Risk Of Diabetes Type 1 'can Be Tripled By Childhood Stress'
Stressful life events in childhood such as family break-up, death or illness, can triple the risk of developing type 1 diabetes, research suggests. In a study, researchers found that children who experienced an event associated with “major stress” were almost three times more likely to develop the condition than those who had not. The Swedish study analysed more than 10,000 families with children aged between two and 14, who did not already have the condition. The aim was to pinpoint any family conflicts, unemployment problems, alteration of family structure, or intervention from social services. Subsequently, 58 children were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown but it is usually preceded by the immune system attacking and killing beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Based on the results, the researchers, from Linkoping University, said they thought the stressful events could contribute to beta cell stress due to increased insulin resistance as well as increased insulin demand due to the physiological stress response, such as elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol. In the paper, published on Thursday in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), the authors write: “Consistent with several previous retrospective studies, this first prospective study concludes that the experience of a serious life event (reasonably indicating psychological stress) during the first 14 years of life may be a risk factor for developing type 1 diabetes. “The current study examined serious life events experienced at any time before diagnosis; further studies are thus needed to determine when in the autoimmune process psychological stress may contribute, and in association with which other Continue reading >>
Does Emotional Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus? A Review From The European Depression In Diabetes (edid) Research Consortium
Specialty: Psychiatry, Epidemiology, Endocrinology Institution: Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University Address: Tilburg, Netherlands Author: Nina Kupper Specialty: Psychology, Biology Institution: Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University Address: Tilburg, Netherlands Author: Marcel C Adriaanse Specialty: Epidemiology, Psychology Institution: Section of Prevention and Public Health, Department of Health Sciences and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Amsterdam Address: Amsterdam, 1081 HV, Netherlands Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, approximately 220 million people worldwide have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes not only have a chronic disease to cope with, they are also at increased risk for coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The exact causes of type 2 diabetes are still not clear. Since the 17th century, it has been suggested that emotional stress plays a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. So far, review studies have mainly focused on depression as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, chronic emotional stress is an established risk factor for the development of depression. The present review provides an overview of mainly prospective epidemiological studies that have investigated the associations between different forms of emotional stress and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results of longitudinal studies suggest that not only depression but also general emotional stress and anxiety, sleeping problems, anger, and hostility are associated with an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Conf Continue reading >>
Can Stress Cause Type 2 Diabetes?
The idea that stress can cause type 2 diabetes is not new but recent media coverage of Dave Dowdeswell from the UK who, along with his doctors, believe the only explanation for his diabetes is extreme stress, has prompted discussion around this idea as another possible explanation for why many fit and otherwise healthy people can develop type 2 diabetes. At 44 Mr Dowdeswell, a keen windsurfer and diver, was not overweight and had no family history of diabetes. However, in the 12 months prior to his diagnosis of type 2 diabetes he had experienced a series of traumatic life events. His doctors believe the extreme stress he lived through could have been the trigger for diabetes. One theory is that the stress hormone cortisol may alter the body’s sensitivity to insulin. While scientists are not in agreement over whether this means stress itself is a direct cause of diabetes or just a risk factor, there are some compelling arguments and research is continuing in this area. A recent contribution to the debate comes from research funded by the Department of Defense in the US that find links between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and an increase in type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The study is still in its preliminary stages and other factors are being investigated as to why some people develop PTSD in the first place (such as stress response genetics) but initial findings make a definite link between war-related stress and depression on poor general health outcomes. In 2013 a 35 year prospective follow-up study of 7,500 middle-aged men in Sweden found a strong link between stress and diabetes risk. Levels of stress were graded by the participants and it was found that men who reported permanent stress had a 45% Continue reading >>
Sepsis And Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic (life-long) autoimmune disease that has a significant impact on your life. Having diabetes means you must work to control your blood glucose (sugar) levels to be sure that they don’t get too high or too low. The amount of glucose in your blood is important. Your body needs glucose for energy, but too much of it can destroy body tissues and too little can starve your body of nutrients. People who have diabetes are also at risk of developing wounds and sores that don’t heal well. While the wounds are present, they are at high risk of developing infection. And, again because of the diabetes, the infections can get severe quickly. When infection overwhelms the body, the body can respond by developing sepsis and going into septic shock. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and rapid treatment for survival. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, or urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly) and/or amputations. What is diabetes? Your pancreas is a small organ (about 6” by 1.5”) that is part of your digestive system. It is connected to your small intestine and it lies just below your stomach towards the back. Your pancreas has a few roles, one is to help digest the food you eat and another is to secrete (send out) insulin, which stimulates your cells to use the glucose in the food and drink you consume. When a person has diabetes, the pancre Continue reading >>
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Stress hyperglycemia (also called stress diabetes or diabetes of injury) is a medical term referring to transient elevation of the blood glucose due to the stress of illness. It usually resolves spontaneously, but must be distinguished from various forms of diabetes mellitus. It is often discovered when routine blood chemistry measurements in an ill patient reveal an elevated blood glucose. Blood glucose can be assessed either by a bedside ‘fingerstick’ glucose meter or plasma glucose as performed in a laboratory (the latter being more efficacious). A retrospective cohort study by the Mayo Clinic held that bedside glucometry was a reliable estimate of plasma glucose with a mean difference of 7.9 mg/dL, but still may not coincide with every individual. The glucose is typically in the range of 140–300 mg/dl (7.8-16.7 mM) but occasionally can exceed 500 mg/dl (28 mM), especially if amplified by drugs or intravenous glucose. The blood glucose usually returns to normal within hours unless predisposing drugs and intravenous glucose are continued. Stress hyperglycemia is especially common in patients with hypertonic dehydration and those with elevated catecholamine levels (e.g., after emergency department treatment of acute asthma with epinephrine). Steroid diabetes is a specific and prolonged form of stress hyperglycemia. People who have experienced stress hyperglycemia during severe illness have a threefold risk of developing diabetes in subsequent years, and it may be appropriate to screen for diabetes in survivors of critical illness. Treatment One of the most sweeping changes in intensive care unit (ICU) and post-surgical care in recent years is the trend toward more aggressive treatment of stress-induced hyperglycemia. The 2008 guidelines from the Su Continue reading >>
Did Trauma Cause My Diabetes?
What caused killer t-cells to attack the beta cells in my pancreas, preventing them from producing insulin, making my blood sugar skyrocket and triggering my Type 1 diabetes? That was in 1962. No one has come up with a convincing explanation yet. Scientists aren’t even close to figuring out the interactions between the environment, genes, the immune system and who-knows-what-else that result in Type 1 (T1) or Type 2 (T2) diabetes. If you travel around the Internet, it appears that the entire world is one big “risk factor” for these conditions. Suspects identified by researchers that might play a role in T1D include the smoked mutton consumed by Icelanders between Christmas and New Year’s, various viruses, respiratory infections in early childhood, early exposure to cow’s milk, psoriasis, the timing of infants’ first solid foods, low levels of Vitamin D, and many more. Risk factors for T2D, besides the well-known ones like obesity, could include not enough sleep and phthalates in soaps, lotions, plastics and toys. But the culprit that interests me the most doesn’t get much attention in the research labs: trauma and major stress. When I was a kid, the conventional wisdom was that traumatic events — loss of a loved one, accidents — played an important role in diabetes onset. This appeared to be substantiated by a number of population studies in the ensuing decades, but the evidence hasn’t impressed major players in diabetes research. In a long summary of biochemical and environmental risk factors for T1D, the NIH barely touches upon the matter, gives it a few throwaway lines: Although investigations of stress and IDDM [insulin dependent diabetes] have, in general, reported positive associations, most studies have been retrospective and suffered from met Continue reading >>
Heat Shock Protein 27 Overexpression Mitigates Cytokine-induced Islet Apoptosis And Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes
-Cell apoptosis occurs in diabetes mellitus (DM). Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 (human homolog of rodent HSP25) mitigates stress-induced apoptosis but has not been studied in -cells. We tested whether HSP27 overexpression attenuates streptozotocin (SZ)-induced DM in vivo and cytokine-induced islet apoptosis in vitro. DM was ascertained by ip glucose tolerance testing, and fasting serum insulin/glucose was measured. Pancreas was stained for insulin, HSP27, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling, and insulin content was measured. HSP25/27 was measured by immunoblotting, isoelectric focusing, and RT-PCR. Islet HSP25/27 oligomerization and inhibitory B protein kinase (nuclear factor B essential modulator) binding were assessed by coimmunoprecipitation. HSP27 transgene (TG) in pancreas localized predominantly in -cells. Baseline pancreatic insulin levels in wild-type (WT) and HSP27TG mice were similar, but lower in WT than HSP27TG after SZ (P < 0.01). Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing confirmed protection from SZ-DM in HSP27TG. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and inducible nitric oxide synthase staining were increased in WT vs. HSP27TG islets (P < 0.05) after SZ. Caspase-3 activity was lower in islets from HSP27TG vs. WT mice after cytokine stress in vitro (P < 0.05). There was more HSP25 plus 27 protein from HSP27TG islets than HSP25 from WT (P < 0.01). HSP25 protein but not mRNA was increased in HSP27TG mice. Isoelectric focusing showed similar relative HSP phosphorylation in HSP27TG and WT (P > 0.05). HSP27 bound native HSP25 in TG islets; both bound to inhibitory B protein kinase (nuclear factor B essential modulator). These data show islet protection Continue reading >>
Ask Joslin: Could Trauma Have Caused My Diabetes?
Can a traumatic experience or a hospital stay be the cause of my diabetes? The possibility of trauma inducing diabetes has been a topic of interest since Dr. Joslin was practicing medicine in the 1940s. To quote Dr. Joslin from his paper, “The Relation of Trauma to Diabetes,” published in the Annals of Surgery in 1943, “The thesis that trauma de novo can cause diabetes has steadily lost support.” The accumulation of knowledge about diabetes and its origins since that time has only substantiated the fact that, barring a direct substantial insult to the pancreas, diabetes does not arise spontaneously as a result of a traumatic injury. Many people are diagnosed with diabetes after a hospital stay for either a traumatic injury or a heart attack (which in itself is a type of trauma to the body). This can make it appear that there is a causal relationship between the traumatic event and the development of diabetes. However, as they say, correlation is not necessarily causation. The experience simply unmasked a condition that was already present. In reality, people who present with persistent hyperglycemia after a traumatic injury have an underlying defect in glucose metabolism that is laid bare by the metabolic demands of the body’s response to injury. In the case of trauma, the body produces a cascade of hormones that flood the blood stream. Many of these hormones cause the liver to release glucose to provide energy as the body tries to heal itself. Even people who don’t have diabetes may experience a rise in blood glucose above the usual limits that the body tries to preserve. However, their pancreases will quickly take over to produce enough insulin to restore euglycemia. This isn’t the case in people who already barely meet normal metabolic demands. So while Continue reading >>
Can Shock Cause Diabetes?
Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Hi everyone.....my husband had a bad fall a month ago, and blacked out...ambulance called as it was feared he had broken his back...fortunately he hadn't..just cracked ribs. He had a thorough examination by the paramedics, and all was normal (ECG, oxygen levels, BP) However his blood sugar was 8.5, which I thought was slightly high, given he had had nothing to eat for several hours. He has recovered from his injuries, but about a week ago developed a raging thirst, tiredness and general feeling of being unwell. I suggested I did his BS (I am type 2) but he refused. However, today I insisted on doing it and got a reading of 20.5. Just wondering if this could be connected to his accident? He is refusing to visit the GP, saying he will try and control it himself.....I just don't know what to do. Any advice would be welcome. Thank you. Just an update on my husband. He has refused to visit his GP, and has attempted to lower his BS himself, which he did, the lowest reading being 12.5 (still too high, I know). However, when he came home from work tonight, I insisted I tested him (hadn't done it for a few weeks).....he was very reluctant, but I'm afraid I lost my rag somewhat and told him a few home truths of what could happen if this problem was ignored. Long story short, I won, tested and it was 30.4 !!!! I tried to remain calm, and asked him what he had eaten today....you wouldn't believe what he'd had! Chips, corned beef pie, peas.....coffee, biscuits, grapes...you name it, he ate it! I had a long talk with him, and finally got him to change his GP to mine, which is local. He will probably need to go to the surgery at some point to sign forms or whatever. Continue reading >>
Does Psychological Stress Cause Diabetes?
Abstract Many patients believe that their diabetes has been caused by stress or an adverse life event. Whereas there is strong evidence that psychological stress is related to a deterioration in glycaemic control in established diabetes, there is much less evidence that psychological stress can cause diabetes in humans de novo. It seems more likely that psychological stress produces a deterioration in glycaemia in the non-symptomatic patient which in turn makes diabetic symptoms and the diagnosis evident. The pathogenic mechanisms which have been suggested to relate psychological stress to diabetes are described and reviewed. Continue reading >>
Insulin Shock: Warning Signs And Treatment Options
What is insulin shock? After taking an insulin shot, a person with diabetes might on occasion forget to eat (or eat less than they normally do). If this happens, they may end up with too much insulin in their blood. This, in turn, can lead to hypoglycemia, also called low blood sugar. A serious condition called insulin shock may occur if a person: ignores mild hypoglycemia takes too much insulin by mistake misses a meal completely does excessive unusual exercise without changing their carbohydrate intake Insulin shock is a diabetic emergency. It involves symptoms that, if left untreated, can lead to diabetic coma, brain damage, and even death. How insulin works When we consume food or beverages that contain carbohydrates, the body converts them into glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar that fuels the body, giving it the energy it needs to perform everyday functions. Insulin is a hormone that works like a key. It opens the door in the body’s cells so they can absorb glucose and use it as fuel. People with diabetes may lack enough insulin or have cells that aren’t able to use insulin as they should. If the cells of the body aren’t able to absorb the glucose properly, it causes excess glucose in blood. This is called high blood glucose, which is linked with a number of health issues. High blood glucose can cause eye and foot problems, heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, and nerve damage. Insulin shots help people with diabetes use glucose more efficiently. Taking an insulin shot before eating helps the body absorb and use glucose from the food. The result is a more balanced and healthy blood sugar level. Usually, it works great. Sometimes, however, things go wrong. What causes insulin shock? Having too much insulin in your blood can lead to having too little gluco Continue reading >>
Could Stress Give You Diabetes? It's Not Just The Overweight Who Are At Risk, Doctors Warn
The popular image of a patient with type 2 diabetes is someone who's overweight, with a couch-potato lifestyle. It's a stereotype that makes salesman Dave Dowdeswell furious. The father-of-two, now 48, developed the condition at the age of 44 when he had a 32 in waist and weighed only 12 st - almost ideal for his 5 ft 9 in height. As a keen windsurfer and diver who also walked his dog every day, he was physically fit. There was no family history of type 2 diabetes, and he doesn't even have a sweet tooth. In fact, Dave ticked none of the normal risk-factor boxes, such as being overweight or having a waist of 37 in or more. So how did he become one of almost three million people in the UK with type 2? His doctors believe the trigger was stress. In the 12 months before he began to feel unwell, he had witnessed his 19-year-old daughter Gemma being knocked over by a car and breaking her neck after a family meal out; his thriving paint-spraying business had collapsed because of falling trade and teetered on the verge of bankruptcy, and his beloved bulldog died. Then, in November 2010, Dave unexpectedly lost his 70-year-old father to cirrhosis of the liver. 'That really hit me for six. He went into hospital and never came out,' says Dave, who lives in Portsmouth. 'He went downhill so quickly and I couldn't believe it when he died. We were close and it hit me so badly.' Within a week Dave started to feel ill himself. 'I was suddenly needing to get up two or three times a night to have a pee. 'I was also drinking around two pints of orange juice in one go, and I couldn't wait to finish a meal so I could have a drink of water or orange juice as I felt so thirsty. 'We were on a scuba-diving holiday in Egypt at the time, but my wife Adriana said: "As soon as we get home, I think yo Continue reading >>
Untreated Type 1 Diabetes Increases Sepsis-induced Mortality Without Inducing A Prelethal Cytokine Response
Recent estimates demonstrate that approximately 171 million people worldwide have diabetes ( 1 ), and as many as 50% of diabetic patients may remain undiagnosed because of lack of symptoms ( 2 ). Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care units (ICUs) and is frequently complicated by a number of coexisting conditions including types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) ( 3 ). Despite the frequent presence of comorbid conditions, preclinical sepsis studies typically rely on normal animals lacking clinically relevant comorbidities such as diabetes or chronic renal failure. The dismal failure of several treatment trials that extrapolated data from flawed sepsis surrogates ( 4 ) underscores the need for better preclinical models of sepsis that would combine septicemia with the common comorbidities such as DM. The autosomal dominant point mutation Mody (Cys/Tyr) in the Ins2 insulin gene of AKITA mice serves as a well-established insulin-dependent model for investigating type 1 human diabetes ( 5 ). The Mody mutation causes a primary defect in protein processing that renders pancreatic cells incapable of insulin secretion resulting in hyperglycemia ( 5 ). The diabetic phenotype is apparent as early as 4 weeks after birth, resulting in significant elevations in blood glucose by 7 weeks of age in either gender ( 5, 6 ). Classic early symptoms of hyperglycemia (polydipsia and polyuria) are not accompanied by obesity, infertility, and atherosclerosis. If allowed to progress for several weeks, the AKITA mutation constitutes one of the best available investigative platforms for diabetic (type 1) nephropathy in mice ( 7 ). In chronic conditions, diabetic cardiomyopathy ( 8 ), autonomic neuropathy ( 9 ), and retinal degeneration ( 10 ) have been reported in mature AKIT Continue reading >>
Diabetic Shock And Insulin Reactions
Severe hypoglycemia, or diabetic shock, is a serious health risk for anyone with diabetes. Also called insulin reaction, as a consequence of too much insulin, it can occur anytime there is an imbalance between the insulin in your system, the amount of food you eat, or your level of physical activity. It can even happen while you are doing all you think you can do to manage your diabetes. The symptoms of diabetic shock may seem mild at first. But they should not be ignored. If it isn't treated quickly, hypoglycemia can become a very serious condition that causes you to faint, requiring immediate medical attention. Diabetic shock can also lead to a coma and death. It's important that not only you, but your family and others around you, learn to recognize the signs of hypoglycemia and know what to do about them. It could save your life. Hypoglycemia is a low level of blood sugar. The cells in your body use sugar from carbohydrates for energy. Insulin, which normally is made in the pancreas, is necessary for sugar to enter the cells. It helps keep the levels of sugar in the blood from getting too high. It's important to maintain the proper level of sugar in your blood. Levels that are too high can cause severe dehydration, which can be life threatening. Over time, excess sugar in the body does serious damage to organs such as your heart, eyes, and nervous system. Ordinarily, the production of insulin is regulated inside your body so that you naturally have the amount of insulin you need to help control the level of sugar. But if your body doesn't make its own insulin or if it can't effectively use the insulin it does produce, you need to inject insulin as a medicine or take another medication that will increase the amount of insulin your body does make. So if you need to me Continue reading >>
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The Relationship Between Stress,trauma & Diabetes Type 2
The Relationship Between Stress,Trauma & Diabetes Type 2 Reduce stress to reduce the effects of diabetes. Source: By Mikael Hggstrm, used with permission. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Chronic stress alters the eco-system of the body, mind, and spirit like oil pollutes water. Stress and trauma affect the metabolism of the individual and the community. The ability to find and absorb the nourishment of food as well as the nourishment of friendship . In response to chronic stress, people feel depressed, helpless, anxious, irritable, and then they blame themselves for feeling that way. These feelings often lead to self- medication with sugar and carbohydrates, drugs, alcohol, sex and other activities. When people are in recovery from alcohol abuse they often turn to sugar (after all, alcohol is sugar), carbohydrates, and coffee as part of the withdrawal and maintenance process. However, this also taxes the liver considerably and makes one vulnerable to the development of diabetes type 2.Thus, alcohol addiction may also be understood as a physiological addiction to sugar. Stress contributes to anxiety and depression and leads to self-medication with drugs, alcohol, carbohydrates and sugar; in turn, these substances exacerbate stress and the cycle of self-medication continues until it is stopped. There are broadly 3 types of stress that exist along a spectrum: Eustress, stress, and traumatic stress. Eustress is a word coined by Dr. Hans Selye. Eustress refers to the stress that arises from a positive challenge, such as a new job, learning a new skill or (extreme) exercise. Whether stress has positive or negative effects in ones life depends to a great degree on the individual perception of the stressor and its meaning to their life. In normal stress, for example, re Continue reading >>