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Risk Factors For Diabetes Type 1

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. In type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, and the body is unable to make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use a natural sugar called glucose for energy. Your body obtains glucose from the food you eat. Insulin allows the glucose to pass from your blood into your body’s cells. Your liver and muscle tissues store extra glucose, also called blood sugar. It’s released when you need extra energy, such as between meals, when you exercise, or when you sleep. In diabetes mellitus type 1 the body is unable to process glucose due to a lack of insulin. This causes elevated blood sugar levels and can cause both short-term and long-term problems. Learn more: Defining 3 early stages of type 1 diabetes » The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The body’s immune system mistakenly attacks beta cells in the pancreas. These are the cells that make insulin. It’s also unknown why the immune system attacks beta cells. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. However, some factors have been tentatively identified. Family history Family history may be important in some cases of type 1 diabetes. If you have a family member with type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing increases. Several genes have been tentatively linked to this condition. However, not everyone who is at risk for type 1 diabetes develops the condition. Many believe there must be some type of trigger that causes type 1 diabetes to develop. These could include: Race Race may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. It is more common in white individuals than in people of other races. The following are symptoms of type 1 diabetes: excessive hunger excessiv Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics: -- The first section of this topic is shown below -- Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) develops due to an environmental trigger in persons who are genetically susceptible. Genetic risk factors (below) that determine susceptibility reflect genetic associations with disease. Environmental risk factors associated with susceptibility to T1DM are identified through epidemiologic study. -- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription -- Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Executive Summary The considerable increase in incidence over the past few decades, as well as the heterogeneity of type 1 diabetes, cannot be explained by genetic susceptibility alone. In this Lancet Series, two papers highlight new insights into genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes, as well as controversial findings regarding potential environmental factors that might trigger disease development. Interplay between an individual’s genes and their exposure to different triggers at different life stages might contribute to disease heterogeneity. Increased understanding of these mechanisms is urgently needed. Series Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes: Risk Factors, Signs & Treatment

Diabetes affects 26 million people (nearly 9% of the population) in the United States. But not all cases of diabetes are the same. The focus of this lesson is type 1 diabetes. We'll learn what it is, why it occurs, and how it affects the body in both the short- and long-term. Definition and Risk Factors You hear a lot about diabetes in the news, especially how it's linked to factors like unhealthy lifestyle decisions and obesity. But that is not true of every case of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus type 1, more commonly known as type 1 diabetes, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas that results in a lack of insulin. Let's break that down. An autoimmune disease is caused by the response of an overactive immune system. Just like an overactive imagination can see a shadow and think it's the boogeyman, an overactive immune system can mistake a part of its own body for a pathogen and attack it. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks beta cells, which are cells in the pancreas located in the islets of Langerhans. Beta cells are important because they produce insulin, the protein hormone required to get glucose, or sugar, into your body's cells. A reduced number of beta cells equals a reduced amount of insulin. When your body is insulin-deficient, you begin to experience the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Scientists have isolated several possibilities as to why this autoimmune response takes place, including: Genetics - activation of several genes is one possibility as to why someone gets type 1 diabetes Environmental factors, such as where you live (for some reason, people living further from the equator tend to be more afflicted) Dietary factors, such as low vitamin D intake And even viral attack ...but there are no definite answers. Symptoms Loss of one of Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that may make it more likely that you’ll develop type 1 diabetes—if you have the genetic marker that makes you susceptible to diabetes. That genetic marker is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if you have one or more of those, you may develop type 1. (However, having the necessary HLA complex is not a guarantee that you will develop diabetes; in fact, less than 10% of people with the “right” complex(es) actually develop type 1.) Other risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: Viral infections: Researchers have found that certain viruses may trigger the development of type 1 diabetes by causing the immune system to turn against the body—instead of helping it fight infection and sickness. Viruses that are believed to trigger type 1 include: German measles, coxsackie, and mumps. Race/ethnicity: Certain ethnicities have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, Caucasians seem to be more susceptible to type 1 than African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans. Chinese people have a lower risk of developing type 1, as do people in South America. Geography: It seems that people who live in northern climates are at a higher risk for developing type 1 diabetes. It’s been suggested that people who live in northern countries are indoors more (especially in the winter), and that means that they’re in closer proximity to each other—potentially leading to more viral infections. Conversely, people who live in southern climates—such as South America—are less likely to develop type 1. And along the same lines, researchers have noticed that more cases are diagnosed in the winter in northern countries; the diagnosis rate Continue reading >>

Risk Factors And Primary Prevention Trials For Type 1 Diabetes

Risk Factors And Primary Prevention Trials For Type 1 Diabetes

PDF 1. Virus Inspection Department, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xincheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, PR China. 2. Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan. 3. Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, PR China. How to cite this article: Wu YL, Ding YP, Gao J, Tanaka Y, Zhang W. Risk Factors and Primary Prevention Trials for Type 1 Diabetes. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9(7):666-679. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6610. Available from Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting in the designated immune destruction of insulin producing β-cells, usually diagnosed in youth, and associated with important psychological, familial, and social disorders. Once diagnosed, patients need lifelong insulin treatment and will experience multiple disease-associated complications. There is no cure for T1DM currently. The last decade has witnessed great progress in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on numerous researches both in rodent models of spontaneous diabetes and in humans. This article summarises our current understanding of the pathogenesis of T1DM, the roles of the immune system, genes, environment and other factors in the continuing and rapid increase in T1DM incidence at younger ages in humans. In addition, we discuss the strategies for primary and secondary prevention trials of T1DM. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this disorder's pathogenesis, risk factors that cause the disease, as well as to bring forward an ideal approach to prevent and cure the disorder. Keywords: Type 1 diabet Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Print Overview Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Different factors, including genetics and some viruses, may contribute to type 1 diabetes. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it can develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and may include: Increased thirst Frequent urination Bed-wetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night Extreme hunger Unintended weight loss Irritability and other mood changes Fatigue and weakness Blurred vision When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you notice any of the above signs and symptoms in you or your child. Causes The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the pancreas. Other possible causes include: Genetics Exposure to viruses and other environmental factors The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are destroyed, you'll produce little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas). The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream. As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secre Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - What Increases Your Risk

Type 1 Diabetes - What Increases Your Risk

Risk factors are things that increase your chances of getting sick or having a problem. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include: A family history of type 1 diabetes. Having a family history of the disease increases the chance that a person will have islet cell antibodies. But it doesn't predict that a person will have the disease. Race. White people have a greater risk for type 1 diabetes than black, Asian, or Hispanic people. Presence of islet cell antibodies in the blood. People who have both a family history of type 1 diabetes and islet cell antibodies in their blood are likely to get diabetes. Family members of people with type 1 diabetes can be tested to see if they have islet cell antibodies. People who are found to have islet cell antibodies may be able to take part in studies about preventing type 1 diabetes. This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.© 1995-2015 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Type 1 Diabetes

Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease In Type 1 Diabetes

Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 Diabetes Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established in type 2 but not type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We assessed risk factors in the long-term (mean 27 years) follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort with T1DM. Cox proportional hazards multivariate models assessed the association of traditional and novel risk factors, including HbA1c, with major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events (MACE) (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI] or stroke) and any-CVD (MACE plus confirmed angina, silent MI, revascularization, or congestive heart failure). Age and mean HbA1c were strongly associated with any-CVD and with MACE. For each percentage point increase in mean HbA1c, the risk for any-CVD and for MACE increased by 31 and 42%, respectively. CVD and MACE were associated with seven other conventional factors, such as blood pressure, lipids, and lack of ACE inhibitor use, but not with sex. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves for the association of age and HbA1c, taken together with any-CVD and for MACE, were 0.70 and 0.77, respectively, and for the final models, including all significant risk factors, were 0.75 and 0.82. Although many conventional CVD risk factors apply in T1DM, hyperglycemia is an important risk factor second only to age. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) confers a high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the age-matched population without diabetes[ 13 ] that historically has also accounted for most of the premature deaths in T1DM and is associated with the development of nephropathy.[ 46 ] The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) previously demonstrated that a mean 6.5 years of intensive diabetes therapy with a mean HbA1 Continue reading >>

Risk Factors For Diabetes

Risk Factors For Diabetes

A “risk factor” is defined as anything that increases your risk—your chances—of developing a particular disorder such as diabetes. It can be important to remember that risk factors are not necessarily causal, but they are correlated. In other words, the incidence of Type 1 diabetes increases by geography—the further from the equator that you live, the greater the risk that you will have T1D. However, living in, for example, Canada, far north of the equator does not cause T1D. There is also a difference between known and possible risk factors. The known factors are backed by a large amount of evidence and a great deal of certainty in the medical and scientific communities. The possible risk factors lack the same amount of evidence and certainty, but are expected to have this in the near future, after long-term studies have been completed or after the evidence is examined and a consensus among experts is reached. Also, in possible risk factors, other influences—including known and other possible risk factors—may be involved, making the determination of the risk factor more difficult. Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) There are some known risk factors for T1D. These include:[1] A family history of T1D. This increases the risk because T1D has a connection to a number of genes that can be “handed down” from one generation to the next. Genetic background. As mentioned, there are a number of genes that have been described to increase the risk of T1D. T1D is said to have a “polygenic risk” because there is not one single genetic mutation or change that causes T1D. Instead, there are many (poly) genes involved in the risk for T1D. Location or geography. The highest incidence of T1D occurs in Finland and in Sardinia—the incidence is about 400 times hi Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

Type 1 Diabetes: Causes & Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that increase your odds of getting type 1 diabetes. It's important to keep in mind that these risk factors often work in combination. Family history. You are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if one or both of your parents or any of your grandparents has or had the disease. Also, risk increases if both your parents carry the HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4 genes (human leukocyte antigen). In the United States, 40% of the population has one or more of these genes. Race. Caucasians have the highest rate of the disease. Environmental factors. In people who have a family history of type 1 diabetes, it's possible that viruses may trigger the disease. Diet. Type 1 diabetes is more common in those who were not fed breast milk or who started eating solid foods at an exceptionally early age. Basics Type 1 Basics Causes & Risk Factors Symptoms Diagnosis Healthcare Team Treatment Diabetes Treatment Options Mastering Insulin, Making Real Change Tests to Monitor Your Care: Type 1 Features What's Your Diabetes IQ? Diabetes and Eating Disorders: The Dangers of Diabulimia What's Your Type? 6 Easy Ways to Make Your Life Better Questions for Your Doctor How to Ask Your Family for Support Insulin Syringe Safety for Diabetics Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (previously called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes) is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults, but it can develop at any age. If you have type 1 diabetes, your pancreas isn’t making insulin or is making very little. Insulin is a hormone that enables blood sugar to enter the cells in your body where it can be used for energy. Without insulin, blood sugar can’t get into cells and builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and causes many of the symptoms and complications of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2—about 5% of people with diabetes have type 1. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it can be managed by following your doctor’s recommendations for living a healthy lifestyle, controlling your blood sugar, getting regular health checkups, and getting diabetes self-management education. Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills, or clamminess Irritability or impatience Dizziness and difficulty concentrating Hunger or nausea Blurred vision Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness If your child has type 1 diabetes, you’ll be involved in diabetes care on a day-to-day basis, from serving healthy foods to giving insulin injections to watching for and treating hypoglycemia (low blood sugar; see below). You’ll also need to stay in close contact with your child’s health care team; they will help you understand the treatment plan and how to help your child stay healthy. Much of the information that follows applies to children as well as adults, and you can also click here for comprehensive information about managing your child’s type 1 diabetes. Causes Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistak Continue reading >>

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Genetic Risk Factors For Type 1 Diabetes

Summary Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one of these autoantibody biomarkers, a second, third, or fourth autoantibody against either islet antigen-2 or the ZnT8 transporter might also appear. The larger the number of β-cell autoantibody types, the greater the risk of rapid progression to clinical onset of diabetes. This association does not necessarily mean that the β-cell autoantibodies are pathogenic, but rather that they represent reproducible biomarkers of the pathogenesis. The primary risk factor for β-cell autoimmunity is genetic, mainly occurring in individuals with either HLA-DR3-DQ2 or HLA-DR4-DQ8 haplotypes, or both, but a trigger from the environment is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis. Continue reading >>

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

Symptoms & Causes Of Diabetes

What are the symptoms of diabetes? Symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst and urination increased hunger fatigue blurred vision numbness or tingling in the feet or hands sores that do not heal unexplained weight loss Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble. What causes type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Scientists think type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease. Studies such as TrialNet are working to pinpoint causes of type 1 diabetes and possible ways to prevent or slow the disease. What causes type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes. Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts. Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resista Continue reading >>

What Are The Symptoms, Causes, And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes

What Are The Symptoms, Causes, And Risk Factors Of Type 1 Diabetes

With ongoing research, we know more about type 1 diabetes but we still need answers about the basic causes and newer sophisticated treatments. Dedicated research has revealed certain symptoms, causes, and risk factors of type 1 diabetes. Knowing them can help you learn more about yourself or a loved one who has this autoimmune disease. The symptoms of type 1 diabetes may appear suddenly. They may include extreme hunger, increased thirst, lethargy, sudden and unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, and blurry vision. Other symptoms of type 1 diabetes may include labored breathing, sweet breath, dry skin, loss of feeling in your feet, and stomach pain that could include nausea and vomiting. Long term complications may occur when type 1 diabetes is not properly controlled. Consult with your physician immediately if you notice any of these signs of type 1 diabetes. If type 1 diabetes remains undetected or untreated, long term complications may occur. Eye problems are a common complication for people with type 1 diabetes including blurry vision, retinopathy, dry eye, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Other complications include foot problems from poor circulation, hypertension, neuropathy, kidney disease, periodontal disease, heart disease, stroke, and pregnancy problems such as birth defects or low birth weight. People with type 1 diabetes typically work with a health care team that may include an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, dietitian, diabetes nurse educator, cardiologist, dentist, endocrinologist, and other medical professionals. Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin because of the destruction of beta cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys these beta cells. The body needs insulin to get energy from the Continue reading >>

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