expensive Epidemic Diabetes adds up in its direct and indirect costs to patients, and these expenses only increase with disease severity. Besides standard medical care, things such as transportation to and from doctor visits, equipment, and health insurance must all be taken into account. While not involved in this particular study, Barbara Goldoftas, an assistant professor of environmental science and policy at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, has seen many of these problems firsthand researching the impact of diabetes in Nicaragua. For example, Goldoftas notes the cost of diabetes testing strips is “prohibitively expensive” for many people in low-income countries. In Nicaragua, she said many people could only have their blood sugar tested once a month. In the United States, people generally conduct tests daily. Diabetes is also detrimental to the labor market. The disease greatly reduces worker productivity, meaning that people with diabetes must often rely on their famil Continue reading >>

Socio-economic Factors And Diabetes Consequences Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Socio-economic Factors And Diabetes Consequences Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Socio-economic factors and diabetes consequences among patients with type 2 diabetes Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 1Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 2Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran 3Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Address for correspondence: Prof. Gholamreza Sharifirad, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of public health, Hezar jarib Ave., Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: [email protected] Author information Copyright and License information This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Considering the effect of socio-economic factors on the emergence of chronic diseases and the importance of this aspect of diseases for policy makers and authorities of health care organizations, this study tried to investigate the role of these factors in type 2 diabetes and its consequences, which can be used in health policy making for preventing from this disease. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 384 diabetic patients who were admitted to a diabetes center in the city of Isfahan. The participants were selected using simple random sampling. A questionnaire with 42 questions was used for gathering the data which were analyz Continue reading >>

Influences Of Social Issues On Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Are We Doing Enough?

Influences Of Social Issues On Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Are We Doing Enough?

Influences of social issues on type 1 diabetes self-management: are we doing enough? Kalsoom Akhtar, Triece Turnbull, and David Simmons. November 30, 2016 Vol 33.9 November / December 2016 Much of the literature on the causes and management of diabetes focuses on biomedical and lifestyle factors, with little attention given to the role of social issues in diabetes management. This study aimed to explore the influence of social issues on type 1 diabetes management from the perspectives of people with diabetes and of health care professionals (HCPs), and to identify strategies to enhance the clinic services. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight people with type 1 diabetes and with 15 HCPs. Recruitment was through the patients HCPs for this service evaluation project. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the influence of social issues on diabetes management. The dominant themes that emerged from the thematic analysis were: housing situations, divorce, stress, literacy issues, social stigma and financial issues. HCPs suggested ways to improve services by: putting informational boards (e.g. related to benefit services) in the waiting area; providing a peer support platform (to discuss and gain support related to social issues); having a service directory (to refer people to the social services); working at multi-settings (to understand the effect of social issues); and having open clinics at weekends (to support those who are unable to get time off during the week). People with diabetes suggested that bringing in a welfare officer and providing information about benefits could improve the clinic services. In conclusion, including a systematic assessment of social parameters in health care records might improve the ability of cl Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Quality Of Life

Diabetes And Quality Of Life

Diabetes Spectrum Volume 13 Number , 2000, Page 21 From Research to Practice/Diabetes and Quality of Life Diabetes and Quality of Life Richard R. Rubin, PhD, CDE Preface Diabetes is a demanding disease. As my son, who has had diabetes for more than 20 years, once told me, "At least once every 15 minutes, I have to deal with my diabetes. I have to stop what I'm doing, think about how I'm feeling, try to remember when and what I last ate, think about what I'll be doing next, and decide whether to test my blood. Then, depending on the results of the test (or my guess as to my sugar level), I'll plan when to eat or take my next insulin bolus." Can anything so ubiquitous as diabetes and its management not affect a person's quality of life, a person's ability to function and to derive satisfaction from doing so? Naturally, the life of every person with diabetes is unique. Not many of our patients manage their diabetes as actively or effectively as my son does. But almost every person with diabetes I have ever met feels that diabetes powerfully affects their lives, and most feel burdened by the manifold demands of their disease. I call this experience "diabetes overwhelmus," since so many people feel overwhelmed by the continuous burden of their disease and its management. These emotional and social burdens may be compounded by the acute physical distress of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and by the chronic physical distress of diabetes-related complications. What is quality of life? So it seems clear that diabetes can affect a person's quality of life. But what is quality of life? Several articles in this From Research to Practice section raise this question. The authors of these articles caution us to think clearly about what is being measured when various researchers say the Continue reading >>

Social Effects Of Diabetes

Social Effects Of Diabetes

Can I Tell You about Diabetes (Type 1)?: A Guide for Friends, Family and Professionals Diabetes is more than a health condition. For most people, its a new way of life, and it affects relationships in all areas as much as it affects eating and physical activity. Trying to follow a diabetic diet can be trying in social situations. Family or friends may appear offended by the person who will not eat a piece of homemade pie or other dessert. It can be difficult to avoid overindulging in the presence of people who eat large quantities of food. People with diabetes may have to refrain from some group activities due to the need to monitor or maintain their blood sugar, leading to stigmatization or group isolation. Click Here For A Free Ebook With Expert Dating and Relationship Advice For Men and Women! http:// Exercise and Sport in Diabetes (Practical Diabetes) Sports are an important part of many peoples lives. Teamwork, camaraderie, and physical activity are vital parts of a well-rounded life. Diabetes doesnt have to alter that. Exercise is essential in diabetes management, and participation in sports can provide this and other benefits. But it does require some extra effort by the diabetic. One important component is tracking the effect of exercise on glucose levels, reacting to changes with Insulin or food. The varying lengths and intensity of games and practices will need to be accommodated. Another important factor is incorporating the team concept. The coach should be educated and prepared, and alert to the diabetics needs. Its a good idea to set up an advance meeting, rather than try to discuss all the factors at the first practice. Letting the players teammates know about the diabetes and the players needs is a good idea, too. Diabetes Disease Management in the Work Continue reading >>

Social Context Of Diabetes Mellitus

Social Context Of Diabetes Mellitus

Physicians view diabetes as a metabolic disturbance affecting isolated individuals, but the condition looks very different when viewed within its social context. The prevalence of diabetes closely reflects the lifestyle of a population - its affluence, dietary and cultural habits, and even its social divisions. Conversely, the wealth, social organization and culture of a society will largely determine its ability to mount an effective response to the challenge of diabetes. Diabetes is a major economic burden for affluent nations, representing 5-10% of total health expenditure. This is largely due to the cost of long term complications such as kidney disease or leg amputations, whereas drug costs make up no more than 10-20% of the total. In poorer countries, diabetes has a worse prognosis and medication costs, often borne by the patient, may then constitute the major expense. Diabetes confers the psychological and social cost of a chronic disease, and may still carry a social stigma in addition to its implications for employment, driving, insurance and many other activities. The burden of diabetes varies widely but it remains an obstacle to full self-realization in all parts of the world. Introduction Physicians tend to view diabetes as it affects individuals and their families, whereas epidemiologists view it from the perspective of whole populations. There is however a whole dimension of diabetes which is not captured by either of these perspectives, and this is diabetes as it affects members of a society. The root meaning of the word "individual" is "that which cannot be divided". We operate as members of groups, not in isolation. Diabetes has widely differing impacts within different social settings, and these different settings affect the ability of individuals with Continue reading >>

The Diabetes Epidemic And Its Effect On Society

The Diabetes Epidemic And Its Effect On Society

Diabetes has a major impact on people who live with the disease, their family members, and society as a whole. According to the National Institutes of Health, it costs many billions of dollars to provide care for those with type 2 diabetes. NIH reports that there were almost 37 million people with this type of diabetes in adults who were aged 20 through 79. Another 44 million had impaired glucose tolerance, and 108,600 children who were up to 14 years of age had type 1 diabetes in North America and in the Caribbean. Expenses for health care for these patients was estimated at 263.2 billion dollars for 2013. Public health and the economy of these countries was greatly threatened by diabetes. Lost Productivity The American Diabetes Association estimated that the United States' economy lost 58 billion dollars in 2007 as a result of lost work days from diabetes-related health problems. The fact that diabetes is a continually growing problem makes its impact on society even more profound. This association estimates that there are approximately 5.7 million people who have diabetes who have not been diagnosed and another 57 million who have pre-diabetes. Far-Reaching Effects Diabetic symptoms can affect those with diabetes on a daily basis. They may feel very tired if their blood sugar levels are not regulated, and this often leads to missed days of work due to the fact that it can be difficult to get out of bed and start the day. Blood sugar often spikes at the end of the sleep cycle and can be high when you wake up. This makes getting off to work for the day very difficult. Also, unless your blood sugar is under control, you may have other problems like low blood sugar that can have dangerous consequences. Those with diabetes need to take everything that they do into account Continue reading >>

Impact Of Diabetes On You And Your Family

Impact Of Diabetes On You And Your Family

If you're diabetic I don't have to tell you that this disease consumes you on a daily and even an hourly basis. As depicted in the following diagram, diabetes impacts you and your family in at least 6 ways: Physically Financially Emotionally Family Work Day-to-Day Life Hopefully, one of these areas of impact will motivate you to begin making the necessary changes to stop the disease from destroying your life and the lives of your loved ones. Unfortunately, some diabetics believe that nothing can be done to stop the progression of diabetes leading to blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. This is called giving up (lack of hope) due to the lack of knowledge. Other diabetics believe that they will not face blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. This is called denial. Ironically, both of these scenarios eventually lead to blindness, amputation, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, gum disease, high blood pressure, or some of the other complications of having diabetes. However, the first scenario can be addressed by providing the proper knowledge. The second scenario may require some one-on-one health coaching from the author, who understands what you're going through. However, if you don't do anything, within 7-10 years, most diabetics begin to feel some discomfort, e.g. pain/numbness in the foot, eyesight problems, fatigue issues, weight gain, memory fog, etc. In the meantime, the number of medications have continued to increase. Then, one day, most diabetics find out from their doctor that they have to go on insulin, or that their kidneys are failing or Continue reading >>

Social Issues For The Type 1 Diabetic

Social Issues For The Type 1 Diabetic

Diabetes is more than a health condition. For most people, it’s a new way of life, and it affects relationships in all areas as much as it affects eating and physical activity. School The first challenge facing parents of a Type 1 diabetes student is the ongoing medical care required during school hours. The “School Bill of Rights for Children with Diabetes” requires that diabetic children be allowed to: Check blood sugar Use emergency sugar to treat hypoglycemia Inject insulin, eat snacks, drink water, and use the bathroom whenever necessary Eat lunch at an appropriate time, and with enough time to finish Participate fully in all activities It’s up to the parents to be sure the school officials, nurse(s), teachers, and all other applicable staff are educated to and comply with their child’s needs. Having a section 504 plan will help. The second challenge is helping your child fit in. Often other children will not have any experience with or understanding of diabetes. Coupled with a perception that the child is being treated “specially,” that can lead to teasing and even bullying. Talk to your child about how to educate their friends and classmates about what’s going on. Perhaps you’d be able to be a guest speaker in their classroom. Parents of your child’s friends may need education, too. Some parents are concerned about how to handle your child’s condition at a party or other event. Leaders of scout troops and clubs, as well as coaches and youth group volunteers can also be recruited onto your team. Throughout your child’s education, communication with many of the people with whom they come in contact will be key to productive, healthy, fun experiences. Sports Sports are an important part of many people’s lives. Teamwork, camaraderie, and phy Continue reading >>

The Psychological And Social Impact Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Psychological And Social Impact Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Psychological and Social Impact of Type 2 Diabetes The patient with type 2 diabetes must adjust to a demanding treatment regimen and the eventual onset of diabetes-related complications (24 - 28) . In this section we discuss some of these psychosocial issues and provide an update on treatment approaches in these areas. Most of the research on psychosocial issues in diabetes in the United States has been carried out on Caucasians, principally in academic clinics and hospital diabetes centers, rather than in primary care settings, where most type 2 diabetes care is delivered. Despite these limitations, there is a sizeable body of research available that can help us understand the psychosocial impact of type 2 diabetes, and identify clinically useful interventions to manage patient problem areas. Type 2 diabetes is consistently described in clinical reports as demanding and complex from the patients perspective (29 - 32) . Reflecting clinician time constraints, their training focus, institutional support, and reimbursement practices, most clinical interviews in diabetes practice focus largely on medical or educational aspects of type 2 diabetes, and concentrate little on psychosocial features that, for a subgroup of patients, should be at the forefront of priorities (33) . Psychosocial issues in type 2 diabetes have a significant influence on both patient outcomes and quality-of-life. High blood sugar levels, associated with poor blood sugar control, cause a range of medical complications (e.g., cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) that can impact many areas of the patients life, including ability to work, family functioning, quality-of-life, and sexual functioning (24,25,34) . As with other chronic medical conditions, the patient needs to car Continue reading >>

The Impact Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Daily Functioning

The Impact Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus On Daily Functioning

Background. Traditionally, health and the outcomes of medical treatment have been measured in terms of morbidity, incidence or prevalence of disease, or even mortality. This disease model provides an adequate framework for acute illnesses, but for chronic diseases, severity and their effect on everyday functioning are paramount. For chronic diseases, functional health status, as a vital part of quality of life, is now recognized as an important outcome measure of the GP's care. Objective. We aimed to assess the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on functional health status in Dutch general practice. Method. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the functional health status of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under 85 in two general practices, using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the COOP/WONCA charts. A control group of non-diabetic patients was selected, matched for practice, sex and age. Results. In total, 127 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 127 controls participated in the study, the responses being 78 and 70%, respectively. Between these groups the following were significantly different: the SIP subscore Physical, the SIP sum score and the COOP/WONCA scores for physical fitness and overall health. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were 2.46 (95% CI 1.5– 4.1) times more likely to experience functional impairment. Cardiovascular morbidity (odds ratio 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.7), locomotory morbidity (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) and diabetes itself (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) were significantly associated with the presence of functional impairment. Conclusion. This study demonstrates the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on functional status, particularly in relation to cardiovascular morbidity. Objective. We aimed to define a perfor Continue reading >>

Health Capabilities And Diabetes Self-management: The Impact Of Economic, Social, And Cultural Resources

Health Capabilities And Diabetes Self-management: The Impact Of Economic, Social, And Cultural Resources

Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: The impact of economic, social, and cultural resources Author links open overlay panel Robert R.Weavera Economic, social & cultural resources shape health capability & dietary management. Food costs can restrict dietary options and lower health capability for many. Social relations and norms enhance or hinder the ability to make dietary changes. Dietary change requires flexibility and cooperation from all household members. High resource group members were most able and motivated to maintain healthy diet. While the social determinants of health view compels us to explore how social structures shape health outcomes, it often ignores the role individual agency plays. In contrast, approaches that focus on individual choice and personal responsibility for health often overlook the influence of social structures. Amartya Sen's capabilities framework and its derivative the health capabilities (HC) approach attempts to accommodate both points of view, acknowledging that individuals function under social conditions over which they have little control, while also acting as agents in their own health and well-being. This paper explores how economic, social, and cultural resources shape the health capability of people with diabetes, focusing specifically on dietary practices. Health capability and agency are central to dietary practices, while also being shaped by immediate and broader social conditions that can generate habits and a lifestyle that constrain dietary behaviors. From January 2011 to December 2012, we interviewed 45 people with diabetes from a primary care clinic in Ontario (Canada) to examine how their economic, social, and cultural resources combine to influence dietary practices relative to their condition. We cla Continue reading >>

Physical, Mental & Social Effects Of Diabetes

Physical, Mental & Social Effects Of Diabetes

Like any long-term illness, diabetes can affect physical, mental and social well-being. The hallmark abnormality with diabetes is high blood sugar, or glucose. Exposure to high glucose levels often damages small and large blood vessels over time, leading to a variety of possible physical complications. Diabetes can also affect mental health, as it is associated with an increased risk for depression and may affect thought processes and memory. The stresses and demands of living with diabetes sometimes affect interpersonal and social relationships as well. The physical, mental and social effects of diabetes are interrelated, influencing short- and long-term health. Blood Vessel Damage High glucose levels damage the small blood vessels of the retina, the vision-perceiving tissue at the back of the eye, potentially causing permanent vision loss. Chronic kidney disease commonly develops with longstanding diabetes related to small vessel damage in these organs, which can lead to kidney failure. High glucose also damages large blood vessels, causing hardening of the arteries and the development of blockages that obstruct blood flow to the heart and brain. This type of large vessel damage increases the risk for heart attacks and strokes. The nerves controlling the functions of various body organs are also commonly damaged due to persistently elevated blood sugar levels. This can lead to a variety of problems. Slowed stomach emptying, bloating and constipation are common manifestations of diabetes nerve damage. Disturbance of the nerves controlling bladder contraction leads to urine retention. Damage to nerves that control the heart and blood vessels often leads to a rapid heart rate and dizziness on standing. Damage to nerves responsible for sensation commonly cause tingling, b Continue reading >>

The Impact Of Diabetes On Employment And Work Productivity

The Impact Of Diabetes On Employment And Work Productivity

Abstract OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the effect of diabetes on labor market outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Using secondary data from the first two waves (1992 and 1994) of the Health and Retirement Study, we identified 7,055 employed respondents (51–61 years of age), 490 of whom reported having diabetes in wave 1. We estimated the effect of diabetes in wave 1 on the probability of working in wave 2 using probit regression. For those working in wave 2, we modeled the relationships between diabetic status in wave 1 and the change in hours worked and work-loss days using ordinary least-squares regressions and modeled the presence of health-related work limitations using probit regression. All models control for health status and job characteristics and are estimated separately by sex. RESULTS—Among individuals with diabetes, the absolute probability of working was 4.4 percentage points less for women and 7.1 percentage points less for men relative to that of their counterparts without diabetes. Change in weekly hours worked was not statistically significantly associated with diabetes. Women with diabetes had 2 more work-loss days per year compared with women without diabetes. Compared with individuals without diabetes, men and women with diabetes were 5.4 and 6 percentage points (absolute increase), respectively, more likely to have work limitations. CONCLUSIONS—This article provides evidence that diabetes affects patients, employers, and society not only by reducing employment but also by contributing to work loss and health-related work limitations for those who remain employed. The medical care costs associated with diabetes create a considerable economic burden for patients, families, and society (1,2). Productivit Continue reading >>

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