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Social Factors Affecting Diabetes

(pdf) Social Factors Influencing Diabetes Mellitus In Adults Attending A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nagpur: A Cross Sectional Study

(pdf) Social Factors Influencing Diabetes Mellitus In Adults Attending A Tertiary Care Hospital In Nagpur: A Cross Sectional Study

Social factors influencing diabetes mellitus in adults attending a tertiary care hospital in Nagpur: a cross sectional study Sneha D. Patil1, Jyotsna S. Deshmukh1*, Chaitanya R. Patil2 Epidemiological transition has led to rise of new diseases like obesity, diabetes and related metabolic disorders.1-3 Among these, diabetes mellitus constitutes the major share. Diabetes in all its forms imposes unacceptably high human, social and economic costs on countries at all income levels. According to World Health Organization estimates, Globally, an estimated 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980. The global prevalence (age-standardized) of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980, rising from 4.7% to 8.5% in the adult population. About 1.5 million deaths have been attributed to this deadly disease. This burden is rising fastest among the low and middle-income countries like India.4 The onset of diabetes among Indians occurs a decade earlier than compared to the western world.5,6 Improved health care, early detection, and timely treatment is another effective approach for reducing impact of diabetes. Access to adequate health care plays an even stronger role in controlling diabetes, preventing the development of complications, and avoiding diabetes- Background: Social determinants of the health are the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live and age. Increasingly, these are being recognized for their relationship to the soaring incidence of diabetes mellitus. So, we conducted a study to find the social factors of diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in adults having type 2 diabetes in outpatient department of tertiary care institute in Nagpur from July to September 2015. Socio demographic fac Continue reading >>

Social, Cultural And Economical Determinants Of Diabetes Mellitus In Kalutara District, Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

Social, Cultural And Economical Determinants Of Diabetes Mellitus In Kalutara District, Sri Lanka: A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study

International Journal for Equity in Health Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study AmbepitiyawadugePubudu De Silva 1 Email author , Pubudu De Silva et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2012 Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND), which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of 126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males), 202 (14.7%) had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1%) were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL) and above (17.3%). Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7%) observed in the richest GND. The highest socia Continue reading >>

Social Determinants | Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014 Report

Social Determinants | Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014 Report

Home Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014 Report Overview Social Determinants The origins of health behaviours are located in a complex range of environmental socio-economic, family and community factors. 'Inequities in health, avoidable health inequalities, arise because of the circumstances in which people grow, live, work, and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. The conditions in which people live and die are, in turn, shaped by political, social, and economic forces' (Commission on Social Determinants of Health 2008). Studies have found that between one-third and one-half of the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and nonIndigenous Australians is associated with differences in socio-economic status such as education, employment and income (Booth et al. 2005; DSI Consulting 2009). In 201213, an estimated 43% of Indigenous adults had incomes in the bottom 20% of equivalised gross weekly household Australian incomes. Those Indigenous Australians in the bottom income quintile were less likely to have completed Year 12 (15%) than those in the top two income quintiles (45%). Those in the top income quintiles were more likely than those in the bottom income group to be employed (91% compared with 15%) and less likely to smoke (67% compared with 44%). Those in the lowest income group were more likely than those in the highest groups to be unable to raise $2,000 in a week for something important (77% compared with 17%), have days without money for basic living expenses (55% compared with 17%) and to live in an overcrowded household (23% compared with 3%). A recent study in the NT of life expectancy at birth for Indigenous and nonIndigenous Australians using data from the period 1986 to 2005 Continue reading >>

The Barriers And Challenges Toward Addressing The Social And Cultural Factors Influencing Diabetes Self-management In Indian Populations Basu S, Garg S - J Soc Health Diabetes

The Barriers And Challenges Toward Addressing The Social And Cultural Factors Influencing Diabetes Self-management In Indian Populations Basu S, Garg S - J Soc Health Diabetes

Patient adherence to recommended diabetes self-care practices reduces the risk of diabetic complications. However, most clinic-based approaches have proved inadequate in maintaining optimal diabetic self-management and the prevention of undesirable health outcomes at the population level among disadvantaged populations. Several sociocultural factors influence patient adherence to diabetic self-care practices which should be recognized and addressed by the health-care provider, especially in lower socioeconomic status and women patients. The lack of physician empathy and tendency to assign blame upon diabetic patients for the failure of adherence without recognizing the complex sociocultural factors influencing patient behavior can undermine the possibilities for better management. The enlistment of familial support when available is valuable for improving medical adherence and health outcomes in vulnerable diabetic patients with low health literacy. Young unmarried women with diabetes are particularly at risk of diabetes stigma eroding familial support and marital prospects require need effective health communication along with their family. Moreover, women with diabetes have a greater likelihood of compromising their dietary needs for the sake of their familial dietary preferences. The inability of patients to comply with recommended exercise regimen may be derived from environmental factors; primarily unsafe neighborhoods, lack of availability of nearby recreational facilities such as public parks, and cultural resistance in patriarchal social environments. Policy approaches for improving diabetes management in disadvantaged diabetic populations should consider mandatory registration, assured diabetic medication, and follow-up in case of missed appointments. Communit Continue reading >>

Sociocultural And Socioeconomic Influences On Type 2 Diabetes Risk In Overweight/obese African-american And Latino-american Children And Adolescents

Sociocultural And Socioeconomic Influences On Type 2 Diabetes Risk In Overweight/obese African-american And Latino-american Children And Adolescents

Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents 1Schools of Kinesiology and Public Health, University of Michigan, 1402 Washington Heights, 2110 Observatory Lodge, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA 2Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands 3Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA 4Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA 5Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA Received 2 November 2012; Revised 1 April 2013; Accepted 15 April 2013 Copyright 2013 Rebecca E. Hasson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American ( ) children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents (AHIMSA) questionnaire. Household social position was calculated using the Hollingshead Two-Factor Index of Social Position. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIRG) and disposition index (DI) were derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT). The relationships between A Continue reading >>

Influences Of Social Issues On Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Are We Doing Enough?

Influences Of Social Issues On Type 1 Diabetes Self-management: Are We Doing Enough?

Influences of social issues on type 1 diabetes self-management: are we doing enough? Kalsoom Akhtar, Triece Turnbull, and David Simmons. November 30, 2016 Vol 33.9 November / December 2016 Much of the literature on the causes and management of diabetes focuses on biomedical and lifestyle factors, with little attention given to the role of social issues in diabetes management. This study aimed to explore the influence of social issues on type 1 diabetes management from the perspectives of people with diabetes and of health care professionals (HCPs), and to identify strategies to enhance the clinic services. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with eight people with type 1 diabetes and with 15 HCPs. Recruitment was through the patients HCPs for this service evaluation project. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the influence of social issues on diabetes management. The dominant themes that emerged from the thematic analysis were: housing situations, divorce, stress, literacy issues, social stigma and financial issues. HCPs suggested ways to improve services by: putting informational boards (e.g. related to benefit services) in the waiting area; providing a peer support platform (to discuss and gain support related to social issues); having a service directory (to refer people to the social services); working at multi-settings (to understand the effect of social issues); and having open clinics at weekends (to support those who are unable to get time off during the week). People with diabetes suggested that bringing in a welfare officer and providing information about benefits could improve the clinic services. In conclusion, including a systematic assessment of social parameters in health care records might improve the ability of cl Continue reading >>

Frontiers | Impact Of Demographic, Socioeconomic, And Psychological Factors On Glycemic Self-management In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus | Public Health

Frontiers | Impact Of Demographic, Socioeconomic, And Psychological Factors On Glycemic Self-management In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus | Public Health

Front. Public Health, 12 September 2016 | Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Department of Anesthesiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported as one of the most common chronic diseases ( 1 ). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) global report on diabetes in 2016, an estimation of 422 million people worldwide were living with the disease by 2014, representing an increase of 3.8% since 1980 ( 2 ). In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality ( 3 ). Individuals with diabetes require chronic management because of the high risk for long-term complications, such as coronary artery disease, end-stage renal disease, hypertension, stro Continue reading >>

Australia's Health 2016

Australia's Health 2016

Determinants of health are factors that influence how likely we are to stay healthy or to become ill or injured. This chapter examines three key determinants of health: social determinants, biomedical risk factors and behavioural risk factors. Many of the key drivers of health reside in our everyday living and working conditionsthe circumstances in which we grow, live, work and age. These social determinants include factors such as income, education, employment and social support. Social determinants can strengthen or undermine the health of individuals and communities. For example, in general, people from poorer social or economic circumstances are at greater risk of poor health than people who are more advantaged. A person's health is also influenced by biomedical factors and health behaviours that are part of their individual lifestyle and genetic make-up. These factors can be positive in their effects (for example, being vaccinated against disease), or negative (for example, consuming alcohol at risky levels). Biomedical risk factors such as high blood pressure can have a direct impact on illness and chronic disease. For example, in 201415, 23% of Australian adults had high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking, risky alcohol consumption, using illicit drugs, not getting enough exercise and poor eating patterns can also have a detrimental effect on health. Although there is a lot to celebrate about Australia's changing smoking and drinking behaviours, there are still areas of concern. Some population groups are far more likely to smoke daily than the general populationfor example, smoking rates are much higher among single parents with dep Continue reading >>

Who/europe | Diabetes Epidemic In Europe

Who/europe | Diabetes Epidemic In Europe

About 60 million people in the WHO European Region have diabetes: about 10.3% of men and 9.6% of women aged 25 years and over. Prevalence is increasing among all age groups in the Region, mostly owing to increases in lifestyle-related risk factors. Lifestyle choices are putting more people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Studies suggest that potentially modifiable risk factors including overweight and obesity, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, as well as socioeconomic disadvantage account for 80% of the increase in cases. The remaining 20% arises from non-modifiable risk factors, such as an ageing population and longer survival. The only sure way to control the diabetes epidemic is to stop people getting diabetes, said Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. World Diabetes Day 2011, on 14 November 2011, focuses on education and prevention. Diabetes is seen as a continuum, affecting people ranging from those who are healthy through those with overweight and impaired glucose metabolism, to those with diabetes who may or may not be diagnosed and suffer from complications. In general, preventing type 2 diabetes means moving people to the healthy group (from the right to the left, as shown by blue arrows in the figure). Emphasis must be given to reducing the risk of progression to type 2 in people without diabetes, and to providing health care interventions to people with diabetes that focus on improving glucose control and reducing complications. Evidence indicates that prevention can work. Most of it comes from studies on high-risk groups: overweight people with some disturbance of glucose metabolism but no diabetes yet. A study in Finland (1), for example, found that people at high risk of diabetes, who were given a behavioural intervention to Continue reading >>

Social Determinants Of Type 2 Diabetes And Health In The United States

Social Determinants Of Type 2 Diabetes And Health In The United States

Social determinants of type 2 diabetes and health in the United States We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Social determinants of type 2 diabetes and health in the United States Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. To date, most research and resulting clinical strategies have focused on the individual with short-term health improvements that have not been maintained over time. Researchers more recently have recognized the need to consider the social determinants of diabetes and health along with individual factors. The purpose of this literature review is to examine current understanding of the social determinants affecting diabetes and health. A search of medical and nursing literature was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases, selecting articles published between 2000 and 2013. Search terms included: type 2 diabetes, social determinants, and health determinants. Inclusion criteria were: English language, human studies, social determinants of diabetes and health, and research in the United States. Additional search methods included reference chaining of the literature. Twenty research articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and analysis and included quantitative and qualitative methods. All studies selected for this review were descriptive in nature (n = 20). Fifteen studies were quantitative studies and five were qualitative studies. No intervention Continue reading >>

Policy And Social Factors Influencing Diabetes Among Pima Indians In Arizona, Usa | Booth | Public Policy And Administration Research

Policy And Social Factors Influencing Diabetes Among Pima Indians In Arizona, Usa | Booth | Public Policy And Administration Research

Public Policy and Administration Research Policy and Social Factors Influencing Diabetes among Pima Indians in Arizona, USA Clayton Booth, Maziar M. Nourian, Shannon Weaver, Bethany Gull, Akiko Kamimura The Pima Indians have the highest rate of type 2 diabetes in the world. While biomedical studies have identified a genetic variable associated with the high prevalence of diabetes among Pima Indians, genetics is only one factor that encompasses an individuals risk for developing a disease. Information on the social factors relating to the development of type 2 diabetes amongst this population is necessary. The purpose of this analysis is to review policy, social and historical factors associated with diabetes among Pima Indians. Governmental policies have affected this populations ability to eat a diet native to their culture. For example, the damming of the Gila River in the early 1920s resulted in diet and lifestyle changes, reducing traditional low fat, high fiber intake and physical activity, among the Pima population. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) policies in place in the 1970s and 1980s did not allow Native Americans, the Pima included, to get farm help such as agricultural loans in times of need. These policies led to many Pima finding sedentary jobs, if they could find work at all, and adopting unhealthy lifestyles. While genetic factors have shown to be important predictors of diabetes incidence, the historical and social factors that changed US Pima Indians lifestyles are significant factors which have contributed to the high prevalence of diabetes among this group. In order to address the high rates of diabetes among the Pima Indians, it is vital that emphasis be placed upon culturally appropriate interventions. U.S. government agencies, tribal leader Continue reading >>

How The Social Determinants Of Health Impact Population Wellness

How The Social Determinants Of Health Impact Population Wellness

How the Social Determinants of Health Impact Population Wellness A Moodys Analytics report used the BCBS Health Index to find that social determinants of health can predict the impact of certain diseases on communities. -The social determinants of health, including economic status and demographic factors, significantly drive the impact of chronic diseases and other clinical conditions, according to a Moodys Analytics report prepared for the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association (BCBSA). However, the report also found that social determinants are less strongly correlated with the impact of mental health disorders, and they only modestly drive the impact of unique conditions like cancer or substance abuse disorders. Moodys Analytics used data from the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) Health Index, a resource that leverages data from over 40 million BCBS members and calculates how various diseases affect longevity and quality of life. The report looked at ten major conditions that affect the overall health of BCBS members, and how socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral, and health system factors drive their impact in different counties across the nation. This analysis demonstrates the value of the BCBS Health Index for developing a deeper understanding of how and why community health varies across the country, Mark Zandi, chief economist of Moodys Analytics, said in a statement . READ MORE: What Are the Social Determinants of Population Health? The results make clear that to understand how demographic, behavioral and structural factors impact health requires the kind of detailed look at individual conditions that the BCBS Health Index makes possible, he continued. Industry stakeholders are already well aware that the social determinants of health are highly predictive of a popu Continue reading >>

Five Social And Behavioral Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes

Five Social And Behavioral Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is an epidemic plaguing the nation, and it is considered to be largely preventable. Over 29 million people in the United States have diabetes, and one out of four don’t realize they have the chronic disease. What factors are contributing to this rising number, and what can you do to keep from becoming another statistic? Access to care Access to health care is a major issue affecting Americans with chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes. Rural regions and low income areas in cities often face barriers to access, such as poor (or nonexistent) public transportation, few or no health care providers in the area and poor health insurance coverage. Even if they are able to see a health care provider, many people are unable to afford the costs of managing diabetes with medications. Community infrastructure The way your community is built can affect your health. Areas that lack sidewalks, bike paths or recreational areas—amenities that encourage physical activity—contribute to obesity, which can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes for residents. Additionally, the location of grocery stores/supermarkets in a community can affect the ability to establish a healthy lifestyle because residents lack access to healthier food choices. Over 23 million Americans live in rural and low-income areas that are more than a mile from a supermarket, which makes them, in common public health parlance, “food deserts.” Initiatives like the Let’s Move campaign are working toward helping these areas make healthy foods available and safe places for physical activity more accessible to their inhabitants. Education The level of education you have could influence your risk of diabetes, with some studies finding that people with more education are less likely to have diabetes. T Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Socioeconomic Status

Diabetes And Socioeconomic Status

The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has risen dramatically in the U.S. over the past several decades, from less than one percent of the population in 1958 to seven percent today. Diabetes can result in serious health problems, including heart and kidney disease, poor circulation requiring the amputation of limbs, vision problems including blindness, and premature death. According to one study, the health care costs associated with diabetes are $92 million per year. While the high costs of diabetes have led to more interest in the disease in recent years, many questions remain. Is the true incidence of diabetes rising rapidly, or is it simply that more cases are now being diagnosed? Since the landmark Whitehall Study of the late 1960s, researchers have been aware of disparities in health outcomes by socioeconomic status (SES). In the case of diabetes, are there significant differences in disease onset, diagnosis, and treatment by race or education group? In "Diabetes and the Rise of the SES Health Gradient," (NBER Working Paper 12905 ), researcher James P. Smith of the Rand Corporation examines trends in diagnosed and actual diabetes over a twenty-five year period. The author uses several waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), covering the periods 1976-80, 1988-94, and 1999-2002. This data set combines information obtained through personal interviews, physical examinations, and lab tests. This information allows the author to identify both diagnosed and undiagnosed cases of diabetes and to determine whether the disease is being successfully managed. The analysis focuses on men, since gestational diabetes, which is an important component of diabetes for women, is not treated consistently over time in the data. The author finds that the p Continue reading >>

Social Issues For The Type 1 Diabetic

Social Issues For The Type 1 Diabetic

Diabetes is more than a health condition. For most people, it’s a new way of life, and it affects relationships in all areas as much as it affects eating and physical activity. School The first challenge facing parents of a Type 1 diabetes student is the ongoing medical care required during school hours. The “School Bill of Rights for Children with Diabetes” requires that diabetic children be allowed to: Check blood sugar Use emergency sugar to treat hypoglycemia Inject insulin, eat snacks, drink water, and use the bathroom whenever necessary Eat lunch at an appropriate time, and with enough time to finish Participate fully in all activities It’s up to the parents to be sure the school officials, nurse(s), teachers, and all other applicable staff are educated to and comply with their child’s needs. Having a section 504 plan will help. The second challenge is helping your child fit in. Often other children will not have any experience with or understanding of diabetes. Coupled with a perception that the child is being treated “specially,” that can lead to teasing and even bullying. Talk to your child about how to educate their friends and classmates about what’s going on. Perhaps you’d be able to be a guest speaker in their classroom. Parents of your child’s friends may need education, too. Some parents are concerned about how to handle your child’s condition at a party or other event. Leaders of scout troops and clubs, as well as coaches and youth group volunteers can also be recruited onto your team. Throughout your child’s education, communication with many of the people with whom they come in contact will be key to productive, healthy, fun experiences. Sports Sports are an important part of many people’s lives. Teamwork, camaraderie, and phy Continue reading >>

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