Diabetes - Type 1
Description An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes. Alternative Names Type 1 diabetes; Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile diabetes Highlights Type 1 Diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is involved in regulating how the body converts sugar (glucose) into energy. People with type 1 diabetes need to take daily insulin shots and carefully monitor their blood glucose levels. Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes. It accounts for 5 - 10% of all diabetes cases. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it usually first develops in childhood or adolescence. Symptoms of Diabetes Symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include: Frequent urination Excessive thirst Extreme hunger Sudden weight loss Extreme fatigue Irritability Blurred vision In general, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes come on more abruptly and are more severe than those of type 2 diabetes. Warning Signs of Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) occurs when blood sugar (glucose) levels fall below normal. All patients with diabetes should be aware of these symptoms of hypoglycemia: Sweating Trembling Hunger Rapid heartbeat Confusion It is important to quickly treat hypoglycemia and raise blood sugar levels by eating sugar, sucking on hard candy, or drinking fruit juice. Patients who are at risk for hypoglycemia should carry some sugar product, or an emergency glucagon injection kit, in case an attack occurs. In rare and worst cases, hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death. Regular blood sugar monitoring throughout the day can help you avoid hypoglycemia. Patients are also encouraged to wear a medical alert ID bracelet or necklace that states they have diabetes and that they take insulin. Pati Continue reading >>
When The Type Of Diabetes Isn't Clear:
My child was diagnosed with diabetes. Why can't the doctor tell me what type of diabetes it is? In the past, when a child had diabetes, it was often quickly diagnosed as type 1 (in which the body doesn't make insulin). But today, more and more children are developing type 2 diabetes (in which the body makees insulin, but not enough). Also, we now know that there are more than two types of diabetes. The signs and symptoms of the different types can be a lot alike at first. It can take a while after getting the blood glucose level under control before your doctor can spot differences and tell for sure what type of diabetes your child has. Is there any way the doctor can tell for sure what type of diabetes my child has? Once a child's blood glucose level is under control, the type of diabetes usually becomes clear. Blood tests can help. If blood work shows antibodies to insulin-making cells (which means that these cells are being destroyed), your child has type 1 diabetes and will need to use insulin right away. Children who are overweight or have thick, darkened skin around the neck or on other body parts that are frequently bent or rubbed (a condition called acanthosis nigricans) may have type 2 diabetes. Thin children can develop a form of diabetes that is neither type 1 nor type 2 but can be treated as type 2. Be alert to the term "MODY," which stands for Maturity Onset Diabetes of Youth. This form of diabetes is rare and happens when there are genetic changes that cause problems with how insulin is made or used. It is not uncommon for any child with diabetes who does not need to use insulin to be wrongly diagnosed as having "MODY." Only special blood tests can diagnose this form of diabetes. How does the care of a child with type 2 diabetes differ from that of one wit Continue reading >>
- 'She's feeling terrible': Pregnant Danielle Lloyd 'has been forced to clear her schedule after being left bed-ridden with gestational diabetes'
- 'Clear promise': Diabetes drug reversed memory loss in mice with Alzheimer's, researchers find
- New type of diabetes discovered - Could YOU be showing symptoms of type 1.5 NOT type 2?
Type 1 Vs. Type 2 Diabetes
Important Differences and Similarities Between the Two Conditions Diabetes is a serious disease, and unfortunately, it’s on the rise in America. In fact, the diabetes epidemic is taking new forms, with many cases of type 1 diabetes manifesting later in life, and a sharp increase in the number of type 2 diabetes diagnoses during childhood. Around 95 percent of diabetics suffer from type 2 diabetes, while only 5 percent have type 1 diabetes. The two conditions are similar in some respects, but they are very different diseases in other ways. Learn how and where they differ for a better handle on diabetes management and treatment. What All Diabetics Have in Common Whether you suffer from type 1, type 2 or gestational diabetes, one thing is for certain: your body does not use insulin as it should. As a result, your body can’t get the energy it needs, and unless the problem is corrected, your health will suffer significantly. It’s important to understand that anyone can get diabetes — you can be skinny with type 2 diabetes, just as you can be overweight and never develop it. Insulin Issues Insulin is an incredibly important hormone for metabolism. It’s produced in the pancreas, where it is exported to into your bloodstream to help deal with the glucose you get from food, turning it into energy for your muscles to use right away, and back-up energy to be stored in your fat cells and liver cells. Without insulin, that glucose cannot get into your cells, and they lose the ability to function well. In some cases, your pancreas does not produce the insulin that’s necessary to metabolize glucose in the bloodstream, while in other cases, your body isn’t able to make use of the insulin that’s released. In any case, the longer the glucose builds up and remains in the b Continue reading >>
Type 1 And Too Skinny
I received the following e-mail question: “My grandson is always hungry, eats huge amounts of food (which no one can afford). He is type 1, weighs 159 pounds, is 21 years of age and is 5’10”. What is causing this? What can we do to correct the problem? He is skinny – too skinny I heard one nurse say he may be ‘starving’." My reply: There’s something wrong here. First, height/weight charts indicate 159 pounds is about right for a male who’s 5’10" tall, so if you and a nurse are concerned that he’s too skinny, maybe your grandson’s height or weight is different from what you report? If indeed he is too skinny for his height, there are several possible medical reasons why. You don’t mention anything about his diabetes status: are his blood glucose levels and A1C near-normal, or way out of control? If way out of control, then the problem is inadequate diabetes control, and he needs further evaluation by an experienced diabetes team. Another thought is that he might have a condition called diabulemia – a condition where teenagers deliberately omit insulin, which leads to subsequent weight loss. Rather than assuming that his problem is his diabetes, there’s a chance that his situation is due to another common disorder in people with type 1 diabetes: he may have hyperthyroidism. When the thyroid gland is overactive, it makes too much of the thyroid hormone that the body needs to regulate metabolism. Hyperthyroidism is often caused by a condition called “Graves’ disease” in the US (named after Dr. Robert Graves) or “Basedow’s disease” in Europe (named after Dr. Karl Adolph von Basedow). With this disease, the body’s immune system tricks the thyroid into making too much thyroid hormone. The entire thyroid becomes enlarged and overactive. Continue reading >>
Losing Weight With Diabetes: What Prevents It And Causes Weight Gain
I recently was included in a discussion on a Facebook group for athletes with diabetes about how hard it can be to lose weight through exercise. While I would never claim to have all the answers on this topic, here are some ideas about what can make you gain weight or keep you from losing weight with diabetes, based on my decades of professional and personal experience with diabetes and weight management, and what you can do about it. Insulin My former graduate student with type 1 diabetes went on an insulin pump and promptly gained about 10 pounds, even though his blood glucose control improved only marginally. Why did this happen to him (and why does it happen to so many other insulin users)? As a naturally occurring anabolic hormone, insulin promotes the uptake and storage of glucose, amino acids, and fat into insulin-sensitive cells around your body (mainly muscle and fat cells). It doesn’t matter whether it’s released naturally, injected, or pumped—all insulin and insulin analogues have these same effects. Going on intensive insulin therapy is associated with fat weight gain (1), for people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Some of the weight gain comes from that if you’re using insulin to keep your blood glucose in control, you’ll be keeping and storing all of the calories that you’re eating instead of losing some glucose through urine (during hyperglycemia). Unfortunately, this realization has led some people to try skipping or limiting their insulin use to help them lose weight (2), but that is a dangerous practice that can lead to loss of excess muscle mass and life-threatening conditions like DKA. The best way to balance your insulin use and your body weight, in my opinion, is to be physically active to keep your overall insulin levels lower. I Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes And Exercise
Exercise is an absolutely vital part of type 1 diabetes treatment. Staying fit and active throughout your life has many benefits, but the biggest one for people with diabetes is this: it helps you control diabetes and prevent long-term complications. Exercise makes it easier to control your blood glucose (blood sugar) level. Exercise benefits people with type 1 because it increases your insulin sensitivity. In other words, after exercise, your body doesn't need as much insulin to process carbohydrates. If your child has type 1 diabetes, making sure he or she gets enough exercise is not only a great way to help manage his or her diabetes but also instill healthy habits from an early age. To learn more about how to safely incorporate exercise into your child's routine, read our article about physical activity for children with type 1 diabetes. Exercise can also help people with type 1 diabetes avoid long-term complications, especially heart problems. As you can read about this in our article on type 1 diabetes complications, people with diabetes are susceptible to developing blocked arteries (arteriosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack. Exercise helps keep your heart healthy and strong. Plus, exercise helps you maintain good cholesterol—and that helps you avoid arteriosclerosis. Additionally, there are all the traditional benefits of exercise: Lower blood pressure Better control of weight Leaner, stronger muscles Stronger bones More energy One person who certainly understands the benefits of exercise in managing type 1 diabetes is Jay Cutler, quarterback for the Chicago Bears. He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in 2008, but the disease hasn't interfered with his football career. To learn more, read our article about Jay Cutler's experience with type 1 diabete Continue reading >>
- You CAN beat diabetes! Strict diet, exercise and drugs helps reverse type 2 diabetes
- The how, what, and why of exercise and type-2 diabetes
- Get off your backside! It's madness for the NHS to spend millions fighting type 2 diabetes when the simple cure is exercise, says DR MICHAEL MOSLEY, who reversed HIS own diabetes
The Causes Of Insulin Resistance In Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes And Prediabetes (video)
Most people believe that people with type 1 diabetes are not insulin resistant simply because they are not overweight. This could not be farther from the truth. While insulin resistance affects many overweight individuals, many people with type 1 diabetes remain skinny their entire lives despite a large degree of insulin resistance (1–3). Over the past decade, I have helped many people with type 1 diabetes measure, track and reverse insulin resistance. In practice, 100% of all my clients with type 1 diabetes suffer from insulin resistance despite the assumption that they were insulin sensitive. By measuring their baseline insulin resistance, we were able to identify an impaired ability to utilize glucose as a fuel, and through dedicated diet modification and frequent exercise, some of my clients have reduced their insulin usage by as much as 60%. If you have type 1 diabetes, do not be fooled into thinking that you are insulin sensitive simply because you are skinny. Insulin resistance is a hidden condition, and affects both normal weight and overweight individuals (1–3). What Causes Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance underlies all forms of diabetes, and is a condition which primarily affects your muscles, liver and adipose tissue. Many people think that diabetes is caused by an excess intake of sugar and candy starting from a young age. While eating artificial sweeteners and drinking soda can certainly increase your risk for the development of insulin resistance and diabetes, in most cases diabetes is caused by excessive FAT intake. The most important thing you can do as a person with diabetes is understand the following: Diabetes is caused by a fat metabolism disorder, which results in a glucose metabolism disorder. At the heart of all forms of diabetes is insu Continue reading >>
Why Do More And More Adults Get Type 1 Diabetes?
More and more Swedes get type 1 diabetes, which used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes. It was previously thought that the increase only applied to children, but now it’s clear that the disease is also increasing greatly in people between 14 and 34 years: University of Gothenburg: More adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes than previously thought Nobody knows for sure what causes the disease. For some reason, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells and kills them. The increase in type 1 diabetes follows the rise of obesity – three times more people are obese today, than in the 80’s. Obese people have greatly elevated levels of insulin in their blood, on average four times more (!) than lean people. The same Western food that stimulate an overproduction of insulin, making susceptible people obese, may affect other people in other ways. Perhaps a hyper-stimulation of insulin-production constitutes a risk for an attack of the insulin-producing cells. Perhaps the Western high-carb diet is not only behind obesity and type 2 diabetes in ever more people, but also behind an increased risk of type 1 diabetes? More How to Normalize Your Blood Sugar About Type 1 Diabetes Low-Carb to Manage Type 1 Diabetes Continue reading >>
Clarifying Lada (type 1 Diabetes In Adults)
When I met fellow D-writer Catherine Price for coffee recently, I immediately gushed about everything we had in common: two brunette journalist-types living in the SF Bay Area, both diagnosed a few years ago with LADA (or so I thought). Catherine gave me a sideways look, and then began grilling me about the formal definition of LADA. I had to admit, it's pretty fuzzy. Today, I gratefully present you with the results of her investigation into this mysterious acronym: A Guest Post by Catherine Price, of ASweetLife Having had Type 1 diabetes for nearly ten years now, I can handle most diabetic terms and acronyms thrown my way. Hemoglobin A1c? Got it. Carb ratios? Insulin sensitivity? No problem. But one term has continued to confuse me: LADA. Short for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults, it's also known as Slow-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Type 1.5 Diabetes or, occasionally, Late-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood. Four names for the same thing? That's never a good sign. Until recently, the most common definition I'd heard for LADA was that it was a Type 1-like form of diabetes diagnosed in adulthood. But I didn't understand the details. Does being diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes as an adult automatically mean you have LADA? Is there a difference between LADA and the classical definition of Type 1? To answer these questions, I spoke with Marie Nierras, the program officer of the genetics programs at Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation. She cut right to the chase. "There is a lot of confusion about LADA," she told me, "but Type 1 diabetes and LADA are not the same thing." Here, to get us started, is how JDRF's Adults With Type 1 toolkit defines LADA: "Type 1 diabetes diagnosed in adults over 30 may be Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA), sometimes known as Type 1.5 Continue reading >>
18 Celebrities With Type 2 Diabetes
Famous people with diabetes People often think that type 2 diabetes strikes only the overweight and sedentary, or unhealthy eaters. But anyone can be diagnosed with diabetes, even world-class athletes, or the rich and famous. The following celebrities all had some risk factors for diabetes (such as weight, ethnicity, or family history), but many were still shocked to hear the diagnosis. They’ve all made healthy changes in their lives, and many now speak out about the dangers of type 2 diabetes. Gabourey Sidibe When Oscar nominee Gabourey Sidibe was diagnosed with diabetes, she took charge of her health, secretly going under the knife after more than a decade of trying to lose weight naturally. “I truly didn’t want to worry about all the effects that go along with diabetes,” she told People. “I genuinely [would] worry all the time about losing my toes.” Since having bariatric surgery in 2016, the Brooklyn-born actress, beloved for her breakout role in the 2009 film Precious, continued to make positive lifestyle changes by working with a nutritionist and amping up her fitness regimen. S. Epatha Merkerson This Emmy award-winning actress won us over as Lt. Van Buren on Law & Order and then as hospital administrator Sharon Goodwin on Chicago Med. In her off-screen life, Merkerson is both a diabetes patient and advocate. She encourages others to reach their A1c goals. Even though she had a family history of type 2 diabetes, “my diagnosis was a wake-up call,” she told USA Today in 2016. “I knew I had to start making serious changes to my lifestyle to take control of my health.” That included making more nutritious food choices and taking up brisk walking. Tom Hanks When Tom Hanks announced in 2013 that he had type 2 diabetes, he joined millions of other Ame Continue reading >>
Skinny And Diabetic
I get really triggered when someone tells me they can eat a lot of carbs because they are thin, or their husband isn’t going to eat keto with them because he is skinny and eats whatever he wants. I just did a radio interview on mytalkFM107.1 and once I was finished I continued to listen. She mentioned how everyone’s body is so different and her friend can eat HUGE roast beef sandwiches on a massive baguette and she is skinny as a rail. I was so upset I was already gone because I wanted to tell her I have SO many clients who are thin but have diabetes. It is considered the Asian Paradox….where Asians eat a lot of rice, stay thin, however, they also have Type 2 diabetes. One client of mine is 28 years old. She just had her first baby and desperately needed my help so I consulted with her numerous times while I was in Hawaii last year. I tried to not work so much but in this case we needed to get going asap! Her A1c was 11.4 and she was having strokes! She wanted to live to see her baby girl grow up so she knew she had to change. Within 6 months, we got her A1c to 4.6!!!! Incredible! However, she contacted me again this past month. She told me she WISHED she gained weight when she cheated because it would help her stay on the diet! We are a vein society… and we change things when we don’t like the way we look. Her inflammation was internal. No one saw her unhealthy body, no one judged her for what was in her shopping cart, no one judged her for taking up 2 seats on an airplane but you know what, she was just as unhealthy as an over-weight type 2 diabetic. I work with clients who have Alzheimer’s all the time and they are often very thin. Alzheimer’s is known as Type 3 diabetes because glucose is no longer signaling to the brain properly. Is keto the way to ea Continue reading >>
Practical Management Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Adolescent Patients: Challenges And Goals.
Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus in adolescents presents diagnostic and management challenges. Diagnostically, the challenge is to distinguish type 1 from type 2 diabetes. A thin adolescent in diabetic ketoacidosis is easily recognized as having type 1 diabetes. However, since obesity does not negate the presence of type 1 diabetes, it is appropriate to measure diabetes-related antibody, C-peptide, and insulin levels in individuals who are thought to have type 2 diabetes to ensure that they do not have type 1 or a mixed type of diabetes. The goals for the management of type 1 diabetes in adolescents are to (i) prevent diabetic ketoacidosis; (ii) prevent severe hypoglycemia; (iii) maintain normal growth and development; and (iv) prevent long-term diabetic complications. To prevent diabetic ketoacidosis, patients must take their insulin appropriately. To ensure that this happens, increased parental supervision, psychological counseling, or placement in a different home environment may be necessary. All patients must be taught to appropriately manage sick days and test their urine for ketones when hyperglycemia is present. Prevention of severe hypoglycemia involves ensuring that the patient understands the symptoms of hypoglycemia and knows to test and treat it when the signs are present. Patients and families also need to know how to adjust insulin doses to prevent hypoglycemia and how to manage exercise appropriately. Patients with hypoglycemic unawareness need to meticulously avoid hypoglycemia. To maintain normal growth and development, adolescents with type 1 diabetes must have the appropriate tools to effectively match their meals to their lifestyle and to avoid the increased weight gain associated with improved glycemic control without intentionally manipulating th Continue reading >>
Diabetes Type 1
Type 1 diabetes tends to start when people are under 25, although it can be diagnosed later in life. With Type 1 diabetes (also called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide fuel. When glucose can't enter the cells, it builds up in the blood and the body's cells literally starve to death. Everyone with Type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood glucose levels. The cause of Type 1 diabetes is unknown but it is thought to be an autoimmune disease, where the body's immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Not all diabetes in children and teenagers is the kind called Type 1. Type 2 diabetes is being seen increasingly in young people. Where Type 1 diabetes always requires insulin, Type 2 can require insulin but often it can be treated with other medicines such as tablets. This section deals only with young people who have Type 1 diabetes. We have talked to a range of young people who've lived with Type 1 diabetes from those who were very young when they were first diagnosed to those who were diagnosed when they were teenagers. We have also talked to some young people only recently diagnosed. In this section young people talk about the signs and symptoms that prompted them to seek medical help. Signs of diabetes Most people remembered that the first symptoms of diabetes had crept up on them over weeks or even months- most had felt thirsty all the time and said that they started to drink more and more and found that they were unable to quench their thirst. Lots of people described realising something must be wrong wi Continue reading >>
How Serious Is Type 2 Diabetes? Is It More Serious Than Type 1 Diabetes?
A fellow caregiver asked... How serious is type 2 diabetes, and is it less or more serious than type 1 diabetes? My mom, just diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, keeps it under control without taking insulin. So is type 2 diabetes less of a problem than insulin-dependent type 1? Expert Answers No, definitely not. In fact, in some ways type 2 diabetes is a more serious disorder because your mom may have had it for years before she was diagnosed. So she may well have developed some of the long-term, debilitating complications linked to the condition without knowing it. In addition, since type 2 diabetes is a progressive disorder without a cure, over time her body may not be able to produce insulin or use it as well as it does now, and she may wind up needing insulin injections or pills. A person with type1 diabetes ignores it for a day at his own peril. He'll likely end up in the emergency room because his body can't absorb glucose without a continuous supply of insulin via injection or an insulin pump. People with type 1 diabetes typically develop such severe symptoms over a short time in childhood or early adulthood that they're forced to deal with it. Type 2 diabetes is a sneakier condition: Its harmful health effects can slowly build for years until full-blown complications, such as vision loss, heart disease, or foot problems, make it impossible to ignore. Plus it often comes with its own set of problems. For instance, people with type 2 diabetes are frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure and cholesterol along with high blood sugar. This damaging threesome can lead to progressive thickening of the arteries and reduced blood flow, putting your mom at greater risk for a slew of complications including heart disease, stroke, and nerve damage. If your mom is overweigh Continue reading >>
- diabetes: Gestational diabetes is a more serious problem in India than in other parts of the world: Dr Nam Han Cho, Health News, ET HealthWorld
- Advice to walk after meals is more effective for lowering postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus than advice that does not specify timing: a randomised crossover study
- More than 500 children with Type 2 diabetes - just 16 years after first ever case
Diabetes Mystery: Why Are Type 1 Cases Surging?
When public health officials fret about the soaring incidence of diabetes in the U.S. and worldwide, they are generally referring to type 2 diabetes. About 90 percent of the nearly 350 million people around the world who have diabetes suffer from the type 2 form of the illness, which mostly starts causing problems in the 40s and 50s and is tied to the stress that extra pounds place on the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose. About 25 million people in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, and another million have type 1 diabetes, which typically strikes in childhood and can be controlled only with daily doses of insulin. For reasons that are completely mysterious, however, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has been increasing throughout the globe at rates that range from 3 to 5 percent a year. Although the second trend is less well publicized, it is still deeply troubling, because this form of the illness has the potential to disable or kill people so much earlier in their lives. No one knows exactly why type 1 diabetes is rising. Solving that mystery—and, if possible, reducing or reversing the trend—has become an urgent problem for public health researchers everywhere. So far they feel they have only one solid clue. “Increases such as the ones that have been reported cannot be explained by a change in genes in such a short period,” says Giuseppina Imperatore, who leads a team of epidemiologists in the Division of Diabetes Translation at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “So environmental factors are probably major players in this increase.” A Challenge of Counting Type 1 and type 2 diabetes share the same underlying defect—an inability to deploy insulin in a manner that keeps blood sugar from rising too high—but they arise out of almos Continue reading >>