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Significance Of The Study Of Diabetes Mellitus

How Do You Cure Diabetes Naturally Without Medication?

How Do You Cure Diabetes Naturally Without Medication?

Yes, Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Reversed. By Dr. Candice Hall, D.C. I admit, this is a topic about which I am passionate. At the helm of the integrative/functional health practice I founded in Irvine, Calif., I’ve worked with hundreds of people suffering from diabetes, thyroid disease, immune disorders and a myriad of chronic and degenerative conditions. It is amazing to see so many patients in our practice reduce the symptoms of, or even reverse, their condition. I am particularly gratified when considering how many patients have found it possible to reduce, or even eliminate, their need for prescription drugs. How is this possible? Much has to do with the vantage point of “upstream” versus “downstream” approaches to illness and health. When a blood test indicates that you have diabetes, what happens? In a “downstream” approach to illness and treatment, the symptom that produced the diagnoses — high blood sugar — is treated with drugs. For example, insulin brings the blood sugar measurements into a normal range, and you’re “managing” diabetes. Except that you’re not. In contrast, an “upstream” view of health looks to determine the “whys” of a patient’s condition. For instance, many diabetics are confused and frustrated by the fact that they eat better than many people they know, yet they struggle with weight and diabetes, while others eat whatever they want and don't have to worry about their blood sugars. In an “upstream” approach, the real question is — why? Why are my blood sugars high or volatile? Why am I being given medications to “manage” my condition, rather than solutions to address the underlying cause of the problem? The course of action each individual takes is highly personal, clearly. And in some cases, medication Continue reading >>

What Is The Perfect Diet For A Diabetic Who Is Vegetarian?

What Is The Perfect Diet For A Diabetic Who Is Vegetarian?

Truth be told, there is no such thing as the “perfect” diet, but a close look at the scientific evidence shows that a vegan diet is actually the most effective at increasing your diabetes health AND overall health. Study #1: Dr. Rabinowitch As early as 1930, Dr. Rabinowitch and colleagues at the Montreal General Hospital discovered that diets high in fat have detrimental effects on insulin sensitivity, and that diets low in fat improve insulin sensitivity. Dr. Rabinowitch observed that patients who were switched from a low-carbohydrate diet to a high-carbohydrate diet containing large quantities of vegetables, fruits, grains, and beans reduced their need for insulin rapidly, both with and without calorie restriction. There were ZERO animal products in this diet, including dairy and eggs. They performed a randomized control trial (RCT) in patients with type 2 diabetes, and found that a high-carbohydrate diet significantly reduced insulin needs incredibly quickly. Study #2: Dr. Walter Kempner Only 20 years later in the 1950’s, Dr. Walter Kempner at Duke University demonstrated that high fat diets not only caused insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but that patients could begin reversing long-standing diabetic retinopathy in a matter of days by eating a diet very high in fruit (5). Dr. Kempner invented the rice-fruit diet, in which his patients were allowed to eat white rice, fruit, fruit juice, and added sugar - four foods that present day diabetes nutrition condemns almost entirely. The rice-fruit diet was Dr. Kempner’s attempt at creating a no-salt, no-cholesterol diet containing almost pure carbohydrate. Dr. Kempner found that his rice-fruit diet reversed the following conditions: Malignant hypertension Heart disease Diabetic retinopathy Kidney failure Stud Continue reading >>

How Does Juvenile Diabetes Cause Amenorrhea?

How Does Juvenile Diabetes Cause Amenorrhea?

Systematic studies of the metabolic effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the hypothalamuspituitaryovary (HPO) axis have revealed a relationship between these diseases and menstrual disturbances, such as delayed menarche, alterations in the menstrual rhythm (including primary and secondary amenorrhoea) and potential consequences on fertility and fecundity. Currently, through consideration of their aetiology and the natural history of their development, it is accepted that T1DM and T2DM are two distinct diseases. It is convenient, therefore, to consider their effects on the HPO axis separately. Typically, T1DM patients present some dysfunction in this axis at the age of menarche (Adcock et al., 1994; Yeshaya et al., 1995), and this is most pronounced when diabetes occurs before or at the pre-pubertal stage. The symptoms associated with T1DM include accentuated delay of menarche and menstrual cycle irregularities, i.e. amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea and polymenorrhoea (Yeshaya et al., 1995; Strotmeyer et al., 2003), as well as precocious menopause and lower fertility (Yeshaya et al., 1995, Dorman et al., 2001; Durando et al., 2003). The hypothalamus plays a central role in the hormonal regulation of the female reproductive system. The sequence of events corresponding to the menstrual cycle is induced by the action of hormones released by the hypothalamuspituitary system on the ovarian follicle (Carr, 1998). The main regulatory factor of reproductive function is GnRH, a decapeptide secreted by the ventral medial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Production and further release of GnRH to the portal pituitary system are induced and controlled through stimuli received from other regions of the brain via mediators of different origins. Glut Continue reading >>

Is It Worthwhile For Me To Buy A Blood Sugar Meter And Check My Sugar Frequently?

Is It Worthwhile For Me To Buy A Blood Sugar Meter And Check My Sugar Frequently?

A blood glucose meter is not used to diagnose diabetes. If used properly, its purpose is to determine if your medications, activities and diet are helping you maintain control of your blood glucose levels. An A1C test gives an estimate of your average blood glucose over a longer period of time, meaning it gives a more meaningful result, but does not give information on the best short-term control of blood sugar. Atorvastatin (as all statins) have been shown to cause a small increase in the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. However, the benefits of preventing cardiovascular disease far outweigh the risk. Type 2 diabetes is generally preventable, especially at your age. There's no reason to have a BMI of 31, short of having some chronic metabolic issue. And that level of obesity not only increases your risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but also increases your risk significantly for all cancers. Do not waste the money on a blood glucose meter at this time. If you develop diabetes, your insurance company will cover the cost of the meter and the very expensive strips. But you shouldn't develop the mindset that diabetes is inevitable–you have the opportunity to prevent it. I know it's hard, and I don't want to be preachy, but diabetes really decrease your lifespan and your quality of life. Talk to your physician. They may not give you great advice, but hopefully they can give you choices. Also, there's some evidence that those who have pre-diabetes can reduce their risks by taking some oral medications, like metformin. Again, see your physician for advice on this point. I hope this helps. Continue reading >>

Risk Of Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus On Β-blockers

Risk Of Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Diabetes Mellitus On Β-blockers

Although the use of β-blockers may help in achieving maximum effects of intensive glycemic control because of a decrease in the adverse effects after severe hypoglycemia, they pose a potential risk for the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. This study aimed to evaluate whether the use of β-blockers is effective in patients with diabetes mellitus and whether its use is associated with the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. Using the ACCORD trial (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) data, we performed Cox proportional hazards analyses with a propensity score adjustment. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of a cardiovascular event during the study period, which included nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. The mean follow-up periods (±SD) were 4.6±1.6 years in patients on β-blockers (n=2527) and 4.7±1.6 years in those not on β-blockers (n=2527). The cardiovascular event rate was significantly higher in patients on β-blockers than in those not on β-blockers (hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.24–1.72; P<0.001). In patients with coronary heart disease or heart failure, the cumulative event rate for cardiovascular events was also significantly higher in those on β-blockers than in those not on β-blockers (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.60; P=0.03). The incidence of severe hypoglycemia was significantly higher in patients on β-blockers than in those not on β-blockers (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.64; P=0.02). In conclusion, the use of β-blockers in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Introduction Diabetes mellitus management mainly aims at preventing diabetes mell Continue reading >>

Is There A Cure For Diabetes?

Is There A Cure For Diabetes?

‘Getting rid of diabetes permanently?’ comes across as very highly unlikely, considering that there really is no science or tech that have such sophistication to achieve that…. I am assuming Diabetes mellitus is our subject matter, and not Diabetes Insipidus. To enlighten us a little, Diabetes is a medical condition where in the human body have a ‘distorted’ metabolism of sugars leading to high levels of blood sugar levels (glucose). The problem is major due to the inability (or poor ability) of the body’s pancreatic cells to breakdown excessive blood glucose. I would not want to bore you with the details of the types of Diabetes, I and II, but the common decimal is that the hormone, insulin, is the medical treatment option for management of diabetic patients, in conjunction with Lifestyle modification. Diabetes is usually ‘Managed’… and cannot simply be gotten rid off. Diabetics, with the guidance of physicians, can live an optimal life by the control their blood glucose levels and preventing complications (especially life threatening complications). Life Threatening Complications of Diabetes[1] every doctor and healthcare giver must be wary about is indeed the fear, and efforts are usually made at totally preventing it. I must say that at the moment, permanence is a feature of diabetes in humans, with ‘good control’ being the handle that keeps diabetes from veering off the side walk. Patients have been recorded to live with it sufficiently into old age. Footnotes Continue reading >>

The Significant Effect Of Diabetes Duration On Coronary Heart Disease Mortality

The Significant Effect Of Diabetes Duration On Coronary Heart Disease Mortality

The Framingham Heart Study Abstract OBJECTIVE—The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in type 2 diabetes is two- to threefold higher than in the general population, but the effect of diabetes duration on CHD risk has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that duration of diabetes is an important predictor of incident CHD among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The duration of diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random glucose ≥200 mg/dl, or use of an oral hypoglycemic agent or insulin) was assessed in participants with diabetes in the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. Only subjects with diabetes diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 74 years, without a history of ketoacidosis, and free of cardiovascular disease at the baseline evaluation were included. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of incident CHD events and mortality over a 12-year follow-up period; models were adjusted for known CHD risk factors. RESULTS—Among 588 person-exams with diabetes (mean age 58 ± 9 years, 56% men), there were 86 CHD events, including 36 deaths. After adjustment for age, sex, and CHD risk factors, the risk of CHD was 1.38 times higher for each 10-year increase in duration of diabetes (95% CI 0.99–1.92), and the risk for CHD death was 1.86 times higher (1.17–2.93) for the same increase in duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS—Duration of diabetes increases the risk of CHD death independent of coexisting risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the pathophysiology of this increased risk. Type 2 diabetes confers a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1). Nearly 11 million Americans with diabetes will develop CVD (2,3), and two-thirds will d Continue reading >>

Correlation Study Of Adenosine Deaminase And Its Isoenzymes In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Correlation Study Of Adenosine Deaminase And Its Isoenzymes In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract Objective Adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in cell-mediated immunity and modulation of insulin activity. Its clinical and diagnostic significance in Nepalese type 2 diabetes is not yet characterized. So, this study's objective was to determine the isoenzymatic activities of ADA (ADA1, ADA2, and total ADA) and show its correlation with demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of type 2 Nepalese subjects with diabetes. Research design and methods This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 80 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and same number of age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. Data were collected using preformed set of questionnaires and biochemical data were obtained from the laboratory analysis of the patient's blood samples. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS V.20. Results A significantly higher (p<0.001) mean values of body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profiles except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found in type 2 diabetic cases compared with controls. Serum ADA activities were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (p<0.001) showing significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, and alcoholism; while no correlation was found with age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, waist–hip ratio, dietary habits, smoking, and duration of diabetes. Conclusions Serum ADA activities were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls having significant positive correlation with glycemic parameters. Serum ADA and its isoenzymes could be used as biomarkers for assessing glycemic status in patients with type 2 DM. This is an Open Access article distr Continue reading >>

A Study Of Serum Magnesium Level In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Significance

A Study Of Serum Magnesium Level In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Its Significance

Abstract Introduction: Hypomagnesaemia has been reported to occur in 25-38% of patients with Type 2 DM especially in those without good metabolic control. This present study has been undertaken to estimate serum magnesium level of patients with diabetes mellitus and to correlate between serum magnesium levels and glycemic control, duration of diabetes and its complications. Methods and Materials: This is a prospective study done in March 2015 in Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital. 132 Type 2 DM patients included in the study was estimated with serum magnesium level and compared with the age matched control group. Results: The mean serum magnesium was 1.74+ 0.32mg/dl. Of the patients, 33(25%) had low serum magnesium levels (less than or equal to 1.5mg/dl). We observed that serum magnesium levels were lower in patients with increasing duration of diabetes. Out of the 19 patients who had hypomagnesaemia, 18 patients had HbA1c > 7 %. This correlates between hypomagnesaemia and poor glycemic control in our study. Conclusion: Serum magnesium level was low in Type 2 DM; serum magnesium was low in patient with poor glycemic control. References Park k. Diabetes mellitus parks preventive and social medicine 17 edition. M/S banarsidas bhanot publishers; 2002: p294-296. Arnaud MJ . Update on the assessment of magnesium status. Br J Nutr. 2008 Jun; 99 Suppl 3:S24-36. doi: 10.1017/S000711450800682X. de Lordes Lima M, Cruz T, Pousada JC, Rodrigues LE, Barbosa K, Canguçu V. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of Type 2 DM. Diabetes Care. 1998 May; 21(5):682-6. Wälti MK, Zimmermann MB, Walczyk T, Spinas GA, Hurrell RF. Measurement of magnesium absorption and retention in type 2 DM with use of stable isotopes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep; 78( Continue reading >>

Clinical Study Significance Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infraction Receiving Thrombolytic Theraphy

Clinical Study Significance Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infraction Receiving Thrombolytic Theraphy

Abstract Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks and benefits associated with thrombolytic theraphy in patients with diabetes presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Background. Diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse risk factors and a hypercoagulable state that may adversely affect the outcome of thrombolytic therapy. Methods. Data were analyzed from 8,055 of the 8,239 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received thrombolytic therapy in the International Tissue plasminogen Activator/Streptokinase Mortality trial (diabetes history was missing for 184 patients). Results. There were 883 patients with and 8,272 patients without diabetes. Among the diabetic patients, 160 were receiving insulin therapy. Baseline risk factors were significantly worse in diabetic patients, who were older and had a higher rate of previous infarction and antecedent angina and a higher Killip grade at admission. Bleeding and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke rates were similar among diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Hospital and 6-month mortality rates were highest among diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy (16.9% and 23.1%, respectively), followed by diabetic patients not receiving insulin therapy (11.8% and 17.8%), and lowest in nondiabetic patients (7.5% and 10.7%, p < 0.0001). Whereas diabetes of 5 years' duration was associated with a mortality rate similar to that of nondiabetic patients, a >5-year duration was associated with a relative mortality risk of 1.38 (95% cofidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 2.15) and a > 10-year duration with a relative mortality risk of 1.99 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.81). The independent relative risk for incremental mortality from discharge to 6 months was 1.74 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.50). Mortality rate among diabetic was patien Continue reading >>

Longitudinal Study Of Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Longitudinal Study Of Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Despite adequate glycemic and blood pressure control, treated type 2 diabetic hypertensive subjects have a significantly elevated overall/cardiovascular risk. We studied 244 816 normotensive and 99 720 hypertensive subjects (including 7480 type 2 diabetics) attending medical checkups between 1992 and 2011. We sought to identify significant differences in overall/cardiovascular risk between hypertension with and without diabetes mellitus. Mean follow-up was 12.7 years; 14 050 all-cause deaths were reported. From normotensive to hypertensive populations, a significant progression in overall/cardiovascular mortality was observed. Mortality was significantly greater among diabetic than nondiabetic hypertensive subjects (all-cause mortality, 14.05% versus 7.43%; and cardiovascular mortality, 1.28% versus 0.7%). No interaction was observed between hemodynamic measurements and overall/cardiovascular risk, suggesting that blood pressure factors, even during drug therapy, could not explain the differences in mortality rates between diabetic and nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Using cross-sectional regression models, a significant association was observed between higher education levels, lower levels of anxiety and depression, and reduced overall mortality in diabetic hypertensive subjects, while impaired renal function, a history of stroke and myocardial infarction, and increased alcohol and tobacco consumption were significantly associated with increased mortality. Blood pressure and glycemic control alone cannot reverse overall/cardiovascular risk in diabetics with hypertension. Together with cardiovascular measures, overall prevention should include recommendations to reduce alcohol and tobacco consumption and improve stress, education levels, and physical activity. Introd Continue reading >>

Why Study Diabetes?

Why Study Diabetes?

Diabetes is a devastating disease that affects more than 2 million Canadians and over 200 million people worldwide. Diabetes costs Canada an estimated $9 billion annually and the incidence of diabetes is increasing dramatically. Because of its chronic nature, the financial burden of diabetes approaches that of all cancers combined. Diabetes research continues to be under-funded. There are several forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, occurs when the body’s own immune system destroys the insulin secreting pancreatic beta-cells. Type 1 diabetes is the most severe form of the disease and requires multiple daily insulin injections for survival. Even with excellent glucose control, patients are at significant risk for developing debilitating complications. Type 2 diabetes, formally known as adult-onset diabetes, occurs when there are insufficient insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells for the body’s needs. Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with obesity. There are other forms of diabetes caused by rare mutations in important genes. In all forms of diabetes, the exact causes remain unclear. Diabetes is clearly one of the most important medical problems of our time. We in the UBC Diabetes Research Group are trying to understand the causes of this disease well enough to design rational therapies to defeat it. More information on diabetes can be found at: www.diabetes.ca and www.jdrf.ca Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Study

Diabetes Mellitus And The Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Study

Abstract Possible association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been controversial. This study used a nationwide population-based dataset to investigate the relationship between DM and subsequent AD incidence. Data were collected from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, which released a cohort dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled people and confirmed it to be representative of the Taiwanese population. We identified 71,433 patients newly diagnosed with diabetes (age 58.74±14.02 years) since January 1997. Using propensity score, we matched them with 71,311 non-diabetic subjects by time of enrollment, age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and previous stroke history. All the patients were followed up to December 31, 2007. The endpoint of the study was occurrence of AD. Results Over a maximum 11 years of follow-up, diabetic patients experienced a higher incidence of AD than non-diabetic subjects (0.48% vs. 0.37%, p<0.001). After Cox proportional hazard regression model analysis, DM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–2.07, p<0.001), age (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10–1.12, p<0.001), female gender (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06–1.46, p = 0.008), hypertension (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07–1.59, p = 0.01), previous stroke history (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.28–2.50, p<0.001), and urbanization status (metropolis, HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.07–1.63, p = 0.009) were independently associated with the increased risk of AD. Neither monotherapy nor combination therapy with oral antidiabetic medications were associated with the risk of AD after adjusting for underlying risk factors and the duration of DM since diagnosis. However, combination therapy with insulin was found to be associated with greater risk of AD (HR, 2.17; Continue reading >>

The Significance Of Measuring Health Related Quality Of Life In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The Significance Of Measuring Health Related Quality Of Life In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The management of type 2 diabetes poses a significant challenge to both the treatment provider and the patient due to the complex behavioral and lifestyle changes that are required [1]. The importance of self care and metabolic control in delaying complications is also well recognized. While certain changes in lifestyle can indeed be beneficial and improve quality of life, others are likely to have a negative impact on the social and emotional functioning of the individual [2]. With newer medical advancements that delay complications and reduce mortality, the inclusion of quality of life as a component of health outcome has become crucial to the delivery of care. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is now recognized as being an inclusive term that assesses both self reported mental and physical functioning of an individual. HRQOL is defined as the “physical, psychological and social domains of health, seen as distinct areas that are influenced by a person’s experiences, beliefs, expectations and perceptions” [3]. An important feature of this construct is that it acknowledges that an individual’s personal views, judgments and preferences influence the perception of quality of life. WHO Quality of Life- BREF, Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12 and SF-36), the Sickness Impact Profile, and the Quality of Well-Being Scale are some examples of established generic measures of health related quality of life. The impact of a medical illness on overall psychological and emotional functioning can be captured by using disease specific measures. These measures assess the impact of disease specific worries, impact and overall satisfaction [4]. In a recent study, Nagpal, et al. (2010) describe the development of a 34 item quality of life measure developed for Indian Continue reading >>

Significance Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy. Investigators Of The International Tissue Plasminogen Activator/streptokinase Mortality Trial.

Significance Of Diabetes Mellitus In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy. Investigators Of The International Tissue Plasminogen Activator/streptokinase Mortality Trial.

Abstract OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risks and benefits associated with thrombolytic therapy in patients with diabetes presenting with acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse risk factors and a hypercoagulable state that may adversely affect the outcome of thrombolytic therapy. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 8,055 of the 8,239 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received thrombolytic therapy in the International Tissue Plasminogen Activator/Streptokinase Mortality trial (diabetes history was missing for 184 patients). RESULTS: There were 883 patients with and 8,272 patients without diabetes. Among the diabetic patients, 160 were receiving insulin therapy. Baseline risk factors were significantly worse in diabetic patients, who were older and had a higher rate of previous infarction and antecedent angina and a higher Killip grade at admission. Bleeding and hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke rates were similar among diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Hospital and 6-month mortality rates were highest among diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy (16.9% and 23.1%, respectively), followed by diabetic patients not receiving insulin therapy (11.8% and 17.8%), and lowest in nondiabetic patients (7.5% and 10.7%, p < 0.0001). Whereas diabetes of 5 years' duration was associated with a mortality rate similar to that of nondiabetic patients, a > 5-year duration was associated with a relative mortality risk of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 2.15) and a > 10-year duration with a relative mortality risk of 1.99 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.81). The independent relative risk for incremental mortality from discharge to 6 months was 1.74 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.50). Mortality rate among diabetic patients Continue reading >>

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