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Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes Include ______.

Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Pancreas Flashcards Preview

-Inflammation and hemorrhage of the pancreas due to auto digestion of ______ by ______. -premature activation of ______ leads to activation of other pancreatic enzymes -results in ______ hemorrhagic -most commonly due to ______ and ______; other causes include trauma -______ pain that radiates to the ______ -______ and ______. elevated serum ______ and ______; lipase is more specific for pancreatic damage -Hypocalcemia (calcium is consumed during ______ in ______) -complications -______—formed by fibrous tissue surrounding liquefactive necrosis and pancreatic enzymes. -______- often due to E coli acute pancreatitis pancreatic parenchyma pancreatic enzymes trypsin liquefactive alcohol gallstones epigastric abdominal back nausea vomiting lipase amylase saponification fat necrosis Pancreatic pseudocyst pancreatic abscess -Fibrosis of pancreatic parenchyma, most often secondary to recurrent acute pancreatitis. -Causes include ______ (adults) and ______ (children), some are idiopathic. -Clinical features: ______ pain radiating to the ______, Pancreatic insufficiency— results in ______ with ______ and fat- soluble vitamin deficiencies. Dystrophic calcification on X-ray and contrast studies reveal a ______ due to ______ of pancreatic ducts. -increased risk for ______ chronic pancreatitis alcohol cystic fibrosis Epigastric abdominal back malabsorption steatorrhea 'chain of lakes pattern’ dilatation pancreatic carcinoma -Adenocarcinoma arising from the pancreatic ducts -Most commonly seen in the ______ (average age is ___ years). Major risk factors are ______ and ______. -Clinical Symptoms: Epigastric abdominal pain and ______, Obstructive ______ with ______ stools and ______; associated with tumors that arise in the ______ of the pancreas (most common location), tumors as Continue reading >>

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes Risk Factors

Diabetes is a condition that affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar for energy. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in childhood, although it can occur in adults also. Type 1 diabetes affects the body’s ability to produce insulin. This hormone is vital to helping the body utilize blood sugar. Without enough insulin, the extra blood sugar can damage the body. According to the American Diabetes Association, 5 percent of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition that affects a body’s ability to use insulin properly. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes make some insulin. However, they can’t make enough to keep up with rising blood sugar levels. Doctors associate type 2 diabetes with lifestyle-related factors like obesity. Gestational diabetes is a condition that causes women to have very high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This condition is typically temporary. Having risk factors does not mean that someone will get diabetes. Doctors don’t know the exact cause of type 1 diabetes. Family history of type 1 diabetes is considered a risk factor. According to the American Diabetes Association, the child of a man with type 1 diabetes has a 1 in 17 chance of developing type 1 diabetes. If a woman has type 1 diabetes, her child has a 1 in 25 chance if the child was born when the woman was younger than 25. Women with type 1 diabetes who give birth at age 25 or older have a 1 in 100 chance of having a child with type 1 diabetes. Having a parent with type 2 diabetes also increases diabetes risk. Because diabetes is often related to lifestyle choices, parents may pass on poor health habits to their children. This increases their risk Continue reading >>

Symptoms

Symptoms

Print Overview Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. If you have diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much glucose in your blood, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe. Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: Increased thirst Frequent urination Extreme hunger Unexplained weight loss Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin) Fatigue Irritability Blurred vision Slow-healing sores Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, it typically appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40. When to see a doctor If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you notice any poss Continue reading >>

Unit 6 Preparations

Unit 6 Preparations

FN 255: Introduction to MNT Amber Yui, RD, LD, MPH, CHES Health Professions Division Lane Community College Eugene, Oregon , Chapter 17 Diabetes Mellitus Refer to pages 76-90 of your packet for a hard copy of the information below. You do NOT need to print this document, if you have the packet for FN 255. ACTIVITIES AT A GLANCE. Check them off as you complete them. By midnight (11:55 pm) SUNDAY, complete Unit 6 Study Questions for 10 points (be certain you've FIRST done ALL of the Unit Preparation Questions below). (If you have any questions, post them in our "Forum Week 6" in Moodle.) Sometime BEFORE SUNDAY, participate in our "Forum Week 6" by making at least two postings throughout the week with at least one of the postings BEFORE Friday evening. So the total MINIMUM is 2 postings on TWO different days. (A posting can be either posting a question you have or replying to a classmate's question or comment. You don't have to respond to all of the threads if you don't feel you have anything to add. You can also choose to respond more often.) OBJECTIVES After reading the assigned reading, filling out the Unit Preparations below, participating in the "Forum Week 6", and completing the Unit 6 Study Questions, you will be able to: Define the different types of diabetes and how they are diagnosed. Describe the most common complications associated with diabetes and how the risk of these complications can be reduced through glycemic control. Name the ABCs of Diabetes Control, and describe the role that nutrition, physical activity, and medications play in managing diabetes. Understand the different therapeutic dietary modifications that may be ordered with diabetes and when they may be appropriate. Continue understanding common medical nutrition terminology and relevant laborat Continue reading >>

Chapter 5 Part 3

Chapter 5 Part 3

Sort Blood glucose levels higher than normal but not enough for diabetes diagnosis most people do not have symptoms individuals at increased risk for developing type 2, heart disease, stroke prediabetes Diabetes symptoms Classic symptoms of hyperglycemia weight loss, impaired growht in children ketosis fatigue nighttime urination blurred vision Accounts for 5-10% of diabetes cases usually diagnosed in children, teenagers, young adults caused by autoimme attack on pancrease (moderate genetic predisposition) Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes diet regular meals and snacks consum ample fiber regulated ratio or carbohydrate:protein:fat to maximize insulin action and minimize shifts in blood glucose levels -meet overall nutritional needs -- balance calorie intake with expenditure -Carbohydrate counting and diabetic exchange system are tools to regulate dietary intake -moderate alcohol may increase HDL, reduce cardiovascular disease Cells become resistant to action of insulin insulin production may be low, normal, or high, but cells less responsive to it results in decreased uptake of glucose by body cells insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes risk factors strong genetic predisposition obesity physical inactivity ethnicity metabolic syndrome prediabetes Metabolic syndrome: diagnostic criteria must have 3 of the following risk factors: Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance abdominal obesity high blood triglyerides low HDL cholesterol elevated blood pressure Continue reading >>

Survey Of The American Association Of Diabetes Educators And The American Diabetes Association

Survey Of The American Association Of Diabetes Educators And The American Diabetes Association

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous infusion for diabetes: updating review A technology assessment report commissioned by the HTA Programme on behalf of NICE. HTA reference 06/61. This TAR updates the previous review, published as HTA 2004; vol 8: no 43. Some of the information used comes from unpublished studies which are currently (5th August 2007) “academic in confidenceâ€. The relevant sections had been underlined and highlighted. Authors; Ewen Cummins Pam Royle Ailsa Snaith Alexandra Greene Lynn Robertson Linda McIntyre Norman Waugh Address for correspondence: Professor Norman Waugh Dept of Public Health Medical School Buildings Foresterhill Aberdeen AB25 2ZD [email protected] Competing interests – none. The Aberdeen HTA group The Aberdeen Health Technology Assessment Group is part of the Institute of Applied Health Sciences (IAHS), which is part of the College of Medicine and Life Sciences of the University of Aberdeen. The Institute of Applied Health Sciences is made up of discrete but methodologically related research groups. The HTA Group is drawn mainly from the Health Services Research Unit, Public Health, and the Health Economics Research Unit. The HTA Group carries out independent health technology assessments (TARs) for the UK HTA Programme, which commissions TARs for NICE and other bodies, such as the National Screening Committee. In addition, a joint venture between the Health Services Research Unit at Aberdeen and the Medical Care Research Unit at Sheffield University informs the Review Body for Interventional Procedures Programme within NICE (ReBIP) ReBIP undertakes systematic reviews and establishes UK registries, where appropriate, to collect and analyse data on the efficacy and safety of selected procedures, Continue reading >>

Diabetes Education Centre Phone: 705-325-7611

Diabetes Education Centre Phone: 705-325-7611

ORILLIA SOLDIERS’ MEMORIAL HOSPITAL Fax: 705-327-9162 ADULT REFERRAL FORM Name ___________________________________ DOB (D/M/Y) _____________________________ Address _________________________________ Telephone (Home) __________(Work)__________ City & Postal Code _________________________ Next Of Kin or _____________________________ Health Card # _____________________________ Contact Person_____________________________ DIAGNOSIS Type of diabetes: Date of diagnosis: Criteria used for diagnosis: ___________ (See Over) MEDS Antihyperglycemic agents: Date initiated: Insulin: Date initiated: Other: MEDICAL HISTORY Hypertension ___ CKD ___ CAD ___ Dyslipidemia ___ Retinopathy ___ Neuropathy ___ Thyroid disease ___ Obesity ___ CHF ___ MI ___ CVA ___ Other: PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK FACTORS Depression ___ Alcoholism ___ Smoking ___ Illiteracy ___ Other: LEVEL OF MOTIVATION High ___ Average ___ Low ___ Nil ___ Comments: Are Individualized Blood Glucose Targets Required? If yes, A1C target _________CBG Targets _________ RECOMMENDED LAB WORK FOR DIABETES (Please forward copy of lab work to DEC) Date Result _____ _____ A1C _____ _____ Random urine dipstick _____ _____ Random urine ACR _____ _____ Serum Creatinine _____ _____ eGFR _____ _____ Total Cholesterol-TC _____ _____ LDL-C _____ _____ HDL-C _____ _____ TC:HDL-C _____ _____ TG Date Result ______ _____ FPG ______ _____ RPG ______ _____ OGTT Date Result ______ _____ FPG ______ _____ RPG ______ _____ OGTT Please copy any diabetes related lab work to the OSMH DEC Fax 705-327-9162 Please indicate if you do not want your patient with diabetes to receive a blood glucose meter: □ Medical Authorization: *please tick one box in each category 1.□ I authorize the diabetes educator (RN /RD), who has successfully completed the ins Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational

Risk Factors For Diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, And Gestational

This article is about risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Usually just called diabetes, this is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin in the way it should. Diabetes results in a person having too much of a type of sugar, called glucose, in their blood and not enough in their cells. At least 1 in 4 people with diabetes does not know that they have the disease. Knowing risk factors for diabetes is very important for preventing the damage it can cause. If a person knows what these factors are, they can see a doctor early to find out if they have, or are at risk of, diabetes. There are three main kinds of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Each of these is briefly described below, along with their important risk factors. Type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes, the body makes no or very little insulin. It affects around 5 percent of those with diabetes. It is treated with either insulin injections or an insulin pump, along with diet. The main risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Family history. Having a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes increases the chances of a person having the same type. If both parents have type 1, the risk is even higher. Age. Type 1 diabetes usually affects younger people. Ages 4 to 7 and ages 10 to 14 are the most common. Type 1 diabetes may occur at other ages, although it does so less often. Genetics. Having certain genes may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes. Your doctor can check for these genes. Where a person lives. Studies have found more type 1 diabetes the further away from the equator a person lives. There may be other risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Researchers are currently investigating these. Type 2 diabetes The body can still make some insulin, but is not able to use it the way it Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Of Reading And Oral Speech In Hindi

What Is The Difference Of Reading And Oral Speech In Hindi

How to get the standing ovation that your speech deserves. The goal of In the post-World War II period there has been a veritable explosion of publication of works dealing with Hindi, Urdu, and their various speech varieties. Here are a Details of some of the differences between written and spoken language, include their structure, use, permanence, and so on. , reading/ translation, oral/aural, pattern repetition), prepared for the atfoot (nm) incident, event, happening. Palmer chose the term "extensive reading" to distinguish it from "intensive reading". Teaching materials have been written exemplifying different approaches to language learning (e. asoi [nf speech, voice; utterance; goddess of speech; ~To eloquent, skilled in speech; TāsūTE3 eloquence, skill in speech. Once spoken, words cannot be retracted, although one can apologize for a mistake and improvise a clarification or qualification. . ” Asked to describe a presentation, we would say, “It's somebody standing in front of a room with a screen behind her, where she's showing visuals to explain Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension). Now we'll An assortment of report card comments and phrases focusing on reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills. His reading and writing were more impaired, and they contained many errors similar to those of his speech. Reading is a means of language acquisition, communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Exemplary 100%. Have you been called I took a lot of things to look at, try, feel and to listen to to make them concentrate on other thing but myself and my speech, walked around a lot using body language, remembered the experience about time and had my watch on In the ei Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

Type 2 Diabetes In Children And Adolescents

Chapter Headings Key Messages Note: Unless otherwise specified, the term “child” is used for individuals 0 to 18 years of age, and the term “adolescent” for those 13 to 18 years of age. Anticipatory guidance regarding healthy eating and active lifestyle is recommended to prevent obesity. Regular targeted screening for type 2 diabetes is recommended in children at risk. Children with type 2 diabetes should receive care in consultation with an interdisciplinary pediatric diabetes healthcare team. Early screening, intervention and optimization of glycemic control are essential, as the onset of type 2 diabetes during childhood is associated with severe and early onset of microvascular complications. Introduction Type 2 diabetes in children has increased in frequency around the world over the past 2 decades (1) . Children from ethnic groups at high risk for type 2 diabetes in their adult populations, namely, those of Aboriginal, African, Arabic, Hispanic or Asian descent, are disproportionally affected. A recent Canadian national surveillance study demonstrated a minimum incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents <18 years of age of 1.54 per 100 000 children per year (2) . Significant regional variation was observed with the highest minimum incidence seen in Manitoba of 12.45 per 100 000 children per year. In this study, 44% of children with new onset type 2 diabetes were of Aboriginal heritage, 25% Caucasian, 10.1% Asian, 10.1% African/Caribbean and the remaining of other or mixed ethnic origin (2) . Recent data from the United States (US) demonstrated an incidence of 8.1 per 100 000 person years in the 10- to 14-year age group and 11.8 per 100 000 person years in the 15- to 19-year group. In this study, the highest rates were found in American Indian, Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>

Adult History: Female

Adult History: Female

PAST MEDICAL HISTORY: (PMH) FORMCHECKBOX Unremarkable FORMCHECKBOX Gout FORMCHECKBOX Abnormal Pap Smear FORMCHECKBOX GYN – # of Pregnancies FORMCHECKBOX Alzheimer’s Disease FORMCHECKBOX GYN - # of Deliveries FORMCHECKBOX Anemia FORMCHECKBOX GYN - # of Miscarriages FORMCHECKBOX Anxiety FORMCHECKBOX Hepatitis A FORMCHECKBOX Arthritis FORMCHECKBOX Hepatitis B FORMCHECKBOX Asthma FORMCHECKBOX Hepatitis C FORMCHECKBOX Atrial Fibrillation FORMCHECKBOX Hyperlipidemia FORMCHECKBOX Autoimmune Disorder FORMCHECKBOX Hypertension FORMCHECKBOX Blood Transfusions FORMCHECKBOX Hyperthyroidism FORMCHECKBOX Brain Tumor FORMCHECKBOX Hypothyroidism FORMCHECKBOX Cataract FORMCHECKBOX Incontinence FORMCHECKBOX Cancer - Breast FORMCHECKBOX Infertility FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Cervical FORMCHECKBOX Inflammatory Bowel Disease FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Colon FORMCHECKBOX Kidney Disease FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Lung FORMCHECKBOX Kidney Stone FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Ovarian FORMCHECKBOX Liver Disease FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Skin FORMCHECKBOX Lupus FORMCHECKBOX Cancer – Thyroid FORMCHECKBOX Macular Degeneration FORMCHECKBOX Chrohn’s Disease FORMCHECKBOX Migraine Headache FORMCHECKBOX Chronic Low Back Pain FORMCHECKBOX Multiple Sclerosis FORMCHECKBOX Cirrhosis FORMCHECKBOX MI (Heart Attack) FORMCHECKBOX Congestive Heart Failure FORMCHECKBOX Osteoarthritis FORMCHECKBOX Constipation, Chronic FORMCHECKBOX Osteopenia FORMCHECKBOX COPD FORMCHECKBOX Osteoporosis FORMCHECKBOX Coronary Artery Disease FORMCHECKBOX Parkinson’s Disease FORMCHECKBOX CVA/Stroke FORMCHECKBOX Peptic Ulcer Disease FORMCHECKBOX Degenerative Joint Disease FORMCHECKBOX Polymylagia Rheumatica FORMCHECKBOX Dementia FORMCHECKBOX Psoriasis FORMCHECKBOX Depression FORMCHECKBOX Polymy Continue reading >>

Certified Diabetes Educator Exam 3

Certified Diabetes Educator Exam 3

Sort Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) looked at 3 groups. 1) Lifestyle: Less fat, calories and exercised 150 min/week 2) Metformin 3) Taking placebo for 3 years. The Lifestyle group reduced DM risk by ____%; The Metformin group reduced risk by _____% 58%; 31% Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a 10 year study patients with Type 1 Diabetes. Study compared effects of 2 treatment regimens: standard therapy and intensive control on complications of diabetes. By maintaining A1c<7% Eye Disease ____% reduced risk; Kidney Disease ____% reduced risk; Nerve Disease _____% reduced risk. 76;50;60 UK Prospective Diabetes Study was conducted over 20 yrs involving patient with Type 2 Diabetes. Looked at glucose control and BP. Does good control delay onset of complications. **Results: every ____% decrease in A1c reduces microvascular complications by _____% 1;35 Continue reading >>

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