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Role Of Calcium In Diabetes

The Possible Role Of Elevated Serum Calcium In The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Possible Role Of Elevated Serum Calcium In The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes

The Possible Role of Elevated Serum Calcium in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes imposes a major public health burden and disproportionally affects the black population in the United States.1 Identification of novel factors of diabetes risk may aid etiologic understanding of this highly prevalent disease. Calcium is traditionally thought of in relation to bone health; however, emerging epidemiologic evidence has suggested an association between elevated serum calcium concentration and metabolic abnormalities,2-10 including the development of type 2 diabetes. Consistent with this literature, we recently reported a positive association between serum calcium and incident diabetes.11 Importantly, this association remained even after accounting for biomarkers related to calcium metabolism (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and phosphorus), which have themselves been associated with diabetes.12-14 This suggests that these metabolically-related nutritional biomarkers do not fully capture the association with diabetes. Serum calcium is tightly regulated within the body. Briefly, calcium homeostasis involves numerous negative feedback loops, involving 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], PTH, and ionized calcium. Upon sensing an increase or decrease in circulating calcium concentration, the body adjusts calcium transport in the bone, kidneys and/or intestine to restore concentrations.15 The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), located within the parathyroid gland and kidneys, also plays a noteworthy role in calcium homeostasis. The CaSR detects important changes in circulating calcium concentration, which triggers an increase in PTH secretion and calcium absorption to restore calcium concentration. We analyzed the calcium-diabetes associati Continue reading >>

Vitamin Deficiencies In People With Diabetes: The Supplements You Need

Vitamin Deficiencies In People With Diabetes: The Supplements You Need

As an orthopedic surgeon, I have many patients with diabetes who tell me, “I can’t have surgery because I won’t heal.” That is certainly not the case, however. Diabetes does affect the small blood vessels and the function of immune cells when blood sugar is high, but with proper nutrition and blood sugar management, people with diabetes are very safe to undergo knee replacements, abdominal surgery, and many elective procedures. It is critical, of course, that people with diabetes who undergo elective or traumatic surgery work closely with their doctor to manage their blood sugar, but supplementation is also a vital part of recovery. Diabetes frequently causes nutritional deficiencies, often initiated by changes in diet or medications. As a result, people with diabetes must use supplements. Helping my patients identify their nutritional deficiencies and educating them on the importance of essential vitamins has made an overwhelming difference in their recovery from surgery and their overall daily health. The following essential vitamins are often deficient in people with diabetes. Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 is bound to protein in food. The activity of hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in the stomach releases vitamin B12 from its protein. Once it is released, vitamin B12 begins to work quickly. It is important for the formation of red blood cells, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. It also supports the digestive system in keeping glucose levels stable. A simple blood test can determine the level of B12 in the body. Adults who have a value below 170 to 250 pg/mL are considered deficient in the vitamin. An elevated blood homocysteine level or elevated methylmalconic acid level may also suggest a B12 deficiency. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are megalob Continue reading >>

Jbc : Journal Of Biological Chemistry

Jbc : Journal Of Biological Chemistry

1University of California, San Diego, United States 2Medicine, University of California, San Diego, United States 3Instituto Nacional de Cardiologa, Mexico * Corresponding author; email: [email protected] Author contributions: J.S., F.C., B.T.S., J.D.-J., T.D., A.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. conceptualization; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., K.L., J.D.-J., T.D., J.A.S., and M.J. data curation; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., K.L., J.D.-J., T.D., A.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. formal analysis; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., T.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. supervision; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., T.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. validation; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., K.L., J.D.-J., T.D., A.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. investigation; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., K.L., J.D.-J., T.D., A.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. visualization; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., T.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. methodology; J.S., F.C., and B.T.S. writing-original draft; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., M.J., and W.H.D. project administration; J.S., F.C., B.T.S., K.L., J.D.-J., T.D., J.A.S., M.J., and W.H.D. writing-review and editing; F.C., J.D.-J., A.D., M.J., and W.H.D. funding acquisition. Diabetes mellitus is a growing health care problem, resulting in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetes also increases the risk for heart failure (HF) and decreased cardiac myocyte function, which are linked to changes in cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism. The free mitochondrial calcium level ([Ca2+]m) is fundamental in activating the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and ATP production and is also known to regulate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex (MCUC) plays a major role in mediating mitochondrial Ca2+ import, and its expression and function therefore have a marked impact on cardiac myocy Continue reading >>

Vitamin D, Calcium May Prevent, Improve Diabetes

Vitamin D, Calcium May Prevent, Improve Diabetes

"Although the evidence to date suggests that vitamin D and calcium deficiency influences post-prandial glycaemia and insulin response while supplementation may be beneficial in optimizing these processes, our understanding of the exact mechanisms by which vitamin D and calcium may promote beta cell function, or ameliorate insulin resistance and systemic inflammation is incomplete,"​ wrote lead author Anastassios Pittas. "It is also not clear whether the effects are additive or synergistic,"​ he added. Vitamin D refers to two biologically inactive precursors - D3, also known as cholecalciferol, and D2, also known as ergocalciferol. The former, produced in the skin on exposure to UVB radiation (290 to 320 nm), is said to be more bioactive. The latter is derived from plants and only enters the body via the diet, from consumption of foods such as oily fish, egg yolk and liver. Both D3 and D2 precursors are hydroxylated in the liver and kidneys to form 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), the non-active 'storage' form, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the biologically active form that is tightly controlled by the body Writing in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism​, Pittas and co-workers reviewed data from observational studies and clinical trials in adults with results related to the control of glucose. The data from observational studies showed a "relatively consistent association" between low intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or dairy intake and type-2 diabetes, with highest levels associated with a 64 per cent lower prevalence of the disease, and a 29 per cent lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among non-blacks. When intake of calcium and vitamin D was combined, the inverse associations were still observed, with the highest versus lowest combine Continue reading >>

The Best Calcium-rich Foods For People With Diabetes | Everyday Health

The Best Calcium-rich Foods For People With Diabetes | Everyday Health

Why Foods With Calcium Should Be Part of Your Diabetes Diet When you have diabetes, its important to modify your diet to ensure that your blood sugar and weight stay controlled. That means fueling up with foods like lean protein, whole grains, nonstarchy veggies , and certain fruits. But theres another beneficial type of food you may not have considered adding to your diabetes diet: eats that are rich in calcium. Research suggests that the mineral not only can help offset the risk for osteoporosis, with which diabetes is associated, but it may also help halt progression of the disease in those who have been diagnosed. Supplementation of both calcium and vitamin D have been shown to be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism, says Melissa Joy Dobbins,RDN, CDE , who is based in Chicago. Thats crucial when you have diabetes, which is marked by insulin resistance a condition that prevents glucose from reaching cells for energy or from being stored for later use, resulting in an accumulation of that glucose in the bloodstream. A study published in October 2014 in PLOS One backs up this idea, suggesting that daily supplementation with both calcium and vitamin D over a six-month period may help improve insulin sensitivity in those with prediabetes. The potential benefits of calcium-rich food for diabetes dont end there. The mineral may also benefit individuals with prediabetes , the precursor to the full-blown form of the disease, as well as people who are at risk for prediabetes based on their family history, diet and lifestyle, or ethnicity. Observational studies have shown an association between low vitamin D status, calcium intake, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, says Angela Ginn-Meadow, RD, CDE , a senior education coordinator for the Un Continue reading >>

The Benefits Of Calcium And Vitamin D

The Benefits Of Calcium And Vitamin D

Nutrition Superstar While there's no doubt about dairy's status as a nutrition superstar (it's packed with protein, minerals, and vitamins A, D, B12, and riboflavin), the jury is still out on some of the more recently publicized benefits. Here's some help to sort it all out. Fighting Diabetes? Calcium and vitamin D may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in people with pre-diabetes, says Anastassios Pittas, M.D., assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston. In a recent study, Pittas found that participants with pre-diabetes who took vitamin D (700 IU per day) and calcium (500 mg per day) for three years had a smaller rise in fasting blood glucose (0.4 mg/dl) compared with those who took a placebo pill. "Vitamin D and calcium may have direct effects on the pancreatic beta cells to enhance insulin secretion," Pittas says. "There may also be beneficial effects on insulin resistance, but the mechanisms are not clear." The bottom line: "It's premature to make a recommendation that people at risk for type 2 diabetes should take vitamin D and calcium," Pittas says. "I recommend the same as for most people--800 IU of vitamin D and 1,200 mg of calcium. Getting these from foods is always preferable." However, it can be difficult to get that amount in your diet. Talk with a physician or nutritionist about whether a supplement is right for you. Weight Loss Aid? In the past few years, eating sufficient low-fat and fat-free dairy foods has been tied to weight loss. "The research is still inconclusive at this time," says Ruth Litchfield, Ph.D., R.D., L.D, assistant professor and extension service nutrition specialist at Iowa State University in Ames. "The National Dairy Co Continue reading >>

Calcium For Diabetes - Recommended Intake And Insulin Resistance

Calcium For Diabetes - Recommended Intake And Insulin Resistance

Healthy Diet Plans >> Diabetic Diet >> Calcium The incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is on the increase worldwide. More than 1 million new cases are diagnosed every year in just the US. Although treatments for this type of diabetes and its attendant complications have improved tremendously over the years, prevention is still the preferred option. Epidemiological data suggests that 90% of cases of type 2 diabetes can be attributed to habits and lifestyle that can be changed. In this regard, the use of calcium for the prevention of diabetes has been the subject of numerous studies. Vitamin D plays an important role in the absorption of calcium by the body. Low levels of this vitamin reduce the bodys ability to absorb calcium from food. The body then turns to the skeletal system for its calcium requirements, thereby weakening the bones. Vitamin D is also required by the body to maintain calcium and phosphorus homeostasis or equilibrium. Recent evidence also suggests that vitamin D and calcium homeostasis also play an important role in neuromuscular function, multiple sclerosis and prostate and colorectal cancer. Calcium and vitamin D are also suspected to be modifiers of diabetes risk. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency has been suspected as having a major role in the development of both type1 & type2 diabetes. Read in detail about the diet for diabetes Calcium is an essential component of intracellular processes that occur within insulin responsive tissues like skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A very narrow range of calcium concentration is needed for optimal insulin mediated functioning. Concentration levels that are out of this optimal range may contribute to peripheral insulin resistance. Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining the right levels of calciu Continue reading >>

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis

Context: Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). Evidence Acquisition and Analyses: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Evidence Synthesis: Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16–0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57–0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72–0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79–0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Conclusions: Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing Continue reading >>

High Serum Calcium Linked To Developing Diabetes: Iras Study

High Serum Calcium Linked To Developing Diabetes: Iras Study

High Serum Calcium Linked to Developing Diabetes: IRAS Study BARCELONA, SPAIN - High concentrations of serum calciumbut not necessarily calcium intakeare associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, results from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) show. Moreover, calcium concentration appears to act independently of glucose, insulin secretion, and insulin resistance, according to Dr Carlos Lorenzo (University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio). Lorenzo presented the IRAS results here at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2013 Meeting . Several recent high-profile reports have linked high calcium intake, and particularly calcium-supplement use, with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Speaking with heartwire , Lorenzo noted that cardiovascular disease and diabetes share many of the same risk factors and that calcium has also been linked with lower insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and the metabolic syndrome. "Our hypothesis was that serum calcium may also play some role in the development of diabetes," he said. IRAS enrolled 863 nondiabetic subjects (age 4069) at four centers. Insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response were measured at baseline and at regular intervals over a five-year follow-up period. Diabetes and IGT were defined by current fasting and two-hour plasma glucose criteria and/or use of glucose-lowering medications. Lorenzo and colleagues found that the relationship between calcium concentration and incident diabetes was statistically significant but did not follow a linear relationship. Only subjects with the highest concentrations of calcium (>2.38 mmol/L) had a significantly increased risk of developing diabetes. After controlling for age, sex, race/ethn Continue reading >>

Serum Calcium Predicts Type 2 Diabetes Development

Serum Calcium Predicts Type 2 Diabetes Development

Serum Calcium Predicts Type 2 Diabetes Development Increased serum calcium levels independently predict the risk for type 2 diabetes, a new analysis from the ongoing Prevencin Dieta Mediterrnea (PREDIMED) study suggests. The results were published online August 19 in Diabetes Care by dietician and predoctoral student Nerea Becerra-Toms, of the Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, and colleagues. "Fasting glucose is, at the moment, the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and the diagnosis is based on it. However, after adjusting for glucose, our results demonstrated a role for serum calcium independent of glucose....Measurement [of serum calcium] could add significance to measurement of fasting glucose," study coauthor Mnica Bull, PhD, professor in the faculty of medicine and health sciences at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain, told Medscape Medical News. Calcium appears to play important roles in both insulin secretion and insulin action, and previous studies have linked elevated calcium levels with higher blood glucose levels and reduced insulin sensitivity. Although some of these data have conflicted, previous prospective studies have shown that elevated serum concentrations are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the authors write. The PREDIMED study enrolled 7447 men (aged 55 to 80 years) and women (aged 60 to 80 years) who were at high cardiovascular risk by virtue of either having type 2 diabetes or 3 other cardiovascular risk factors, including family history, overweight/obesity, smoking, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The current analysis included 707 of the individuals who did not have diabetes at baseline. In a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 77 of them were diagnosed with diabetes. Mean baseline albumin-a Continue reading >>

Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium And Diabetes

Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium And Diabetes

When it comes to minerals such as magnesium, calcium and potassium, people with diabetes may get too much of a good thing. While these minerals benefit your body in some ways, in others they are related to diabetes. Learn how these well-known minerals may have an impact on diabetes and other related health issues. Often referred to as one of the building blocks to life, magnesium is transported from your blood into your cells by insulin. When you have a magnesium deficiency, you may develop insulin resistance. This can be a precursor to conditions such as diabetes or heart disease. Insulin regulates the entry of sugar into the cells to create energy. A diet that includes the right amount of magnesium can help reduce your risk of developing these health conditions. The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium for adult men is 410 to 420 mg/d and 310 to 320 mg/d for women, depending on your age. Recent studies show magnesium levels tend to be lower in people with diabetes. Other conditions linked to magnesium deficiency include cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and ketoacidosis as well as calcium deficiency and potassium deficiency. Certain diabetes medications can raise magnesium levels, such as Pioglitazone and Metformin. Include foods in your diet that have plenty of magnesium, such as almonds, whole grains and spinach. Your doctor may recommend taking magnesium supplements to help improve your insulin sensitivity and reduce your blood pressure. Always consult with your physician before taking magnesium supplements. Too much magnesium can lead to toxicity. Symptoms include nausea, muscle weakness, hypotension, irregular heartbeat and urine retention. Your doctor may decide to measure your serum magnesium levels. Potassium is frequently called an electrolyte Continue reading >>

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis*

The Role Of Vitamin D And Calcium In Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review And Meta-analysis*

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Clin Endocrinol Metab See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes (t2DM). MEDLINE review through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data was available to combine, meta-analyses were performed and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake and prevalent t2DM or metabolic syndrome (OR [95% CI]: t2DM prevalence, 0.36 [0.16 0.80] among non-blacks for highest vs. lowest 25-OHD; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 [0.57 0.89] for highest vs. lowest dairy intake). There are also inverse associations with incident t2DM or metabolic syndrome (OR [95% CI]: t2DM incidence, 0.82 [0.72 0.93] for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 [0.79 0.93] for highest vs. lowest dairy intake). Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of t2DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders while intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium or did post-hoc analyses. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia while combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism. Key terms: Vitamin D, Continue reading >>

Calcium Signalling In Diabetes - Sciencedirect

Calcium Signalling In Diabetes - Sciencedirect

Volume 56, Issue 5 , November 2014, Pages 297-301 Deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signalling in diabetes. Molecular cascades responsible for Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signalling could be assembled in highly plastic toolkits that define physiological adaptation of cells to the environment and which are intimately involved in all types of cellular pathology. Control over Ca2+ concentration in different cellular compartments is intimately linked to cell metabolism, because (i) ATP production requires low Ca2+, (ii) Ca2+ homeostatic systems consume ATP and (iii) Ca2+ signals in mitochondria stimulate ATP synthesis being an essential part of excitationmetabolic coupling. The communication between the ER and mitochondria plays an important role in this metabolic fine tuning. In the insulin resistance state and diabetes this communication has been impaired leading to different disorders, for instance, diminished insulin production by pancreatic cells, reduced heart and skeletal muscle contractility, reduced NO production by endothelial cells, increased glucose production by liver, increased lipolysis by adipose cells, reduced immune responses, reduced cognitive functions, among others. All these processes eventually trigger degenerative events resulting in overt diabetes due to reduction of pancreatic cell mass, and different complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and different cardiovascular diseases. Continue reading >>

Roles Of Calcium And Tyrosine Kinases In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Roles Of Calcium And Tyrosine Kinases In The Pathogenesis Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Roles of Calcium and Tyrosine Kinases in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Author(s): J. A. Rosado , P. C. Redondo , J. A. Pariente , G. M. Salido . Department of Physiology,University of Extremadura, Apdo Correos 643, 10071-Cceres, Spain. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disease associated with chronic hyperglycaemia, which leads to a wide range of complications, including microvascular and macrovascular alterations, retinopathy, nephropathy and renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Several intracellular pathways have been shown to be associated to type 2 diabetes mellitus, ranging from an altered insulin receptor-associated signalling to an abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis or disturbances in Na+ handling. A number of diabetes-associated complications have been reported to be associated with hyperactivity of certain protein tyrosine kinases, such as those cytosolic kinases of the Src family, involved in the altered intracellular calcium mobilisation and platelet-derived cardiovascular problems and in glomerular injury, or the JAK family of tyrosine kinases involved in hyperglycaemia-induced renal failure. There has been a considerable effort in several laboratories to identify suitable targets for the design of drugs against this disease. The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors suitable for medical purposes might represent a significant advance in the therapy of complications associated to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, calcium homeostasis, tyrosine kinases Title: Roles of Calcium and Tyrosine Kinases in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Author(s):J. A. Rosado, P. C. Redondo, J. A. Pariente and G. M. Salido Affiliation:Department of Physiology,University of Extremadura, Apdo Correos 643, 100 Continue reading >>

Calcium Concentration Tied To Diabetes

Calcium Concentration Tied To Diabetes

Home / Resources / Articles / Calcium Concentration Tied to Diabetes According to an Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), high calcium serum concentrations are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Several studies have associated calcium supplement intake with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), so Lorenzo et al. chose to study the relationship between serum calcium concentration and the development of diabetes, a chronic condition, which shares similar risk factors to CVD. A total of 863 individuals between the ages 40-69 were included in the study, and none of them had diabetes at the start of the study. Aside from their serum calcium concentrations, participants had their insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response measured at baseline and then every few months. To determine if a patient developed diabetes or an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), researchers looked at their most recent fasting and 2-hr post-prandial glucose levels and/or whether the patient started using anti-diabetic medications. Results of the study indicated that there was a relationship between serum calcium concentration and the development of diabetes or IGT, but this relationship was not linear. This is because increased risk for diabetes was most seen when patients had the highest levels of serum calcium (>2.5 mmol/L). Furthermore, researchers found a patients calcium concentration to be unrelated to glucose and insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, Lorenzo et als study does not provide the evidence to suggest that a high calcium concentration causes type 2 diabetes; however, it can be classified as a risk factor. Presented at EASD Barcelona, September 2013. Lorenzo V, et al. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Continue reading >>

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