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Role Of Physical Therapy In Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to appropriately regulate the level of sugar, specifically glucose, in the blood, either by poor sensitivity to the protein insulin, or due to inadequate production of insulin by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases. Diabetes itself is not a high-mortality condition (1.3 million deaths globally), but it is a major risk factor for other causes of death and has a high attributable burden of disability. Diabetes is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and blindness.[1] Be sure to also read: Clinically Relevant Anatomy and Pathophysiology Diabetes Mellitus primarily affects the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, where glucagon (from the alpha cells) and insulin (from the beta cells) are produced. Glucagon raises the blood glucose level, while insulin lowers it. In Type 1 DM (Insulin Dependent), the loss of function of the beta cells leads to an absolute insulin deficiency. In Type 2 DM (Non-insulin Dependent), the impaired production and secretion of insulin by the beta cells is concommitant with the impaired ability of the tissues to utilize insulin (termed insulin resistance). The resulting accumulation of glucose in the blood is further elevated by the greater synthesis of glucose in the liver, which releases it to the general circulation. Diabetes Mellitus (both Type 1 and Type 2) is now a global epidemic. Usually correlated with being overweight and obese, a sedentary lifestyle and familial history are also being considered as risk factors. According to the research entiltled "Global Prevalence of Diabetes" by Sarah Wild, MB, BCHIR, PhD and associates[2], "the total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 Continue reading >>

Treatment For Diabetes | How Can Physio Help Diatetes

Treatment For Diabetes | How Can Physio Help Diatetes

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by high blood sugar (glucose) levels. The condition results from the bodys inadequate production of insulin or the bodys altered response to insulin, or both. Diabetes causes abnormally high glucose levels (hyperglycemia), circulatory problems, and nerve damage. Diabetes cannot be cured, but it can often be managed with proper medical care, diet, and regular exercise. There are two types of Diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. Approximately 90% of all diabetes cases are Type 2. Increased urination, hunger, weight gain, fatigue, thirst, cuts and bruises that dont heal or have delayed healing and numbness and tingling in the hands/ feet are some of the most common symptoms. An autoimmune disease in which the body destroys insulin producing cells. The body does not produce insulin and cells cannot absorb sugar needed for energy. The body does not use insulin in the right way and can become insulin resistant. This can develop at any age and is most commonly diagnosed in adulthood. Continue reading >>

Exercise Assessment And Prescription In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes In The Private And Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From Axxon (belgian Physical Therapy Association)

Exercise Assessment And Prescription In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes In The Private And Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From Axxon (belgian Physical Therapy Association)

Exercise Assessment and Prescription in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in the Private and Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association) D. Hansen, PT, PhD, Hasselt University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Agoralaan, Building A, 3590, Diepenbeek, Belgium; Heart Centre Hasselt, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium; and Flemish Working Group from AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association), Antwerp, Belgium. Search for other works by this author on: S. Peeters, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: B. Zwaenepoel, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON; Ghent University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Ghent, Belgium; and Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Jan Palfijn, Ghent, Belgium. Search for other works by this author on: D. Verleyen, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: C. Wittebrood, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: N. Timmerman, PT, MSc, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: M. Schotte, PT, Flemish Working Group from AXXON. Search for other works by this author on: Physical Therapy, Volume 93, Issue 5, 1 May 2013, Pages 597610, Dominique Hansen, Stefaan Peeters, Bruno Zwaenepoel, Dirk Verleyen, Carla Wittebrood, Nicole Timmerman, Michel Schotte; Exercise Assessment and Prescription in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes in the Private and Home Care Setting: Clinical Recommendations From AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association), Physical Therapy, Volume 93, Issue 5, 1 May 2013, Pages 597610, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease associated with many complications: the likelihood for the development of heart Continue reading >>

Physical Therapy Implications For The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus - Cyberpt

Physical Therapy Implications For The Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus - Cyberpt

PT Classroom - Physical Therapy Implications for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Pete Balik, MPT, CSCS Pete Balik graduated from the University of Iowa with a Bachelor of Science in Kinesiology and a Master of Physical Therapy degree. He has been practicing since 1995 and started Active Care Rehab in 2001.He has lectured at Concordia University, and University Wisconsin Milwaukee. Pete has been certified by the National Strength and conditioning Association and USA Triathlon. He also served as the Legislative Chair for the Wisconsin Physical Therapy Association, and has been a member of the American Physical Therapy Association since 1993.His practice includes sports medicine and general orthopedic patients. Physical Therapy Implications for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is rapidly becoming an epidemic in the United States, epically Type II (formally called adult onset). Type II usually appears in persons over the age of 40 and is associated with physical inactivity and in persons who are overweight. Usually symptoms are not obvious at first. The symptoms associated with diabetes can include: frequent urination, excessive thirst, extreme hunger, unusual weight loss, increased fatigue, irritability and blurry vision (1). Recent studies indicate that the early detection of diabetes symptoms and treatment can decrease the chance of developing the complications of diabetes (1). However, if left untreated, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, amputation or death. The American Diabetes Association reports that there are 23.6 million people in the United States, or 8% of the population, who have diabetes. They report that the total annual economic cost of diabetes in 2007 was estimated to be $174 billion. Medical expenditures totaled $116 billio Continue reading >>

Physical Activity And Diabetes: Opportunities For Prevention Through Policy

Physical Activity And Diabetes: Opportunities For Prevention Through Policy

Physical Activity and Diabetes: Opportunities for Prevention Through Policy AD Deshpande, PhD, MPH, is Research Assistant Professor, Division of Health Behavior Research, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Ave, Box 8504, St Louis, MO 63108 (USA) Address all correspondence to Dr Deshpande Search for other works by this author on: EA Dodson, PhD, MPH, is Program Manager, Prevention Research Center in St Louis, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri Search for other works by this author on: I Gorman, PT, MSPH, is Assistant Professor, School of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado Search for other works by this author on: RC Brownson, PhD, is Professor of Epidemiology, Prevention Research Center in St Louis, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, and Department of Surgery and Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine Search for other works by this author on: Physical Therapy, Volume 88, Issue 11, 1 November 2008, Pages 14251435, Anjali D Deshpande, Elizabeth A Dodson, Ira Gorman, Ross C Brownson; Physical Activity and Diabetes: Opportunities for Prevention Through Policy, Physical Therapy, Volume 88, Issue 11, 1 November 2008, Pages 14251435, Over the past decade, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic levels in the United States and other developed countries. With a concomitant rise in obesity levels in the United States and advances in the treatment of diabetes and its complications, the prevalence of diabetes is expected to continue to rise through the year 2050. Despite strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes, too Continue reading >>

Diabetes - Moveforwardpt.com

Diabetes - Moveforwardpt.com

Diabetes is diagnosed by a physician, based on a test of your blood glucose level. This test is often ordered by a physician when a person reports some of the signs and symptoms listed in the previous section, or has risk factors determined by a physician. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, a physical therapist can evaluate your symptoms and problems associated with the condition. A physical therapist will identify physical problems that can be helped with an individualized exercise program, and provide specialized treatments based on your needs and goals. Physical therapists help people with diabetes participate in safe, effective exercise programs to improve their ability to move, perform daily activities, reduce their pain, and possibly lower their blood glucose levels. Physical therapy treatments also can help people with diabetes heal any associated skin problems faster than they would without treatment. Your physical therapist will examine your record of blood glucose levels, and will check your skin for wounds. Your physical therapist will conduct a complete assessment of your strength, flexibility, endurance, and balance, and use the results of the testing to design an individualized treatment program that addresses your problems and needs. Your treatment program can help improve your: Motion. Your physical therapist will choose specific activities and treatments to help restore normal movement. These might begin with passive motions that the physical therapist performs for you to gently move your joints, and progress to active exercises and stretches that you do yourself. Strength. Your physical therapist will choose and teach you the correct exercises and equipment to use to steadily and safely restore your strength. Flexibility. Your physical therapist will Continue reading >>

Exercises For Diabetics

Exercises For Diabetics

The article describes the benefits of exercises for diabetics patients. The best and suitable exercises for diabetics patients are demonstrated with aid of videos. Diabetes is one of the most prevalent lifestyle diseases in modern world but still the awareness about the risks and benefits of exercises to patients with diabetes is limited. There are two distinct types of diabetes mellitus: lnsulin dependent (type 1) and Non insulin dependent (type 2) with distinct challenges associated with exercises. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) It is an inherited autoimmune disease in which antibodies are produced against the beta cells of pancreas. Type 1 diabetes represents approximately 10-15% of the diabetic cases. It is characterized by absence of endogenous insulin production. Therefore insulin administration is essential to prevent ketosis, coma, and death. Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Type 2 diabetes is linked to both genetic and lifestyle factors, It is characterized by diminished insulin secretion relative to serum glucose levels in conjunction with peripheral insulin resistance, both of which result in chronic hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by three major metabolic abnormalities: Impairment in pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion in response to a glucose stimulus. Reduced sensitivity to the action of insulin in major organ systems such as muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Excessive hepatic glucose production in the basal state. Exercise and Diabetes When considering exercise prescription for a diabetic patient target should be to achieve at least 30 minutes of continuous moderate activity (e.g. brisk walking) five or six days a week provided that cardiovascular and hypertensive problems are accounted for. Both insulin and e Continue reading >>

How Does Physical Therapy Help With Diabetes?

How Does Physical Therapy Help With Diabetes?

How Does Physical Therapy Help with Diabetes? How Does Physical Therapy Help with Diabetes? You probably know someone with diabetes. It always hits the top list of conditions that affect both children and adults across America. Most people know that medication can help diabetes, but a less known fact is how physical therapy can help manage it. Here is a few things PTs can do to help not only manage but improve a diabetic condition. Diabetes usually falls into 2 categories: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The difference between the two is the way the body produces and responds to a hormone called insulin. Insulin is important because it is responsible for helping the body absorb sugars. In type 1 diabetes the body is not able produce insulin, but this type is not as prevalent. In type 2 diabetes the body makes insulin, howeverthe body cant use nor respond to it normally. In either condition, without your bodys ability to use sugars and other carbohydrates, your organs and vital body processes cannot function well. There at least 3 areas that a PT can help with when seeing a patient that has diabetes: One of the primary causes of diabetes especially with type 2 is obesity. A PT can help assess body mass and use those measurements to track progress throughout the course of an exercise program. This will also help create achievable goals and help losing weight for decreased diabetes symptoms. A good resistance exercise program along with proper diet has been known to reverse the effects of type 2 diabetes. The effects are reversed because resistance exercise causes muscles to respond to insulin many times more than when at rest. This increased ability for the body to use insulin allows sugars to be absorbed instead of staying in the blood stream. Phys Continue reading >>

The Role Of Physical Therapy In Managing Diabetes

The Role Of Physical Therapy In Managing Diabetes

The role of physical therapy in managing diabetes Written by by Jim Berger. Posted in November Ihave been writing the last few months about specific diseases such as Alzheimers and cancer and the role physical therapy plays in addressing the individuals ability to perform functional daily living tasks. This month Ill continue to focus on the role of physical therapy in the management of chronic disease, specifically diabetes. I want to start by defining the term chronic disease. A chronic disease is a disease that persists for a long time, lasting three months or more by the definition of the US National Center for Health Statistics. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. Before getting into the role that physical therapy has in chronic disease management, I want to share some facts on chronic disease and specifically on diabetes. Chronic diseases are responsible for seven of ten deaths each year, and treating people with chronic diseases accounts for most of our nations healthcare costs according to the Centers for Disease Control. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat will be broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, acts like a gatekeeper or key to let the blood sugar into your bodys cells for use as energy. If you have diabetes, your body either doesnt make enough insulin or cant use the insulin it makes as well as it should. When there isnt enough insulin or cells arent responding and not using the insulin, then too much sugar stays in your bloodstream, which over time can cause serious health problems. Diabetes is broken into Continue reading >>

Physical Therapist’s Guide To Diabetes

Physical Therapist’s Guide To Diabetes

According to the Centers for Disease Control, almost 26 million children and adults are living with diabetes (about 8% of the population). Of these, an estimated 19 million have been diagnosed, whereas 7 million are unaware that they have the disease. About 79 million people have “pre-diabetes,” a condition in which blood sugar (glucose) levels are abnormal but are not yet considered diabetic. What Is Diabetes? In diabetes, the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Produced by the pancreas, insulin is a hormone needed to allow glucose (sugar) to enter the cell and provide the energy necessary for daily activities. When the pancreas doesn’t produce adequate amounts of insulin, or when the muscle, fat and liver cells don’t respond to insulin properly, glucose builds up in the blood (hyperglycemia). This can be toxic to your cells. In addition, because of the reduced glucose uptake into the cells, they can use an abnormal amount of fats for fuel (ketoacidosis) and may become undernourished. There are 3 main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes – develops most often in children and young adults; the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells) of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes – can develop at any age and can largely be preventable; the cells of the body become resistant to insulin, and the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin to override the resistance. Gestational diabetes – develops in women during pregnancy; it occurs more often in African Americans, American Indians, Hispanic Americans, and women with a family history of diabetes and also is associated with obesity and inactivity. Although the exact cause of diabetes is unknown, factors such as obesity and lack of exercise play important roles in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can resul Continue reading >>

Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: The Global Scenario

Role Of Exercise In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: The Global Scenario

Role of Exercise in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: the Global Scenario 1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2 Physiotherapy Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Islamic Republic Of), Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: ZCT SD. Performed the experiments: ZCT SD LJH. Analyzed the data: ZCT SD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ZCT SD LJH. Wrote the manuscript: ZCT SD LJH. Received 2013 Jun 17; Accepted 2013 Oct 2. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 2 DM, exercise, and/or physical activity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise. Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. Twenty five studies met the sel Continue reading >>

Diabetes | The Chartered Society Of Physiotherapy

Diabetes | The Chartered Society Of Physiotherapy

An estimated 2.7 million people in the UK have been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, and the numbers are rising. More people are believed to have the condition without knowing it. In Type 2 diabetes, the body either fails to produce enough of the hormone insulin, or is unable to use that insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone in our body that allows the glucose (sugars from the food we eat) in the blood stream to enter our bodys cells, where it is converted into energy. So, people with diabetes have an abnormally high blood sugar level. The main symptoms are excessive thirst; urinating frequently, particularly at night; fatigue; and loss of weight and muscle mass. If untreated or not properly controlled, diabetes can cause damage to the blood vessels, nerves and organs such as the kidneys, or the eyes, leading to serious problems. However, with a healthy lifestyle and the right treatment people with diabetes can lead full and normal lives. There is no single known cause of diabetes, but there are several associated risk factors. These include being overweight, particularly around the waist, while genetics, age and ethnicity also play a big part. Type 2 diabetes is most common in people over 40 but in people from South Asia, who are at greater risk, it often develops in the late 20s and 30s. There is no cure for Type 2 diabetes. Treatment, then,aims to help people manage lifestyle changes in order to control their blood glucose levels. This minimises the risk of complications in people with the condition, or can prevent Type 2 diabetes developing in the first place. Exercise and a healthy diet are recommended both for prevention and for people already diagnosed. People with diabetes often have other medical problems or risk factors for ill health, such as heart disease, Continue reading >>

Physical Therapy: Treating The Athletic Diabetes Patient

Physical Therapy: Treating The Athletic Diabetes Patient

Physical Therapy: Treating the Athletic Diabetes Patient When a patient with diabetes is also an athlete, there are myriad concerns, preparations, and precautions for patient and doctor alike. Emily Westfall does her long runs on the weekends, 10 to 12 miles to train for a half marathon. She likes to run these miles mid-morning, so the temperature is just right, not too cold, not too hot. She wakes up at 8:00 to hit the pavement by 10:00. But in those two hours pre-run, Westfall has to prepare for the two-hour run ahead. Westfall has type 1 diabetes (T1D), which means theres a lot to do before, during, and after the run. If its a 10-mile run, she says, Id assume Id do that in an hour and a half to two hours, so Ill probably do a two-hour [basal] reduction at eight oclock, two hours before my run. Westfall reduces her basal to 70% between 8:00 and 10:00, then resumes the basal to normal right before she starts running. She keeps her pump on during the run and carries a Camelbak hydration pack stocked with glucose tabs, granola bars, and running goo. She brings her test kit and some type of liquid, usually straight water or some kind of carbohydrate/electrolyte mixture. During the run, Westfall tests her blood sugar. I trained myself to test while running, she says. If she needs to treat, shell pull over and do what needs to be done. I try to pretend like its a race, Westfall says, so I try not to stop to test or do any other treatment stuff. What I would do in a race is try to jog it through. I dont know if thats necessarily kosher, but thats how I do it. After the run, Westfall does another temporary basal reduction for an hour, but she also has to bolus. I normally spike right after coming back from a run, she says. Ill do a small one-and-a-half unit bolus, and Ill te Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin[1]. Insulin moves blood sugar (glucose) into cells where it is stored and later used for energy. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2 [1]. Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), whereas Type 2 diabetes is also called adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)[1]. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body metabolizes glucose[1]. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin, known as insulin resistance[1]. As a result, blood sugar does not get transported into these cells to be stored for energy and builds up in the bloodstream; this is known as hyperglycemia[1]. In a healthy person, blood glucose levels are normalized by insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin [1]. With Type 2 diabetes, the mechanisms become faulty; the pancreatic beta-cell, which releases insulin, becomes impaired and tissues develop insulin resistance[1][2]. This pathology has a genetic link, although it is somewhat unclear[1]. Risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes include: background of African-Caribbean, Black African, Chinese, or South-Asian, and over 25 years old, or other ethnic background over 40 years old[3] According to the International Diabetes Federation (2014), 8.3% of the population or 387 million people are living with diabetes worldwide.[4] Diabetes prevalence increases with age across all regions worldwide and income groups.[5] This number is expected to increase by 205 million by the year 2035.[6] Diabetes is most prevalent in people aged 60-79 years, with 18.6%, though those aged 40-59 have the highest number (184 million) of people living Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors In Patients Referred For Physical Therapy In A National Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Database

Diabetes And Associated Risk Factors In Patients Referred For Physical Therapy In A National Primary Care Electronic Medical Record Database

The prevalence of diabetes (type 2) in the general population has increased dramatically over the last decade, yet patients with diabetes are rarely referred for physical therapy management of their condition. The majority of patients referred for outpatient physical therapy have musculoskeletal-related conditions. Secondary conditions, such as diabetes, may be prevalent in this population, and physical therapists need to be aware of this to adjust interventions and treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe the prevalence of diabetes and the associated risk factors in adults referred for physical therapy in a primary care outpatient setting. Patients aged 18 years or older referred for physical therapy were identified from the Centricity Electronic Medical Records database during the period of December 13, 1995, to June 30, 2007. Patients were evaluated on the basis of clinical (height, weight, blood pressure, laboratory values), treatment (prescriptions), and diagnostic (ICD-9 codes) criteria to identify the presence of diabetes or associated risk factors (eg, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, and prediabetes). There were 52,667 patients referred for physical therapy, the majority of whom were referred for a musculoskeletal-related condition. Approximately 80% of the total study population had diabetes, prediabetes, or risk factors associated with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in the study population was 13.2%. Of the diabetes-associated risk factors evaluated, hypertension was the most prevalent (70.4%), and less than half (39.1%) of the study population had an elevated body mass index. Only 20% of the study population had values within normal limits for all clinical, treatment, and diagnostic crit Continue reading >>

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